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Some have a violent and turgid manner of talking Castello Reale. On three of the sides of the and thinking ; whatsoever they judge of is with a square are arcades. The piazza di St. Carolo, tincture of this vanity.

Watts's Logick. though smaller, is also entitled to notice. Where humours are turgent, it is necessary not Perhaps the finest of the streets is the di Po, only to purge them, but also to strengthen the in- which stretches from the central square called fested parts. Government of the Tongue.

the Piazza Reale, to the banks of the river. It The forerunners of an apoplexy are dulness, slow, is straight, broad, and bordered on each side ness of speech, vertigos, weakness, wateriness and with arcades. The Contrada di Dora Grande turgidity of the eyes.

Arbuthnot on Diet.

extends from the opposite side of the central The clusters clear,

square; it is equally straight as the Strada di White o'er the turgent film the living dew.

Po, and considerably longer, but neither so
Thomson.

spacious nor so handsome. The houses are in
TURGOT (Anne Robert James), the famous general built of brick, and the best are plastered
financier, was born at Paris May 10, 1727, of a in front with stucco. Like most towns which
very ancient Norman family. His father was have been rebuilt, Turin has an old quarter, but
long provost of the merchants. M. Turgot, at the it is very inconsiderable. It is called Torino
age of twenty-three, took his degree, and was Vecchio; and its streets, though less wide and
elected prior of the Sorbonne, and afterwards handsome than those of the new town, are in
master of requests. About this period he wrote general regular. Of the public walks the most
some articles for the Encyclopedie. In 1761 he frequented are the royal gardens, and the terrace
was appointed intendant of Limoges, in which on the other side of the river. The Rondo, extend-
office he did much good. At the death of Louis ing between the city walls and the banks of the
XV. the public voice called M. Turgot to the Po, is also resorted to as an evening walk;
first offices of government, as a man who united while the Valentina, another promenade along
the experience resulting from habits of business the Po, about a mile from the town, is little
to all the improvement which study can procure. visited.
After presiding in the marine department a short The cathedral is an old Gothic edifice, re-
time he was, August 24th, 1774, appointed comp- markable for nothing but its marble cupola.
troller-general of the finances. During his dis- The church of Corpus Domini is loaded with
charge of this important office the beneficial ob- ornaments. Other churches claim attention
jects he accomplished are almost incredible. In only from their size, their pillars, or the variety
the more immediate department of financier he of marble employed in their construction. The
found the public borrowing at five and a half per royal palace consists of three wings, surrounded
cent. and reduced the rate to four. He lessened by a court. Its extent is great, but in other
the public engagements 84,000,000. He found respects it resembles the mansion of a rich indi-
the revenue 19,000,000 deficient, and left a sur- vidual, being of brick covered with tiles. Its
plus of 3,500,000. His merits, however, only interior, however, is not without magnificence,
served to inflame the envy of courtiers. He was and the galleries contain a number of fine paint-
obliged to resign within twenty months. In re- ings, Italian and Flemish. The Castello Reale,
tirement his intellectual attainments effectually situated in the midst of the square, has an elegant
prevented the intrusion of ennui. He died facade of the Corinthian order

. The university March 20, 1781.

contains a court surrounded with arcades, covered TURIN, a large city of Piedmont, the capi- with inscriptions and antique bas reliefs. The artal of the Sardinian monarchy, stands in a beau- senal has a large room for containing arms, and tiful plain, on the west bank of the Po, which work-shops of some extent for the manufacture of here receives the waters of the Dora Ripuaria, fire-arms. The town contains other buildings of and flows with a copious stream at a short dis- large size, but disfigured in general by misplaced tance from the walls. The country is luxuriant; ornaments and grotesque architecture. The opera, on one side beyond the river rises a beautiful or principal theatre, may be compared to Druryrange of hills; on the other a plain strewed with Lane. In hospitals Turin is richly endowed; villas and gardens, extends as far as the base of the principal one affording both employment and the Alps. The town is of an oblong form, and support to its inmates, with education to the includes, with the ramparts, a circuit of about children. The city gates, four in number, were four miles. Its citadel and other fortifications demolished by the French. In the vicinity, placed it at one time in the rank of the strongest about a mile beyond the eastern ramparts, is the places in Europe; but they were demolished by ancient Queen's chateau, situated at the foot of the French after the battle of Marengo. The a hill. At a greater distance, about five miles streets are in general wide and straight, inter- from the city, stands the royal mausoleum and secting each other at right angles, and running church, on the summit of a mountain. in direct lines from one extremity of the city to TURʼKEY, n. s. Lat. gallina turcica. A the other; several of them have at the sides large domestic fowl, supposed to be brought arcades or piazzas; the whole kept clean_by from Turkey. means of streams of clear running water. The

Here he comes swelling like a turkey-cock. principal square, the Piazza Reale, is near the

Shakspeare. centre of the town, and ranks, both for its size

The turkey-cock hath swelling gills, the hen less. and beauty, among the most elegant squares of

Bacon. Europe. On one of its sides stands the royal

So speeds the wily fox, palace; in the centre is the structure erected by Who lately filched the turkey's callow care. Gay. the dukes of Savoy, and commonly called the

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T U Ꭱ Ꮶ E Y.

Modern Turkey embraces a multiplicity of ver them into peninsulas, promontories, and ancient states, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and capes. The gulf of Lepanto, in the lonian Sea, receives its name from the Turks or Turkumans, is the chief inlet on the west, and peninsulates a wandering horde, by whom it was conquer- the southern part of Greece or the Morea ; for ed, and is at present possessed. With all the Greece is yet nominally Turkish. On the eastfury of Moslem conquerors, they over-ran some ern coast of this celebrated country the gulfs of of the finest countries in the west of Asia and Coron, Napoli, and Athens, present themselves. the east of Europe, and laid the foundation of The large gulf of Salonica makes a deep opening their empire amidst the wreck of some of the into ancient Macedonia, while several others fiuest monuments of ancient greatness and wis- indent the upper part of the Archipelago. The dom.

most noted cape is that of Matapan, which forms TURKEY IN EUROPE occupies the south-east the southern point of the European continent. portion of that continent, extending from about Besides this, Cape St. Angelo, Cape Colonni 36° 20' to 45° 40' N. lat., where Moldavia and south of Athens, and Cape Europa, near the enWalachia form a projecting point, as far as 48o. trance of the Dardanelles, from which some auIt is chiefly comprised between 16° and 30° of thors have derived the name of Europe, are all E. long., and is bounded by the Russian and distinguished points. Having passed the DardaAustrian dominions on the north; by the Black nelles, the sea of Marmora forms a part of the Sea, Propontis, the Hellespont, and the Archi- southern boundary. The Hellespont then interpelago, on the east; by the Mediterranean on sects the isthmus between that sea and the Euxthe south; and by the same sea, the Adriatic, ine, which thence forms a large convex sweep and the Austrian territories, on the west. Its to the mouth of the Danube, and washes the shape, exclusively of the north-eastern projec- eastern limits of these dominions. The bountion, is that of a triangle with very crooked and dary then follows that river to the influx of the indented sides, of which the northern may be Pruth, which it ascends north-west to the conconsidered as the base, and the southern extre- fines of Moldavia. There winding to the south, mity of the Morea the vertex. Estimated at 45° it reaches the Carpathian chain, and with it deof lat., the base will be nearly 680 English miles scends to the Danube, which with the Save then in length, and the least distance from the south- divide the Austrian from the Turkish territories ern point to this line 570 miles; but from the to the western limits of Croatia, where, suddenly northern extremity of Moldavia to the southern turning to the south, it joins the Adriatic. point of the Morea the distance is 870 miles. Many parts of the coast are composed of rocky It has therefore about 195,000 English square promontories and inaccessible precipices, but miles of superficial extent, the population of others form inlets, creeks, and excellent harbours. which has been variously estimated; the mean Long mountain ranges intersect this division of is about 8,000,000, or nearly forty-one persons Turkey in various directions, and their lateral to each square mile.

branches, with several detached hills and groups, European Turkey may be divided into north- diversify many of the other districts. These eleern and southern. The latter contains ancient vations, which often pierce the clouds, and are coGreece, and forms a peninsula bounded on the vered with perpetual snow, are separated by beauwest by the Adriatic, on the south by the Me- tiful valleys and plains, and sometimes by exditerranean, and on the east by the Archipelago, tensive tracts of level country, watered by noble while it borders upon Romelia, Servia, and Bul- rivers, and smiling with spontaneous vegetation. garia on the other side. These are subdivided The description which Mr. Thornton gives of into provinces, which, with their chief towns and two of the northern provinces may be applied to their inhabitants, are,

many other parts. The attention of the travelNORTHERN Division.

ler is wholly absorbed in contemplating the Provinces. Chief Towns. Population.

beauty of the varied landscape, and the fertility Moldavia Yassi .

40,000

of the soil which is improved by a rich though Walachia Bucharest

80,000 very inadequate cultivation. I have traversed Croatia Bihatsh

6,000

both principalities in every direction, and reDalmatia Mostar

9,000

trace with the greatest pleasure the impressions Bosnia

left Bosna-Serajo

12,000 on my memory by iheir grand and romantic Servia . Belgrade

25,000 scenery; the torrents rushing down the preciBulgaria. Sophia

70,000

pices and winding through the valleys, the deRomelia . . Constantinople.

400,000

lightful fragrance of the lime fower, and the

herbs crushed by the browzing flock, the solitary SOUTHERN Division. Macedonia

hut of the shepherd on the brow of the mountain, Salonica .

60,000 the mountain itself rising far above the clouds, Albania . . Ioannina

30,000 covered over its whole surface, except the snowy Livadia Setines (ancient Athens) 10,000 region, with the finest vegetable earth, and every The Morea . Misitra

5,000 where adorned with lofty and majestic forests.' The shores of this heterogeneous empire are The long chain which traverses Turkey from indented by numerous gulfs and bays, which se east to we bears at different parts the names

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T U R K K E Y.

Modern Turkey embraces a multiplicity of ver them into peninsulas, promontories, and ancient states, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and capes. The gulf of Lepanto, in the Ionian Sea, receives its name from the Turks or Turkumans, is the chief inlet on the west, and peninsulates a wandering rde, by whom it was conquer- the southern part of Greece or the Morea; ed, and is at present possessed. With all the Greece is yet nominally Turkish. On the eastfury of Moslem conquerors, they over-ran some ern coast of this celebrated country the gulfs of of the finest countries in the west of Asia and Coron, Napoli, and Athens, present themselves. the east of Europe, and laid the foundation of The large gulf of Salonica makes a deep opening their empire amidst the wreck of some of the into ancient Macedonia, while several others fiuest monuments of ancient greatness and wis- indent the upper part of the Archipelago. The dom.

most noted cape is that of Matapan, which forms TURKEY IN EUROPE occupies the south-east the southern point of the European continent. portion of that continent, extending from about Besides this, Cape St. Angelo, Cape Colonni 36° 20' to 45° 40' N. lat., where Moldavia and south of Athens, and Cape Europa, near the enWalachia form a projecting point, as far as 48o. trance of the Dardanelles, from which some auIt is chiefly comprised between 16° and 30° of thors have derived the name of Europe, are all E. long., and is bounded by the Russian and distinguished points. Having passed the DardaAustrian dominions on the north ; by the Black nelles, the sea of Marmora forms a part of the Sea, Propontis, the Hellespont, and the Archi- southern boundary. The Hellespont then interpelago, on the east; by the Mediterranean on sects the isthmus between that sea and the Euxthe south; and by the same sea, the Adriatic, ine, which thence forms a large convex sweep and the Austrian territories, on the west. Its to the mouth of the Danube, and washes the shape, exclusively of the north-eastern projec- eastern limits of these dominions. The bountion, is that of a triangle with very crooked and dary then follows that river to the influx of the indented sides, of which the northern may be Pruth, which it ascends north-west to the conconsidered as the base, and the southern extre- fines of Moldavia. There winding to the south, mity of the Morea the vertex. Estimated at 45° it reaches the Carpathian chain, and with it deof lat., the base will be nearly 680 English miles scends to the Danube, which with the Save then in length, and the least distance from the south- divide the Austrian from the Turkish territories ern point to this line 570 miles; but from the to the western limits of Croatia, where, suddenly northern extremity of Moldavia to the southern turning to the south, it joins the Adriatic. point of the Morea the distance is 370 miles. Many parts of the coast are composed of rocky It has therefore about 195,000 English square promontories and inaccessible precipices, but miles of superficial extent, the population of others form inlets, creeks, and excellent harbours. which has been variously estimated; the mean Long mountain ranges intersect this division of is about 8,000,000, or nearly forty-one persons Turkey in various directions, and their lateral to each square mile.

branches, with several detached hills and groups, European Turkey may be divided into north- diversify many of the other districts. These eleern and southern. The latter contains ancient vations, which often pierce the clouds, and are coGreece, and forms a peninsula bounded on the vered with perpetual snow, are separated by beauwest by the Adriatic, on the south by the Me- tiful valleys and plains, and sometimes by exditerranean, and on the east by the Archipelago, tensive tracts of level country, watered by noble while it borders upon Romelia, Servia, and Bul- rivers, and smiling with spontaneous vegetation. garia on the other side. These are subdivided The description which Mr. Thornton gives of into provinces, which, with their chief towns and two of the northern provinces may be applied to their inhabitants, are,

many other parts. "The attention of the travelNORTHERN Division.

ler is wholly absorbed in contemplating the Provinces. Chief Towns. Population. beauty of the varied landscape, and the fertility Moldavia Yassi .

of the soil which is improved by a rich though

40,000 Walachia Bucharest

80,000 very inadequate cultivation. I have traversed Croatia . Bihatsh

6,000

both principalities in every direction, and reDalmatia Mostar

9,000

trace with the greatest pleasure the impressions Bosnia Bosna-Serajo

12,000

left on my memory by their grand and romantic Servia Belgrade

25,000 scenery; the torrents rushing down the preciBulgaria . Sophia.

70,000

pices and winding through the valleys, the deRomelia. . Constantinople.

400,000

lightful fragrance of the lime flower, and the

herbs crushed by the browzing flock, the solitary SOUTHERN Division.

hut of the shepherd on the brow of the mountain, Macedonia . Salonica .

60,000 the mountain itself rising far above the clouds, Albania Ioannina

30,000 covered over its whole surface, except the snowy Livadia Setines (ancient Athens) 10,000 region, with the finest vegetable earth, and every The Morea . Misitra

5,000

where adorned with lofty and majestic forests.' The shores of this heterogeneous empire are The long chain which traverses Turkey from indented by numerous gulfs and bays, which se east to west bears at different parts the names

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