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This territory, from the manner in which it 12,000 houses, and 130,000 inhabitants. Of projects into the Mediterranean, is peculiarly these 30,000 are Jews and about 1500 Christians, favorable for carrying on the trade of that sea, of whom 1000 consider themselves the subjects and comes also into closer contact with the Eu- of France; the rest, with the exception of the ropean powers than any other of the Barbary consuls and their suite, are Tabarca families who states. Upon these advantages were founded were driven out when the Genoese republic bethe rise of Carthage, the first commercial state of came annexed to France. Tunis is built in the antiquity. “The dreadful imprecations of their most irregular manner, and the streets so exeternal enemy the Romans (says an able jour- tremely narrow and filthy that they can with nalist) have been strictly fulfilled against this difficulty be passed. Though large sums have devoted city. In vain does the inquisitive tra- been spent in the construction of forts, and in veller seek in the neighbourhood of Tunis for the surrounding the city with a high wall, it is by no triple wall with its lofty towers, whose capacious means a strong place. The citadel, called El chambers contained stalls for 300 elephants, and Gaspa, begun by Charles V. and finished by stables for 4000 horses, with lodgings for a nu John of Austria, is much out of repair, and commerous army-in vain does he look for those manded by the neighbouring heights; there is safe harbours and sheltered receptacles—for those also a rising ground on the north of the town, 2000 ships of war and 3000 transports which which commands both it and the fortified palace carried Ilamilcar and his warriors against Syra- of the bey two miles west. There is one great cuse : a few remains of the public cisterns and mosque and a number of smaller ones; and near the common sewers are all that are left to point the centre of the city a piazza of vast extent, said out the spot where Carthage, with its 700,000 formerly to have contained 3000 shops for the inhabitants, once stood.' Though Carthage, how- sale of woollen and linen manufactures. The ever, was razed to the ground, the Romans made finest present structure is the new palace of the its territory the centre of their African dominion, bey, in the Gothic or Saracenic style ; neither and covered it with magnificent monuments of pains nor expense have been spared in its decotheir taste and wealth. In the irruption of the ration. The houses belonging to European conbarbarous nations upon Rome the Vandals were suls are all insulated habitations, and rather the first who seized upon Africa, where Genseric resemble prisons than the abodes of those who erected a powerful piratical dominion, whose are to represent the dignity of great nations. fleets on one occasion took and sacked the capital The Moorish houses are only one story high, with of the Roman empire. All other occupants, flat roofs, and cisterns for the purpose of collecthowever, were destined to give way before the ing the rain water. The city, however, is well torrent of Saracen conquest. Sidi Occuba, a supplied from a neighbouring spring, which is lieutenant of the caliph Othman, conquered all conveyed into it by a fine aqueduct built in the this part of Africa and erected it into a kingdom, time of Charles V. There are a few colleges of which Kairwan, or Cairoan, was the capital and schools, it being customary here, as in other After many revolutions, in the end of the twelfth parts of Barbary, to instruct all the youth in the century, the dynasty of the Almohades was esta- knowledge of reading, writing, and the koran; blished in Morocco, and Tunis was governed by and the police was never so well regulated as at a viceroy. Under Charles V. this city was the present. About ten years ago it was scarcely theatre of contention between the troops of that possible for a Christian to walk the streets withemperor and Barbarossa the celebrated pirate. out being insulted. The Spanish expedition was completely success Six miles westward is the Goletta, the celeful; and a treaty was concluded, stipulating for brated harbour and citadel of Tunis, and the a general liberation of the captives, and for a free great naval and commercial depôt of the state. intercourse between Tunis and the European A basin has been formed here sufficiently spastates. This continued till 1574, when the expe- cious to receive all its vessels of war and merdition sent by Selim, under Sinan Basha, drove chant ships ; and considerable quantities of the Spanish garrison out of the Goletta and an timber are brought from Tabarca. The Goletta nexed Tunis to the Turkish empire. It was is strongly fortified towards the sea, but is comgoverned for some time by its viceroys, called manded by a hill to the north, at the distance of deys; but the people, or rather the soldiery, not more than 3500 yards. A large lake, sepasoon acquired the privilege of electing their own rated from the sea by a very narrow isthmus, dey; and that officer may now be considered extends from Tunis to the Goletta. entirely independent of the porte. The chief The bey of Tunis enjoys the same absolute danger of the Tunisian state arises at present power as the other Barbary sovereigns. Although from the Algerines.

Tunis had almost entirely throwa off its dependTunis, a large city of Barbary, capital of the ence on the Porte, yet the troops by which its foregoing territory, is situated at the bottom of a despotic power was supported consisted of Turkbay, about ten miles south-west from the site of ish recruits, whom they were allowed to draw the ancient Carthage, of which it may properly from the different ports of the Levant; when the be considered as the successor. It is situated on treatment of these becoming severe the number a plain, surrounded on all sides, except the east, could not be kept up by voluntary enlistment, by considerable heights, but so encircled by and they are obliged to have recourse to artifice lakes and marshes that it might be expected to and kidnapping. A general revolt therefore took be very unhealthy; yet from some cause not place among the Turkish soldiers to the number fully ascertained this effect does not take place. of 6000; and, having seized the citadel of El The city is large, being supposed to contain Gaspa, they would probably have maintained


The cara

themselves, had it not been for Mr. Egan, a otherwise might linger in the tunnel, and oftentimes young British officer, who organised and led on

Wotton's Architecture. the troops of the bey, and ai length compelled The phalænæ tribe inhabit the tunnelled, convolved the insurgents to fly or surrender. Since that leaves.

Derham's Physico-Theology. time the Turks have enjoyed very little of the Tunnels, for the conveyance of water and confidence of the government. Grain, the ex passengers, are not of so modern a date as is portation of which in the other states on this generally supposed; though but little public incoast is absurdly prohibited, forms here the terest was excited by any work of this kind principal staple. It cannot be exported without prior to the commencement of the great underlicence froin the bey, and the payment of duties taking at Rotherithe. The earliest tunnel for to the amount on wheat of twenty-two piastres the purpose of internal navigation was executed and a half (£1 10s.) on the caffees (equal to two by M. Riguet, in the reign of Louis XIV. The English quarters), and half that amount on bar- object was to forward a public work, beneficia! ley. A temporary rise is sometimes capriciously in its tendency, the canal of Languedoc, by made; but the French merchants, by bribing the conveying it through a mountain near Bezieres. bey's officers, contrive to ship a much greater This required no inconsiderable art and labor: quantity of corn than is named in the licence. it is cut into a lofty arcade, and lined with freeThe Tunisians also heap all their measures. The stone the greatest part of the way. Towards principal port for shipping grain is Biserta. the ends it is only hewn through the rock, the Olive oil is the next staple. It pays two pias- substance of which is of a soft sulphureous natres and a half (3s. 4d.) per metal of forty ture. English pounds. The principal ports for ship The first excavated in this country was by the ping it are Tunis, Soliman, and Susa, the last of ingenious Mr. Brindley, on the duke of Bridgewhich is the best. The Tunisian oil does not be- water's navigation near Manchester. The next come rancid so soon as the Italian oils, and they was the justly celebrated tunnel of Harecastle have an excellent mode of packing it. Wool and Hill, in Staffordshire, excavated also by Mr. soap are also exported in large quantities. A con- Brindley. The plan and execution were massiderable quantity of sponge is collected on the terly and admirably suited to the purpose. It shore, between Sfax and Jerbi, which, though in- passes more than seventy yards below the surferior to that of the Black Sea, finds always a ready face of the earth, and is carried through a vamarket in the Mediterranean. It may be ob- riety of strata, quicksands, &c.; its length is tained at from 30s, to £2 2s. per cwt.

2880 yards. The object was to pass a canal vans from Tombuctoo, 'which arrive in June, through it from the Trent to the Mersey; this furnish the Tunisian merchants with gold dust, has since been called the Grand Trunk. ivory, and ostrich feathers : the other imports Another work of prodigious difficulty, and a consist of all kinds of European manufactures, great exemplification of ingenuity, was the tunnel colonial produce, and East India cottons. The of Sapperton. Much ability appears in the species of British goods chiefly demanded is that execution of this design. The tunnel here was species of woollens called scarlet long ells, which carried through two miles of solid rock; its ex. the caravans carry in large quantities into cen treme length is two miles and three-quarters. tral Africa. France, however, when the inter- By conveying an inland navigation through it, course is open, has obtained a preference in the the river Thames and Severn were united. Tunisian trade, though it often secures the sale In the Great Drift, or tunnel, about four miles of its manufactures by giving them the name of above Newcastle, the art of excavation may be Loodras. The best time to send a cargo to Tunis, considered as having ascended to the highest especially of woollens, is in September or Oe state of improvement. This was finished in tober. Provisions, particularly beef and flour, 1797, and is three miles and a quarter in length; may be had good. Long. 10° 20' E., lat. 36° a great part is perforated through a hard rock 44. N.

of whinstone, nearly equal in density to the Tunis, Bay of, a bay of the Mediterranean, hardest flint. It reaches from the banks of the comprehending a coast of 120 miles, in the inte- river Tyne to near Kenton. rior part of which is the city of Tunis. It is The underground communication between bounded on the east by Cape Bon, and on the Rochester and Gravesend is especially worthy west by Cape Farinas. It is one of the safest in of attention. It is eight miles in length, and the Mediterranean.

has been twenty-five years in progress.

The TUNNEL, n.s. & v. a. From Tun, i. e. a sections of this tunnel are of different curvatube to fill a tun with. The shaft of a chimney; tures, part being parabolic and part circular; sage for smoke or liquid ; a funnel : to tunnel is the crown of the arches all coinciding. The to form like a tunnel ; to reticulate.

intrados of the vaulting presents a surface conIt was a vault ybuilt for great dispence,'

sisting partly of brick, and partly of chalk, in With many ranges reared along the wall,

alternate lengths, of various dimension, accordAnd one great chimney, whose long tunnel thence ing to the strength of the material, which apThe smoak forth threw.

Spenser. pears to have required support more in some For the help of the bearing, make an instrument places than in others. The width at the springlike a tunnel, the narrow part of the bigness of the ing is about thirty feet; out of which a comhole of the ear, and the broader end much larger. modious towing path six feet wide is reserved,

Bacon. leaving about twenty-four feet water-way. The The water being rarified, and by rarification re crown of the arch is about fifteen feet above the solved into wind, will force up the smoke, which surface of the lowing path. The latter is

n. S.

guarded by a strong oak rail, bolted to cast iron The tunnel, when completed will be about supports, which are firmly connected with stone 1300 feet in length, and consist of two arches, bearers, bedded in the chalk. The width of the in order that there may be no obstruction to carwater-way will not allow barges to pass each riages; but, the estimated expense having consiother; they are, therefore, only allowed to enter derably exceeded the sum originally proposed, either end at certain periods, so as to prevent the whole work is remaining in abeyance till the possibility of an encounter: at one end, for fresh funds are provided. instance, all barges arriving at the tunnel, during


Ital. tonnen; La.. thynnus. a period of one hour, are permitted to enter, A sea-fish. and another hour is allowed for the passage ; Some fish are boiled and preserved fresh in videduring which period of two hours all barges ar gar, as tunny and turbot.

Carew. riving at the other end remain stationary, and TUNQUIN, or TONQUIN, a large kingdom of then take their turn, while those which may Eastern Asia, bordering on the Chinese pronow arrive at the opposite end are detained for vinces of Quangsee and Yunan, and separating a similar period of two hours; and so on alter- that empire from Cochin-China and Cambodia. nately. The whole length of the tunnel is rather It surrounds a gulf of the Chinese Sea, at the more than two miles and a quarter; and at mouth of which is the island of Hainan. The mid-day there is light sufficient in the middle of frontier to the north and west consists of mounits length to read large print, a circumstance tains of considerable height, the breezes from owing very much to the reflective power of the which, and from the sea, preserve always a tochalk ; against which the light, striking by al- lerable degree of coolness. The central part of ternate angles of incidence and reflection, is the country consists of a vast plain, traversed by conveyed to so considerable a distance. The numerous rivers, chiefly tributaries to the great difference between the brick and the chalk sur one called Saigong, which flows through the faces, in this respect, is striking observable as whole breadth of Tunquin, and on which all the you traverse the tunnel; the former absorbing, principal towns are situated. The rains which and the latter reflecting, the light. The tunnel fall between April and August cause these rivers is perfectly dry throughout, excepting one part to overflow and inundate a great part of the at the Frindsbury end, where the water drips country. The plains, thus covered with copious through in small quantities. The reflection of moisture, yield ample crops of rice and other the chalk on the clear surface of the water (more tropical productions. Some parts of them are distinctly visible as you approach either end), rescued from the sea and rendered capable of apparently doubling the magnitude, and the en- cultivation by artificial barriers. Rice is almost tire absence of every sound but that of the slow the only grain cultivated; but potatoes, yams, and measured footsteps of the quadrupeds em- and other roots, furnish a large share of the ployed in towing the craft, stealing on the ear popular subsistence. The usual tropical fruits at a distance, and becoming gradually louder abound; and the orange of Tunquin is said to be and louder as it reverberates through the tunnel, the best in the world. The tea tree is almost as combine to produce an emotion of sublimity common as in China. which enhances, not a little, the interest with Tunquin, originally a portion of China, was which this work will be contemplated by the in- detached from that empire in 1368. The telligent passenger:

patriarchal forms of government were, however, The tunnel at Rotherhithe was commenced in still observed, and were administered by Man1825. The preparations for constructing the darins, among whom letters formed the chief shaft consisted of a circle of piles of large scant road to distinction. By degrees, however, the ling, bounding a very stout' timber curb, shod commander of the forces having rendered his with iron (on the under side) and securely bolted office heriditary, succeeded in attracting all the together. This timber curb was three feet six power to his own person, and left to the original inches wide, and fifty feet in diameter, forming dynasty only an empty shadow of royalty. Of the base for a circular brick structure, which was late years the government of Tunquin, having three feet in thickness, and was built up forty been involved in war with that of Cochin-China, feet in height. The brick work was set in Ro- has been entirely subdued, so that with Camboman cement, and was well secured by horizontal dia and all the countries between Siam and band hoops, let in the courses at short intervals China, it is united under one empire. from each other, and was bound vertically by The trade of Tunquin is not considerable, and means of forty-eight iron ties, the aggregate scarcely any part of it is carried on by the strength of which was more than sufficient to natives themselves, but almost the whole by carry the whole structure, 'although its weight merchants from China and Siam. The attempts would exceed 1000 tons. When the structure made by European merchants to establish an was completed to the height of forty feet, the intercourse have been transient and unsuccess. interior was excavated, and it sunk by degrees, ful. The chief commodities to be obtained and by its own weight, to the depth of about here are silks and lacquered ware. The silks thirty-four feet, but would not go lower, owing are both raw and wrought, their pelongs, gauzes, to the outside friction. It then became neces- &c., being very beautiful and cheap, while the sary to build up from the bottom of the shaft, lacquered ware is considered scarcely inferior to as the further excavation was being effected, in that of Japan. Gold may also be procured in order to unite the whole with the structure al- considerable quantity. Minor articles of exready sunk, and by this means an admirable port are, earthenware, drugs, Chinese paper, piece of workmanship was accomplished. dyeing woods, musk, rhubarb, tortoiseshell,



ginger, and cassia. The native merchants being under Giorgione and Veronese. He painted in very poor, Europeans on their arrival must oil and in fresco. His best piece is a transfiguadvance a third or a half of the future cargo, ration. He died in 1581. and must wait till it is brought down from the TUR'BINATED, adj. Latin turbinatus. country. No customs are charged, but a Man- Twisted ; spiral; passing from narrower darin comes on board, examines the vessel, and wider. takes whatever he pleases at his own price. The Let mechanism here produce a spiral and turbilittle broad cloth accepted of must be red, black, nated motion of the whole moved body, without an grass-green, or blue. They take also pepper,

external director.

Bentley. saltpetre, ginghams, chintz, guns, and some few TUR'BITH, n. s. Lat. turpethus. Yellow other commodities. The price of silver varies, mercury precipitate. according to the quantity in the market; and, I sent him twelve grains of turbith mineral, and though theirs is frequently alloyed, they will not purged it off with a bitter draught. I repeated the admit any deduction on that account.

turbith once in three days; and the ulcers shelled

IViseman's Surgery. TUNSTALL (James), D. D., a learned Eng- soon off. lish divine born in 1710, and educated at St. Turbith MINEPAL. See CHEMISTRY. John's College, Cambridge. He became rector TURBO, the wreath, in zoology, a genus of of Stwimer, in Essex, in 1739, and public orator insects belonging to the order of vermes tastacea. of the university in 1741. He wrote Acade. The animal is of the snail kind; the shell conmica, or, Discourses upon Natural and Revealed sists of one spiral solid valve, and the aperture Religion, and several other works; and died in is orbicular. There are 116 species, of which 1772.

the most remarkable are, 1. T. clathrus, or barbed TUR'BAN, 7. 8. Fr. turban ; Pers. tur. wreath, has a taper shell of three spires, distinTUR'BANT,

Turk. tulpan. The guished by elevated divisions running from the Tur'BAND, cover worn by the Turks aperture to the apex. There is a variety pellucid,

TUR'BANED, adj. on their heads : turbanded with very thin edges. It is analogous to that is wearing a turban.

curious and expensive shell the wentle trap. 2. Gates of monarchs

T. littoreus, or periwinkle. They are abundant Arched so high, that giants may jet through, on most rocks far above low-water mark. And keep their impious turbans on, without

TUR'BOT, n. s. Fr. and Belg. turbot. A deGood-morrow to the sun.

Shakspeare. licate fish.
A turbaned turk

Some fish are preserved fresh in vinegar, as turbot. That beat a Venetian, and traduced the state,

Carew. I took by the throat.


Of fishes you shall find in arms the whale, the His hat was in the form of a turban, not so huge salmon, the turbot.

Peacham. as the Turkish turbans.


Nor oysters of the Lucrine lake From utmost Indian isle, Taprobane,

My sober appetite would wish, I see the Turk nodding with his turbant. Howel.

Nor turbot.

Dryden. Dusk faces with white silken turbans wreathed.

TURBOT, in ichthyology. See PLEURO

Milton, Some, for the pride of Turkish courts designed,

For folded turbans finest Holland bear.

TUR'BULENCE, n. S. Fr. turbulence ;

turbulentia. TURBAN, the head-dress of the eastern na

Tur’BULENT, adj.

STumult; confusion; tions. It consists of two parts, a cap and sash

disorder : the adjective corresponding. of fine linen or taffety, artfully wound in divers

I have dreamed plaits about the cap. The cap has no brim, is pretty flat, though 'roundish at top and quilted Hath nothing been but forms of slaughter.

Of bloody turbulence ; and this whole night with cotton; but does not cover the ears. The

Shakspeare. sash of the Turk's turban is white linen; that of Oft-times noxious where they light the Persians red woollen. These are the distin- On man, beast, plant, wasteful and turbulent, guishing marks of their different religions; Sophi Like turbulencies in the affairs of men, king of Persia, being of the sect of Ali, was the Over whose heads they roar, and seem to point :

Milton. first who assumed the red color to distinguish They oft fore-signify and threaten ill. himself from the Turks, who are of the sect of I come to calm thy turbulence of mind, Omar, and whom the Persian esteem heretics.

If reason will resume her sovereign sway. Dryden. TURBETH Mineral, yellow-deutosulphate

Nor need we tell what anxious cares attend

The turbulent mirth of wine, nor all the kinds of mercury. TUR’BID, adj. Lat. turbidus. Thick ; muddy; Wrought by intemperance.

Of maladies that lead to death's grim cave,

Id. not clear.

Men of ambitious and turbulent spirits, that were Though lees make the liquid turbid, yet they re dissatisfied with privacy, were allowed to engage in fine the spirits.

matters of state.

Bentley. The brazen instruments of death discharge

You think this turbulence of blood Horrible flames, and turbid streaming clouds

From stagnating preserves the flood, Of smoke sulphureous; intermixed with these

Which thus fermenting by degrees,
Large globous irons fly.

Exalts the spirits, sinks the lees.

Swift. The ordinary springs, which were before clear, fresh, and limpid, become thick and turbid, as long

TURCÆ, or Turci (Mela), supposed to be as the earthquake lasts.

the Tusci of Ptolemy, whom he places between Woodward's Natural History. Caucasus and the Montes Ceraunii. The name TURBIDO (Francis), an eminent Italian is said to denote, “to desolate or lay waste.' painter, born at Verona in 1500. Ile studied Ilerodotus places them among the wild or bat


? Latin

barous nations of the north. There is a very Yet shall thy grave with rising flowers be drest, rapid river called Turk running into the Caspian And the green turf lie lightly on thy breast. Pope. Sea, from which some suppose the Turks to take TURDUS, the thrush, a genus of birds betheir name. They made no figure in the world longing to the order of passeres. The bill is till towards the seventh century; about the be- straightish, bending towards the point, and ginning of which they sallied forth from the slightly notched near the end of the upper manPorta Caspiæ, laid waste Persia, and joined the dible. The nostrils are oval, naked, or half Romans against Chosroes king of Persia: In covered with a membrane; the corners of the 1042 they subdued the Persians, in whose pay mouth are furnished with a few slender hairs, they served, and from whom they derived the and the tongue is slightly jagged at the end. Mahometan religion; and afterwards pouring There are 136 species, of which seven are Briforth overran Syria, Cappadocia, and the other tish; viz. all the following, except the polycountries of the Hither Asia, under distinct glottus :heads or princes, whom Ottoman subduing 1: T: iliacus, the redwing; a very near resemunited the whole power in himself, which to blance to the throstle but less. 2. T. merula, the this day continues in his family, and who fixed blackbird, when it has attained its full age is of his seat of empire at Prusa in Bithynia. His a fine deep black, and the bill of a bright yellow; successors subdued all Greece, and at length the edges of the eyelids yellow. When young took Constantinople in 1453, which put a period the bill is dusky and the plumage of a rusty 10 the Roman empire in the east, under Con- black, so that they are not to be distinguished stantine XIII. There is a standing tradition from the females; but at the age of one year they among the Turks that their empire will at length attain their proper color. This species is of a be overturned by the Franks or Christians. very retired and solitary nature; frequents hedges

TURCOMANIA, a province of Asiatic Tur- and thickets, in which it builds earlier than any key, comprehending the ancient kingdom of other bird. It lays four or five eggs of a bluishArmenia, or that part of Armenia which belongs green color, marked with irregular dusky spots. to the Turks.

The note of the male is extremely fine, but too TURCOMANS, or Truckmen, a Nomadic loud for any place except the woods; it begins Tartar race, who fill with their hordes many dis- to sing early in the spring, continues its music tricts of Western Asia. Their native seat seems part of the summer, desists in the moulting seato be east of the Caspian, in the vast plains son, but resumes it for some time in September between it and the Aral. Being conquered by and the first winter months. 3. T. musicus, the the Kalmucs, at the beginning of the last century, throstle, in length nine inches, in breadth thirthey took refuge in the Russian governments teen and a half. In color it so nearly resembles of Astracan, Oufa, and Orenbourg, and have the missel (No.8.) that no other remark need to be continued to reside there ever since 1770, when added but that it is less, and that the inner coverts the body of the nation threw off the Kalmuc of the wings are yellow. 4. T. pilaris, the fieldfare, yoke. They live in tents of felt, and have no is in length ten inches, in breadth seventeen. fuel but twigs and dried cow dung. Their food 5. T. polyglottus, or the mocking thrush, a naconsists in horse flesh and sour milk. They are tive of America. 6. T. roseus, a native of Great particularly dexterous in the use of the bow and Britain. 7. T. torquatus, or ring-ouzel, supearrow, arms which they take great delight in rior in size to the blackbird ; the length is eleven ornamenting. They wear also very rich sabres. inches, breadth seventeen. 8. T. viscivorus, the They are all Mahometans, and are polite, friend- missel, the largest of the genus. Its leogth is ly, and communicative.

eleven inches, its breadth sixteen and a half. TURF, n. s. & v.a. Sax. rynk; Belg. and The bill is shorter and thicker than that of other Swed. torf. A clod covered with grass ; a part thrushes; dusky, except the base of the lower of the surface of the ground : to cover with mandible, which is yellow. The irides are hazel. turf.

Head, back, and lesser coverts of the wings, are Where was this lane?

of a deep olive brown. The lower part of the -Close by the battle, ditched, and walled with turf. back is tinged with yellow.

Shakspeare. TURÖGID, adj. Lat. turgidus. Swelling; Turf and peats are cheap fuels, and last long.

bloated ; filling more room than before.

Bacon. Could that divide you from near ushering guides !

The spirits embroiled with the malignity, and - They left me weary on a grassy turf. Milton.

drowned in the blood turgid and tumified by the feEach place some monument of thee should bear; brile fermentation, are by phlebotomy relieved. I with green turfs would grateful altars raise.

Harvey on Consumptims. Dryden. The instant turgescence is not to be taken off, but Their bucklers ring around,

by medicines of higher natures. Their trampling turns the turf, and shakes the solid

Browne's l'ulgar Ertours. ground.

Id. Æneid. A bladder, moderately filled with air, and strongly The face of the bank next the sea is turfed. tied, held near the fire, grew turgid and hard ; and,

Mortimer. brought nearer, suddenly broke with vehement noise. His flock daily crops

Boyle. Their verdant dinner from the mossy turf,

Disburthen thou thy sapless wood Sufficient.

Phillips. Of its rich progeny; the turgid fruit The ambassador every morning religiously saluted Abounds with mellow liquor.

Philips. a turf of earth dug out of his own native soil, to re Those channels, turgid with the obstructed tide, mind him that all the day he was to think of his Stretch their small holes, and make their meshes country.



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