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jurisdiction. The city of Vienna was then in- the war was carried on in Hungary with little vested; but, after being reduced to the greatest advantage on either side ; but under his sucstraits, the sultan was obliged to abandon the cessor, Amurath III., the Turks met with several siege by the coming on of the autumnal rains; severe checks from the Germans. Amurath III., which, however, he did not without barbarously reigned twenty years. In 1594 Mahomet III. massacring all his prisoners. The raising the having succeeded his father Amurath, murdered siege of Vienna was followed by an entire re- his nineteen brethren to secure himself on the pulse of the Turks from the German territories; throne; and caused ten of his father's wives on which Soliman, resolving to extend his domi- and concubines to be thrown into the sea, lest nions on the east, subdued the country of Geor- any of them should prove with child. The emgia, and made himself master of the city of peror Rodolph II., having entered into a confeBagdad; at the same time that his admiral, the deracy against him with the princes of Transylcelebrated Barbarossa, ravaged the coasts of vania, Walachia, and Moldavia, defeated the Italy, and took the cities of Biserta and Tunis Turks and their Tartar auxiliaries in several enin Africa. But in 1536 he was obliged to re- gagements, and took many cities; while so tire before Charles V. of Spain, who retook the grievous a famine and plague raged in Hungary, city of Tunis. Soliman, to revenge this dis- that of 85,000 Tartars who had entered the coungrace, suspended for a time the war in Persia, to try the year before, scarcely 8000 remained alive. turn all his forces against Italy: but while this This was followed by new misfortunes ; so that country was in danger of being totally over- in 1595 the Turks were entirely driven out of whelmed, a Venetian captain having rashly taken Transylvania, Moldavia, and Walachia. and sunk some Turkish vessels, Soliman changed Mahomet III. was succeeded by his son his design of attacking Italy into that of chas- Achmet I., who died in 1617, leaving two sons, tising the Venetians. However, after some tri- Othman II. and Amurath IV.: yet the throne fling encounters, a peace was concluded in 1540. was seized by his brother Mustapha I., who This year the war was renewed in Hungary; the was deposed for heresy in 1623, and strangled transactions were very unfortunate for the Chris- in prison by the Janissaries in 1621. In 1621, tians, and ended in the entire reduction of the under Othman II., the Turks first engaged in a kingdom to a Turkish province. The kingdom war with Poland; but a peace was concluded of France, being oppressed by its enemies, en the same year; the chief article of which was, tered into an alliance with Soliman, who was that the Poles should have a free trade in the now grown so powerful that the whole Euro- Turkish dominions, and that for this their merpean powers seemed scarcely able to resist him. chants should pay 10,000 sequins. The TurkHlowever, in 1565, he was baffled by the knights ish affairs continued much in the same way till of Malta; and in 1566 an end was put to his 1673, when a dreadful war broke out with Gerambition and his conquests by death.
many, Russia, and Poland, whose army was at Soliman was succeeded by his son Selim II., that time commanded by the celebrated John surnamed Mest, or The Drunken. Under him Sobieski. The year before, hostilities had comthe empire at first lost nothing of its lustre; but menced, on account of the Poles having enin 157i the maritime power of the Turks was deavoured to detach the Cossacks from their almost entirely destroyed at Lepanto, where one allegiance to the sultan. At this time the Turks of the most remarkable sea engagements men were successful, through the dissensions which tioned in history took place. The Christian fleet reigned among the Poles; and the latter were was commanded by Doria the Venetian admiral; obliged to pay an annual tribute of 20,000 rix and consisted of upwards of 209 galleys and dollars, and to deliver up forty-eight towns and large ships, besides smaller craft;
and the Turkish villages in the territory of Kamanieck. Howfleet consisted of 335 sail. The number of ever, the articles of this treaty were never exeTurks slain were supposed about 32,000, besides cuted; for, in 1673, the states of Poland sent a 3500 prisoners. The galleys taken amounted to 161. letter to Kyoprili Achmed Pasha, the vizier, Forty more were sunk or burnt; and of galliots, informing him that they considered as null the with other small vessels, about sixty were taken. conditions of the treaty, being concluded with
Notwithstanding the prodigious loss sustained out their consent, and that they would rather by the Turks on this occasion, the confederates suffer death than submit to the infamy of paying reaped hut little advantage from this victory; one farthing by way of tribute. On this the and next year Kilij Ali Pasha, who had succeed- sultan, Mohammed IV., who had succeeded in ed to the post of high admiral, fitted out a fleet 1649, after the murder of his father, Ibrahim I., of 250 galleys, with which he ravaged the coasts determined to take a severe revenge on their of Christendom wherever he came, and main- perfidy, set out with a great army; but was en tained his ground so well that the confederates tirely defeated with the loss of 20,000 men killed could never gain the least advantage over him. on the spot, all the baggage, 25,000 waggon The Turkish power from this time, however, be- loads of provisions and ammunition, and 2000 gan to decline. The progress of civilisation purses of money. Soon after this victory John being much more quick among the western na was proclaimed king of Poland; but his subtions, and their improvements in the art of war jects, jealous of his glory, refused to support very considerable, the Turks found it not only him properly in prosecuting his advantage; so impossible to extend their dominion over Ger- that, four years after, a treaty was concluded, by many, but even a matter of some difficulty to which the Poles for ever resigned their pretenwithstand the power of the western princes. sions to Kaminieck and to the dominion of the During the remainder of the reign of Selim II, Cossacks in Podolia.
But, though peace was thus made with Po- hands; that the boundary of the eastern part land, the war was carried on very unsuccessfully of Hungary, belonging to the emperor, should with Russia. In 1678 an army of the Tartars be a right line drawn from the mouth of the was entirely cut in pieces or taken near the city Maros towards the banks of the river Teisse to of Cherin; which so intimidated another army the mouth of the Bossut, where it falls into the of 40,000 Turks, who had waited for the arrival Saave; that towards the south, the Saave of the auxiliaries, that they threw away their should part the Turkish from the Imperial limits, arms, and fled without stopping till they had till it receives the Unna; and that no new castles crossed the Bog. This defeat inclined the sul- besides Belgrade and Peterwaradin should be tan to peace; but, the negociations proving in- erected, or old ones fortified, any where within effectual, he in 1679 again sent a powerful army these boundaries. The Russian ambassador of 80,000 Turks, 30,000 Tartars, and 4000 Cos- made a truce only for two years, upon the footsaeks, under the command of the vizier, to ing of each party possessing what he had taken. retrieve his lost honor. This army, however, The Poles made a truce on the like terms with succeeded little better than the former; for the the sultan; namely, that they should have havizier was defeated in several engagements; and minieck, Podolia, and Ukrania, restored to them at last put to death on account of the bad suc- in the same extent as possessed by them before cess of the war. In 1684 the Venetians again sultan Mohammed's first expedition into Poland; declared war, while the Poles and Germans con- and on the other hand resign Soczava, Nemoz, tinued their hostilities with the utmost violence. and Soraka, in Moldavia, to the Turks. The The Turks were forced yield to the superior Venetians obtained these conditions :—that all fortune and valor of their adversaries; they the Morea, as far as Hexamilos, should belong were defeated in a great number of engage- to them; and that the firm land, with Naupacments, and lost many places of importance. In tum (or Lepanto), Prevesa, and the castle of 1687 Mahomet IV. was deposed by the Janissa- Romania which had been demolished, should be ries, and succeeded by his brother Soliman III., restored to the Turks; that the bay of Corinth an indolent prince who died in 1691. Maho- should be common to both, and the Venetians met IV. died in prison in 1693, and was suc possess Lenkade with the adjacent islands. The ceeded by his brother Achmet II., who died in yearly tribute paid by the islands in the Archi1695, and was succeeded by his nephew Mus- pelago to the Venetians was to be abolished; tapha II. who defeated the imperialists at Te- and Zakinth to be declared free from the like meswar, and made war with success against the burden by the Turks. In Dalmatia, Knin, Cing, Venetians, Poles, and Russians; but was de- Kiklut, Verlika, Duare, and Vergoraz, were to posed and died in 1703. He was succeeded by be left to the republic, and fixed as the boundahis brother Achmet III., who was deposed in ries of their dominions on that side. The Ragu1730, and succeeded by his nephew Mahomet sians were to continue free, and the Venetians V., the son of Mustapha II. But to return to to retain the castles of Castelnuovo and Risano, public affairs. Turkish affairs seemed to be with what they possessed in the neighbourhood. totally going to wreck; when, in 1688, they Both parties were allowed to fortify their borwere retrieved by the new vizier Achmed ders with new fortresses; or to repair those Kyoprili, a man of great skill and experience in which were decayed, excepting Naupactum, war, as well as of the most upright character. Prevesa, and the castle of Romania. Having roused the enthusiasm of the people, From the conclusion of the peace of Carlothey flocked in great numbers to his standard; witz to 1769, nothing remarkable occurs in the after which, having reformed many abuses both Turkish history, excepting that Mustapha III., in the civil and military departments, he led the son of Achmet III., succeeded his father in them against the enemy. The good effects of 1757. He was a weak prince, and drained the his reformation were evident. Great numbers treasury. But the Turks recovered the Morea of the enemy were cut off, and almost all the from the Venetians by the treaty of Passarowitz. important places taken which had been lost See VENICE. Their war with the Russians before ; when in 1691 he was defeated and killed under Peter the Great has been taken notice of by the Germans at Islankamen. After his death under the article Russia; and those afterwards the Turkish affairs again fell into disorder; and, with Persia, under that article. None of these though the utmost efforts were used by succeed- indeed were of any great consequence; but in ing viziers, no progress could be made; and in 1769 a war commenced with Russia, which 1697 a prodigious overthrow was given them by threatened the Ottoman empire with destruction, prince Eugene at Zenta.
and which has given it such a severe check as it At last, in 1698, all parties being weary of can scarcely recover. The origin of this war is such an expensive and ruinous war, a pacifica- given under the article POLAND; and, during tion took place at Carlowitz, but on different the course of it, an almost uninterrupted train of terms with the different nations who had been at success attended the Russian arms. About the war with the Turks. The emperor made a truce end of March, 1769, a body of Russian troops for twenty-five years, upon condition that all made themselves masters of the important fortress Transylvania should be resigned to him; the of Asoph, at the mouth of the Don. city of Temeswar was to be restored to the In the end of April prince Gallitzin, comTurks, and the navigation of the Teisse and mander-in-chief of the Russian army on the Maros rivers free to both nations; that the frontiers of Poland, passed the Niester, hoping country between the Danube and the Teisse, to take the fortress of Choczim by surprise; but called' Bachback, remain in the emperor's being disappointed he was obliged to return.
Near the beginning of July, however, he again of Ackerman, or Bialogorod, near the mouth of passed that river, and on the 13th attacked and the Niester. Bender was taken by storm on the defeated the van of the grand vizier's army, con 27th of November, and the Russians, enraged at sisting of about 50,000 or 60,000 men. Of the the ubstinate resistance they met with, made a fugitives 13,000 entered Choczim; which was terrible slaughter of their enemies. next day invested by the Russians: but they computed that 30,000 Turks perished on this were at last obliged to raise the siege and repass occasion. the Niester; which they could not effect without The fortress of Brailow, situated on the north considerable loss. In the mean time both the side of the Danube, was invested on the 26th Oitoman and Russian courts were displeased of September, and the garrison were so much with the conduct of their generals. The Turkish intimidated by the taking of Bender, that they grand vizier was deprived of his cominand, and abandoned the place, and most of them were afterwards beheaded ; and was succeeded by drowned in crossing the river. During this Moldovani Aga Pacha, a man of a bold and campaign, it was reckoned that the Russians enterprising spirit. On his first taking the com took 1000 pieces of cannon from their enemies. mand of the army, finding it impossible to sub- – This year also a Russian fleet of sixteen or sist where he was, he attempted to force a pas- eighteen ships entered the Mediterranean, and sage over the Niester; but, being three times landed a body of troops on the Morea. These repulsed with great loss, he made a precipitate being joined by the Greeks, committed great retreat towards Bender, at the same time draw. cruelties on the Turks, and made themselves ing the troops out of Choczim, which the Rus masters of almost the whole country. At last, sians immediately took possession of. Prince however, the Porte, notwithstanding their bad Gallitzin was now superseded by general success in other parts, found means to send a Romanzow, who took the command of the army force into the Morea sufficient to overpower the on the 29th of September. Soon after his Russians. The Greeks now suffered in their arrival he received news of the success of turn; and the Russians, hearing that a Turkish general Elmpt, who, with a body of 10,000 fleet had passed the Dardanelles, abandoned the men, had reduced the province of Yassy. He Morea, and sailed to meet their antagonists. A invested Bender, but, finding the season of the battle ensued, in which the Turks were defeated; year too far advanced, he soon withdrew his and having imprudently retired into a neighbourtroops, and put them into winter quarters. This ing harbour, they were next day entirely desfirst campaign had proved so unpropitious to troyed by the Russian fire ships, except one ship the Turkish affairs, that the court would gladly of sixty-four guns, which was taken. This fleet have concluded a peace if they could have ob- consisted of fifteen ships of the line, from ninetytained it upon honorable terms; but the Russians six to sixty guns, three large frigates, and seven insisting upon the entire cession of Moldavia large armed vessels, besides galleys. After this and Walachia, as a preliminary article, the nego victory, the Russian fleet blocked up the mouth ciations came to nothing. A new campaign of the Dardanelles, interrupted the Turkish was therefore resolved on; and this proved still trade, prevented the carrying of provisions to more unsuccessful than before. The grand Constantinople by sea, and raised contributions Russian army under general Romanzow passed from most of the islands in the Archipelago. the Niester in May 1770; and, having assembled In 1771 matters did not at first go on so sucat Choczim on the 3d of June, marched towards cessfully on the part of the Russians. On the Pruth; at the same time their second army, side of the Danube, they were obliged to keep commanded by general Panin, arrived before on the defensive. Another army, under prince Bender. The plan of operation was, that the Dolgorucki, had better success; they reduced latter should form the siege of Bender, and the whole peninsular of Crim Tartary in less than Romanzow should cover it. On the 18th of a month, though defended by an army of 50,000 July, general Romanzow attacked an army of men.-During these transactions the Turks made 80,000 Turks and Tartars commanded by the themselves masters of the fortress of Giorgiow; khan of Crimea, and strongly intrenched on an which enabled them to become so formidable on almost inaccessible mountain, forced their in- the side of Walachia, that prince Repnin dursi trenchments, and obliged them to flee in the not attack them. Upon his refusal to do so, he utmost confusion, leaving an immense quantity was deprived of his command; which was given of ammunition and provisions, &c., in their to general Essen. On the 17th of August, he camp; which they totally abandoned to the attacked the Turkish intrenchments; but, after a victors. After this victory, the Russian general desperate engagement of four hours, was depushed on towards the Danube; and on the 2d feated with the loss of upwards of 3000 men. of August attacked another Turkish army, com This was the only engagement of any consemanded by the grand vizier in person, and totally quence in which the Turks had proved victorious defeated it, making himself master of their since the beginning of the war; and, after it, camp, ammunition, 143 pieces of cannon, and their usual bad fortune attended them. In conabove 7000 carriages, loaded with provisions. sequence of their victory, they determined to The loss of the Turks on this occasion was not winter on the north side of the Danube, which reckoned less than 40,000 men, and some ac would have been of the utmost service to them; counts raised it to 60,000. During the course and with which view they cousiderably reinforced of this summer, also, the fortress of Kilia Nova, their army in Walachia. But general Romanat the most northerly mouth of the Danube, zow, by a train of masterly dispositions, not surrendered by capitulation; and likewise that only thwarted all their schemes, but surprised Vol. XXII.
them on their own side of the river. They had complished without very great difficulty and loss. divided their army into two great bodies, which In this retreat general Weisman was killed, and were stationed in the nearest and most impor- the army left all their magazines behind them. tant posts on the Turkish side of the Danube. Many other severe conflicts happened this On the 20th of October, one of these bodies was campaign, which proved less glorious to the surprised at Tuliza by general Weisman, and Russians than any of the former ones. In 1774, another at Maczin by general Milarodowits. however, their arms were attended with better The event was the same in both places. The in
On the 11th of January 1774, the sultrenchments were forced, the Turks totally tan Mustapha III. died in his seventeenth year, routed, and their artillery, stores, and magazines, and was succeeded by his brother Achmet IV. taken, together with their towns and castles. the present sultan, although he left four sons, Next day general Weisman attacked the grand whom Achmet, with more than usual humanity, vizier himself, with the like success. The in- only kept in confinement. Romanzow's army trenchments were forced, a vast quantity of ar was reinforced by 40,000 men ; and, on the night tillery taken, and likewise the town and castle of between the 16th and 17th of June, passed the Babadagh ; while the vizier, with the remains of Danube in spite of all opposition. A continued his army, fled thirty miles to seek refuge at series of engagements then happened between the Mount Nemus. A few days afterwards general Russian generals and different bodies of the Essen defeated another body of Turks, and re- Turks. In these the latter were always defeated; took the fortress of Giorgiow, driving the enemy and at last became so much dispirited, that a totally out of Walachia. The Russian fleet this body of 40,000, or, according to some accounts, year spread ruin and desolation through the de- of 70,000 Turks, fled at the first sight of a body fenceless islands of the Archipelago and the of their enemies greatly inferior in number, coasts of Asia, striking terror into the city of leaving behind them all their tents and baggage, Constantinople itself. A dreadful pestilence with a fine train of brass artillery. From this raged this year in the Turkish army; and in au- time, disorder, mutiny, and dismay, seized all tumn broke out at Moscow, where it destroyed the Turkish armies, and they absolutely refused vast numbers.
to face their enemies, and the ministers of state The affairs of the Turks were now in such a were obliged to furnish them with vessels for desperate condition, that they very eagerly sued their transportation into Asia. According to for peace. The only conditions on which this some accounts, no fewer than 140,000 of the could be obtained, however, were, that the Cri- Turkish troops deserted in this manner. Even mea, Budziac Tartary, and all that vast tract of in the grand vizier's camp, at Schunla, matters country on the coast of the Black Sea, as far as went on in the same manner. He was abanthe north shore of the Danube, should continue doned by his whole cavalry; his European and for ever under the dominion of Russia; that the Asiatic troops quarrelled, and cut one anoth.er to Russians should enjoy an unlimited freedom of pieces before his face; and, in short, the vast navigation on the Black Sea, together with the army he commanded was reduced almost to possession of the city of Asoph, on the mouth of nothing. The Russian general did not fail to ihe Don; and that a sum of money should be take advantage of these misfortunes. He placed paid them by way of indemnification for the the different divisions of his army in such advanexpences of the war. These terms, however, tageous situations, that he totally cut off all comwere rejected ; and the negotiations, which con- munication between the Turkish camp and every tinued through the whole year 1772, at last came mean of subsistence. The unfortunate vizier, to nothing. The commissioners on both sides therefore, was obliged at last to submit to the retired from Bucharest, the place where the con terms which Romanzow dictated to him. The gress was held, on the 22d of March 1773. principal articles were, the independency of the
For some time a desultory kind of war was Crimea; the absolute cession of Kilburn, Kercarried on between detachments from the two che, and Jenickal, and all the country between armies. But as this was very prejudicial to the the Bog and the Nieper; a free navigation in all Russians, who could not be so easily recruited the Turkish seas, in which was included the pasas the Turks, about the middle of June, Roman- sage through the Dardanelles, with all the privizow prepared for passing the Danube with the leges and immunities which were granted to grand Russian army, consisting of 87,000 men : the most favored nations. Russia gave up all which, however, he did not accomplish till the the conquests, except Asoph and Taganrock. 24th ; when he marched with his army, in large There were, besides, several stipulations in favor divisions, towards the city of Silistria. He was of the inhabitants of Moldavia and Walachia, terribly harassed on his march by large bodies of and the Greek islands which were restored by the Turkish cavalry, of whom the grand vizier Russia. bad detached 27,000 for this purpose. At last, Soon after this period an extraordinary alarm however, they arrived before the city, which was was excited at the Porte by the sudden appearstrongly fortified, and defended by a body of ance of a new prophet in Upper Asia. This troops consisting of about 24,000 men. On the man, whose name was Sheik Mansour, pretended 29th of June, this body was defeated by gene. that he was predoomed by the eternal and imral Weisman, who commanded the van of the mutable decrees of Heaven to fill up the meaRussian army, and forced to retire into Silistria. sure of divine revelation to mankind; and The grand vizier then detached 50,000 men to that, as he was to be the last, so he was the the relief of the place : upon this the Russians greatest of the prophets. The scene of his minfound it necessary to retreat; which was not ac- istry was in the wide and desolate regions on the
borders of the Caspian Sea, and though the commencing in form the siege of Choczim, first rumor of his proceedings represented him as which was surrendered to the allied armies on at the head of a multitude of armed enthusiasts, Michaelmas day 1788, after a defence which ready to overturn the established government would have done honor to the ablest general in and religion of Mahomet, it was soon discovered Europe. Still, however, success seemed to lean that all the military fury of his zeal was directed to the Turks. The grand vizier made a sudden against the Christians. He had even influence incursion into the Bannat, and spread consterenough to form a combination of all the nations nation and dismay to the very gates of Vienna. of Caucasean Tartars against the Russians, The Austrian affairs seemed approaching to a which was certainly of some service to the Turks very alarming crisis. The first campaign of an in that war which the empress Catherine was invasive war had already produced an impression now meditating against them. In the mean time, on the territory of the invader. while this war was impending, the most formida In this situation of affairs Marshal Laudohn ble rebellion broke out in Egypt, the granary of was with some difficulty drawn from his retirethe Turkish empire (see EGYPT); but it was, ment to take the command of the army in Cro. after a long, bloody, and dangerous war, almost atia ; and under his auspices fortune began to suppressed by the wise conduct and intrepid smile on the Austrian arms. He quickly rebravery of Hassan Bey, the Captain Pacha or duced Dubecza and Nevi, though they were both grand admiral, who, at the age of seventy, fought defended with the most obstinate bravery. He with all the ardor of youth, and all the skill of then sat down before Turkish Gradisca; but, the the most consummate general. That veteran, autumnal rains coming on with such violence however, was recalled before he was able to that the Save overflowed its banks, he was comcarry all his patriotic designs into execution, pelled to raise the siege. During this period the that he might aid the divan with his counsel, in war in the Bannat raged with the utmost violence; the critical situation into which the empire was torrents of blood were shed, and much desperate brought by the claims of the court of Russia. valor, and many brave actions performed on The result of the deliberation was a precipitate both sides, while a great part of that unfortunate declaration of war against that court, contrary to country suffered all the desolation that fire and the better judgment of the old Pacha. The war sword could inflict. The inhabitants were obcommenced in autumn 1787, and the hoardes of jects of commiseration; but the injustice with Tartars which were first brought into the field, which the emperor had commenced the war headed by the new prophet, were every where made his personal losses be considered as the defeated by the superior discipline of the Rus- just reward of his conduct. Hitherto the Russian troops commanded by prince Potemkin. sians had hardly entered into the war; but at Some enterprizes which were undertaken by the last they began to act with vigor both by sea and Turks against the island of Tamen and the Cri- land. They experienced however a very general mea were attended with as little success as the coldness with respect to their claims, pretensions, attempts of the Tartars; while the emperor and designs, in almost all the courts of Europe. Joseph declared to the Porte that he would as- The court of London prohibited British seamen sist his ally the empress of Russia with an army from entering into foreign service, and declared of 80,000 men. Four Austrian armies were ac its resolution to observe the strictest neutrality. cordingly assembled; one at Carlstadt in Croatia, The united provinces of Holland pursued the under general de Vins; another at Peterwaradin same line of conduct. In the mean time a vast in Hungary, under general Langlois; a third on Russian army, estimated at 150,000 men apthe borders of Lithuania, under general Febris; peared on the banks of the Bog, adjoining to the and the fourth in the Buccovine, under the prince confines of Poland, Turkey, Tartary, and on the of Saxe Cobourg. Two other generals, ten way to the Black Sea, under prince Potemkin lieutenant-generals, and thirty major-generals, and general Romanzow; assisted by prince Repwere all ordered to prepare for active service in pin, general Soltikow, and other commanders. the frontier armies. ' If any thing had been yet This great force was supported by a train of 137 wanting to show the fixed determination of the pieces of artillery, besides a vast park of heavy court of Vienna, the sending general Alvinzi to battering cannon and mortars, destined for the act in and observe the conduct of the Russian siege of Oczakow; and furnished with an exarmies during the war, and the receiving a Rus- uberance of powder, balls, shells, and military sian officer of equal rank to act the same part in machines. After the most obstinate defence Octhe Austrian, would have been alone a sufficientzakow was taken on the seventeenth of December explanation. The war between the Turks and 1788, and the govenor basha graced the triumphAustrians was carried on with various success. ant return of prince Potemkin to Petersburgh. At first the advantage was evidently on the side In the mean time Russia found herself attacked of the Ottomans, and Joseph II. acquired no by a new and formidable enemy in the Swedish warlike renown. His declared purpose was to monarch, of whose exploits we have given an get possession of Belgrade; from which, however, account elsewhere (See Sweden); and by his his enemies repulsed him with disgrace. The interserence her conquests were certainly retarded. prince of Saxe-Cobourg in his department of
Marshal Laudohn renewed his attempts upon the war displayed indeed prodigies of valor; but, Gradisca as soon as the season would permit
, being opposed to a superior force, he was long and after a brave defence it fell into his hands. obliged to act only on the defensive. At length, This with some other successes roused the embeing joined by a body of Russian forces under peror from his inactivity, and made him seriously general Soltikow, preparations were made for determined upon the attack which he had long