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meditated upon Belgrade. The enterprize was advanced posts were enabled to make incursions entrusted to Laudohn, who, with that good for on the opposite side. The ability of the vizier tune which seemed constantly to attend him, and the valor of the Turks were however exerled made himself master of the place in less than a in vain against the discipline and experience of month. The rest of the campaign was little else European armies. In June 15,000 Turks were thar a succession of the most important suc defeated by a party of cavalry under general cesses; and a circumstance that did not a little Kutusow. On the 3rd of July the fortress of contribute to this was the system adopted by the Anape was taken by general Gudowitch, and the Austrians and Russians, of suffering the Turkish garrison, of 6000 men, made prisoners. This troops to march out of the several places they event was followed, on the 9th of the same month, garrisoned without molestation. Accordingly, by a signal victory which prince Repnin obtained while one detachment of general Laudohn's near Maczin over a body of 70,000, the flower forces took possession of Czernitz in Walachia, of the Turkish army. The Ottomans left upanother made itself master of Cladova in Servia. wards of 4000 dead upon the field of battle, and Bucharest, the capital of the former of these lost their entire camp equipage, colors, and thirty provinces, fell without opposition into the hands pieces of cannon. The Russians are said to have of prince Cobourg; while Akerman on the Black lost only 150 men killed, and between 200 and Sea was reduced by the Russians; and Bender 300 wounded. At last peace was restored besurrendered to prince Potemkin, not without tween the Porte and Russia, principally through suspicion of sinister practices, on the 13th of the mediation of Great Britain and the northern November. In 1790 the emperor Joseph II. powers. Catherine II. confined her views at died, and his successor Leopold II. showed a length to the possession of Oczakow, with the desire for peace. After the reduction of Orsova, district extending from the Bog to the Neister, therefore, which happened on the 16th of April and even then providing for the free navigation 1790, the war was carried on with languor'on of the latter river. These terms, considering the the part of Austria ; and in June a conference ill success of the war, cannot be accounted very was agreed upon at Reichenbach, at wbich the disadvantageous to the Porte, who has lost a forministers of Prussia, Austria, England, and the tress more useful for the purpose of annoying United Provinces assisted, and at which also an Russia than for defending their own territories; envoy from Poland was occasionally present. but certainly of considerable importance to After a negociation, which continued till the 17th Russia, which by this cession, has secured the of August, it was agreed that a peace should be peaceable enjoyment of the Crimea, the inhabiconcluded between the king of llungary and the tants of which are certainly highly indebted to Ottoman Porte; that the basis of this treaty the late empress, for the measures she adopted should be a general surrender of all the conquests for their improvement and civilisation, by the made by the former, retaining only Choczim as establishment of schools, academies, &c. See a security till the Porte should accede to the Tartary. terms of the agreement, when it was also to be Nothing very important either to Turkey or restored. Catherine was thus deprived of an the world has occurred in the history of this emally, but still she continued the war. On the 22d of pire since the peace with Russia which we have December 1790 the fortress of Ismail was taken mentioned. The Porte has been alternately at by storm by general Suwarrow; and it is said war with Great Britain and with France ; but in that the siege and the capture did not cost the Rus- neither contest has she acquired either honor or sians fewer than 10,000 men. The most shocking territory. The Turks declared war against the part of the transaction is, that the garrison (whose Russians on the 30th of December, 1806, urged bravery merited, and would have received from thereto by French intrigue; and our famous Fox a generous foe the highest honors) were massacred administration attempted what they probably in cold blood by the merciless Russians, to the meant as a diversion in favor of the Russians. amount of, by their own account, upwards of After Buonaparte compelled the feeble emperor 30,000 men ; and the place was given up to the Alexander to ratify the treaty of Tilsit, he enunrestrained fury of the brutal soldiery. After couraged for his own purposes the war between this bloody scene, the Russians went into winter Russia and Turkey; in which however nothing quarters; the vizier retired towards Constantino- decisive on either side occurred, and which was ple, and on his return fell a sacrifice to the san- happily ended before the tyrant's grand attack on guinary policy which has long disgraced the Ot- Russia. toman counsels.
The only remarkable fact therefore with reThe campaign of 1791 opened on the part of spect to Turkey which we have still to record Russia with the taking of Maczin, on the 4th of is the revolution which placed Mustapha IV. April, by prince Gallitzin ; and in a subsequent on the Ottoman throne. In the spring of victory on the 12th by the same general, in the the year 1807 a spirit of revolt appeared neighbourhood of Brailow, the Turks lost not among the janizaries in the grand vizier's camp, fewer than 4000 men and upwards of 100 officers, and in garrison at the Dardanelles. On the 25th besides many pieces of cannon. On the 14th of May the troops in garrison in the various the Russian arms experienced a check, by which castles of the Dardanelles, accounted for their they lost about 700 men, and were obliged to re- insubordination by objecting to the European linquish the intention of besieging Brailow. uniform, the new tactics, &c. Hali Aga, comAfter reinforcing this place, the vizier proceeded mandant of Madischiabarna on the Asiatic shore, to the banks of the Danube near Silistris ; and, was put to death. Indsche Bey, commandant by a bridge which he threw across the river, his of the entrance of the Black Sea, escaped the
same fate only by flight. The Reis effendi and of part of Moldavia. 2. An invasion of coming at that time to inspect that post, the jani- Turkey has taken place by the troops of the emzaries accused him as one of the patrons of the peror Nicholas of Russia, in which he has by no nizam geded. He attempted to escape; but he means succeeded (see the article Russia), and and his attendants were all sacrificed. He was in which indeed the Turks have made a far better particularly disliked, as he had promised to raise stand against the enemy than was expected in the pay of the janizaries on condition of their other parts of Europe. submitting to the new discipline, and this pro TURKEY IN Asia.-Since the taking of Conmise was never performed. Other circumstances stantinople Turkey has been regarded as a contributed to excite and increase their rage, and European state; yet still the centre of its power they determined with vigor and foresight to over- may be considered as placed in Asia Minor and throw all their enemies. The sultan Selim for a Syria. Amid the falling fortunes of the empire, time determined to defend himself, and troops its dominions in Asia, however, bave been greatly and ammunition, &c., were brought to the serag- circumscribed. Its boundary to the eastward is lio. Soon after, the Mufti, the Seimen basche, formed by a varying line among the mountains &c., joined the revolted janizaries. A formal of Armenia and Kurdistan, and the river courses council was held, in which it was proposed to of the Euphrates and Tigris. This tract has often request the grand seignior to abolish the new dis- afforded the debateable ground between Persia cipline, &c. Selim thought he should be able to and Turkey, in which the rulers of each, accordstop the insurrection, by sending the heads of ing as fortune favored them, pushed forward Mahmad, Tersana Emin, Haggai Ibrahim, &c., their own frontier, and drove back that of the to the Emeldan, where the janizaries were in other. At present it has become nearly indepenforce. In this, however, he was disappointed. dent. Bagdad and Bassora scarcely own the The janizaries were more enraged than ever. supremacy of the Porte. Western Arabia might They admired and lamented Mahmad effendi, at one time be considered almost as a Turkish and demanded the head of the Reis effendi, then province, including the holy cities of Mecca and in the grand vizier's camp. The janizaries Medina, and the ports on the Red Sea as far as searched every where for those ministers who Mocha. But the growth of Wababite
power has had countenanced and promoted the adoption of put a complete period to her empire in Arabia. the European discipline, and fourteen of them She cannot now even send an armed caravan to they found and massacred. At this time Selim Mecca. Asiatic Turkey is therefore reduced to sent a letter in his own hand, abolishing for ever, Asia Minor and Syria, including Palestine. The and execrating the nizam geded ; but this the re- population of this territory is estimated at volted troops would not now accept. The de- 10,000,000, occupying a surface of 470,400 position of the grand seignior was determined on. square miles. The character and policy of the Mustapha IV. born 7th of September, 1799, government is the same as that of Turkey in Eueldest son of sultan Achmet IV. set aside in rope; and as the countries which compose Asiatic 1789, was called to the throne. The solemn in- Turkey bear little resemblance to each other, exvitation to Mustapha to ascend the throne was cept in the common circumstance of being united made on the 29th of May. The ceremony of under this barbarous empire, their topographical investing him with the sabre of the Prophet details are best given under separate heads. took place on the 3d of June. According to the In AFRICA, during the height of the Ottoman ancient and approved custom of this barbarous power, its dominion was nearly as extensive as empire, Selim, the deprived sultan, was put to in the other two quarters of the globe. Not only death by his own nephews, that he might not Egypt, but the Barbary states of Tripoli, Tunis, disturb the tranquillity of the new sovereign and Algiers, were tributary to it, and the ports Mustapha IV.; at whose feet it is said he threw on the Red Sea also, as far as Masuah, were in himself, and kissed the border of his garment, the hands of the Turks. At present, however, after which he submitted to his fate with the feel- this power can scarcely be said to have any footings of a true Mussulman.
ing on this continent. Britain indeed drove the With the wars of the French revolution the French out of Egypt, and Mahommed Ali, apTurks cautiously avoided interfering, until forced pointed pacha of that country, succeeded in anto take up arms by the invasion of Egypt in nihilating the power of the Mamelukes. He 1798. This contest was closed by the aid of himself, however, has now set up an independent Britain, and the power of the Turks has not government, and, though all the other parts of since been seriously threatened, except that Rus- Africa acknowledge a nominal supremacy, they sia, 1. Stimulated by Buonaparte, attacked them are in point of fact independent: and will be in 1809, and continued the war until 1812, when found therefore described as independent states. it ended by the cession 10 Russia of Bessarabia
TUR'KOIS, n. s. Fr. turquoise, from turkey. TURK'S ISLANDS, a cluster of small islands A blue stone, formerly numbered among pre- among the Bahamas, the largest situated in long. cious stones, but discovered to be a bone im- 71° 0' W., lat. 21° 20' N. They belong to the pregnated with cupreous particles.
British, and are the most south-east of all the Those bony bodies found among copper ores are
Bahama Islands. There is an anchorage, but tinged with green or blue : the turcois stone, as it is
no harbour. commonly stiled by lapidaries, is part of a bone so TURM, n. s. Lat. turma. A troop. Not in tinged.
Legions and cohorts, turms of horse and wings. TURN, v. a., v. n., & n.s.
Saxon turnan; Milton. TURN'Benca, n. s.
Goth. torna ; Lat. TURMERIC (terra merita), curcuma longa, Turn'coAT,
torno; Gr. Topvow. is a root brought to us from the East Indies. Turn'er,
To revolve; bring Bertholet had an opportunity of examining some
a lower side upturmeric that came fro:n Tobago, which was su Turn'ingness,
wards, or the inperior to that which is met with in commerce,
side out; transboth in the size of roots and the abundance of Turn'sick, adj.
form; shape; the coloring particles. This substance is very Turn'sPIT, n. s.
bend; form in a rich in color, and there is no other which gives
lathe by moving a yellow color of such brightness; but it pos- round ; change; alter ; reverse ; translate ; transsesses no durability, nor can mordants give it a fer ; betake; also (mctaphorically) to infatuate; sufficient degree. Common salt and sal ammo
make mad ; agitate in mind; taking away, back, niac are those which fix the color best, but they off, over, to, as prepositions: as a verb neuter to render it deeper and make it incline to brown : inove round; change posture ; move from place to some recommend a small quantity of muriatic place; deviate; alter; be changed ; change sides acid. The root must be reduced to powder to or mind; depend on; taking away and off as prepobe fit for use. It is sometimes employed to give sitions: a turn is a winding; meander ; change; the yellows made with weld a gold cast, and to course; occasion; convenience : by turns' is by give an orange tinge to scarlet ; but the shade the course, or one after the other : turnbench is a kind turmeric imparts soon disappears in the air. Mr. of lathe : turncoat, a name of reproach for a reneGuchliche gives two processes for fixing the gade: turner, he whose trade is turning : turning, color of turmeric on silk. The first consists in in a general sense, is winding ; fexure: the inaluming in the cold for lwelve hours a pound of elegant noun substantive corresponding : turnsilk in a solution of two ounces of alum, and pike, a gate (once formed of turning bars armed dyeing it hot, but without boiling, in a bath com with pikes) that obstructs the road : turnsick, posed of two ounces of turmeric and a quart vertiginous; giddy: turnspit, man or dog that (measure) of acetocitric acid, mixed with three turns a spit: turnstile, a turnpike in a foutquarts of water. The second process consists in path. extracting the coloring particles from the turmeric
My lords, turn in, into your servant's house. by acetocitric acid, in the way described for
Gen. xix. 2. Brasil wood, and in dyeing the silk alumed as Turn from thy fierce wrath. Erodus xxxii. 12. already mentioned in this liquor, either cold or I will send my fear before thee, and make all thine only moderately warm. The liquor is rendered enemies turn their backs unto thee. more durable by this than by the former process.
Id. xxiii, 27. The first parcel immersed acquires a gold yel
God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion low; the color of the second and third parcels upon thee.
Deuteronomy xxx. is lighter, but of the same kind ; that of the
Turn the council of Ahitophel into foolishness.
2 Samuel xv. fourth is a straw color. Mr. Guchliche employs the same process to extract fine and durable Doth beauty keep which never sun can burn,
Disdain not me, although I be not fair : colors from fustic, broom, and French berries; Nor storms do turn ?
Sidney. he prepares the wool by a slight aluminig, to
So nature formed him, to all turningness of which he adds a little muriatic acid. He seems sleights ; that, though no man had less goodness, no to content himself in these cases with vinegar or man could better find the places whence arguments some other vegetable acid, instead of his aceto. might grow of goodness. citric acid, for the extraction of the color; he Diogenes' dish did never serve his master for more directs that a very small quantity of solution of turns, notwithstanding that he made it his dish, cup, tin should be put into the dye-bath.
cap, measure, and water-pot, than a mantle doth an TURʼMOIL, n. s. & v.a. Derived by Skin
Spenser. ner from Fr. tremouille, a mill-hopper; more
An admirable facility musick hath to express and probably derived from moil to labor.-Johnson. represent to the mind, more inwardly than any other
the very standing, rising, and falling ; Trouble; disturbance; harassing uneasiness : to
the very steps and inflections every way; the turns weary, trouble; harass.
and varieties of all passions whereunto the mind is It is her fatal misfortune, above all other countries, subject.
Hooker. to be miserably tossed and turmoiled with these storms They turned weak people and children unable for of affliction.
service out of the city. He seeks, with torment and turmoil,
Knolles's History of the Turks. To force me live, and will not let mc die. Id. Quick wits are more quick to enter speedily, than Blinded greatness ever in turmoil,
able to pierce far; like sharp tools, whose edges be
Ascham, Still seeking happy life, makes life a toil. Daniel.
She would have made Hercules turn the spit, yea, Having newly left those grammatic shallows, where and have cleft his club to make the fire too. they stuck unreasonably to learn a few words, on the
Shakspeare. sudden are transported to be tost and turmoiled with their unballasted wits in fathomless and unquiet
You weigh equally, a feather will turn the scale.
Id. deeps of controversy.
He called me sot; Haughty Juno, who with endless broil
And told me I had turned the wrong side out. Id. Did earth, and heaven, and Jove himself turmoil, Some dear friend dead; else nothing in the world At length atoned, her friendly power shall join. Could turn so much the constitution
Dryden. Of any constant man. Id. Merchant of Venice.
very soon turned.
Rather turn this day out of the week :
diest of any that are turned in this kingdom, as they This day of shame. Shakspeare. never fail of a price abroad.
Id. Oh, world, thy slippery turns ! friends now fast Nor box nor limes without their use are made,
Smooth-grained and proper for the turner's trade. On a dissension of a duit break out
Dryden. To bitterest enmity.
Id. The turn of words, in which Ovid excels all poets, Courtesy itself 'must turn to disdain, if you come is sometimes a fault or sometimes a beauty, as they in her presence.
are used properly or improperly.
ld. - Then is courtesy a turncoat.
Fortune confounds the wise, The cause of the imagination that things turn And, when they least expect it, turns the dice. Id. round is, for that the spirits themselves turn, being If I had taken to the church, I should have had compressed by the vapour of the wine ; for every li more sense than to have turned myself out of my quid body, upon compression, turneth, as we see in benefice by writing libels on my parishioners. Bacon's Natural History.
Id. Preface to his Fables. Cygnets from grey turn white ; hawks from brown He said, and, turning short with speedy pace, turn more white.
Id. Casts back a scornful glance, and quits the place. Pompey turned upon him, and bade him be quiet.
Dryden. Bacon. They turn viragos too ; the wrestler's toil The state of Christendom might by this have a They try. turn.
Id. The spiteful stars have shed their venom down, If a man see another turn swiftly and iong : or if And now the peaceful planets take their turn. he look upon wheels that turn, himself waxeth turn Some malicious natures place their delight in dosick.
Id. ing ill turns.
L'Estrange. Apollo, angry at the sight, from top of Ilion cride ; A man, though he turns his eyes towards an obTurne head, ye well-rod peeres of Troy. Chapman. ject, yet he may chuse whether he will curiously Lend this virgin aid : survey it.
Locke. Thanks are half lost when good turns are delayed. 'Twould be hard to imagine that God would turn
Fairfar. him out of paradise, to till the ground, and at the Such a light and mettled dance
same time advance him to a throne.
Id. Saw you never ;
The understanding turns inwards on itself, and And by lead-men for the nonce,
reflects on its own operations.
Id. That turn round like grindlestones. Ben Jonson. An English gentleman should be well versed in
Impatience turns an ague into a fever, a fever to the history of England, that he may observe the sethe plague, fear into despair, anger into rage, loss veral turns of state, and how produced. Id. into madness, and sorrow to amazement.
The whole lathe is made strong, because the matTaylor's Rule of Living Holy. ter it turns, being metal, is heavier than wood, and A storm of sad mischance will turn into some. with forcible coming about, would, if the lathe were thing that is good, if we list to make it so. Taylor. slight, make it tremble, and so spoil the work. His turn will come to laugh at you again.
Moron's Mechanical Exercises.
Denham, Small work in metal is turned in an iron lathe Neither will this shift serve the turn. Wilkins. called a turnbench, which they screw in a vice, and, The sun
having fitted their work upon a small iron axle, with Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial road. a drill barrel, fitted upon a square shank, at the end
Milton. of the axis, next the left hand, they with a drill-bow, The gate on golden hinges turning. Id. and drill-string, carry it about.
Moron. Nature wrought so, that seeing me she turned. Some turners, to shew their dexterity in turning,
Id. turn long and slender pieces of ivory, as small as an This turn hath made amends! thou hast fulfilled hay-stalk.
la. Thy words, Creator, bounteous !
Id. His whole person is finely turned, and speaks him I ran with headlong haste a man of quality.
Tatler. Through paths and turnings often trod by day. Id. They who are conscious of their guilt, and appre
When to advance, or stand, or turn the sway hensive that the justice of the nation should take Of battle.
notice of their theft and rapine, will try to give all The vast abyss
things a false turn, and to fill every place with false Up from the bottom turned by furious winds.
Davenant. His gentle dumb expression turned at length Shrewd turns strike deeper than ill words. South. The eye of Eve to mark his play.
Alas! she raves ; her brain, I fear, is turned. They, by their skill in palmistry,
Rowe. Will quickly read his destiny;
When the hen has laid her eggs so that she can And make him glad to read his lesson,
cover them, what care does she take in turning them Or take a turn for it at the session.
Butler. frequently that all parts may partake of the vital He now was grown deformed and poor,
Addison. And fit to be turned out of door.
Hudibras. There is not a more melancholy object than a man A turnstile is more certain
who has his head turned with religious enthusiasm. Than, in events of war, dame Fortune. Id.
Id. The report, and much more the sight of a luxu However improper he might have been for studies rious feeder, would turn his stomach.
Fell. of a higher nature, he was perfectly well turned for Oil of vitriol and petroleum, a drachm of each, trade.
Id. will turn into a mouldy substance.
Boyle. My thoughts are turned on peace. God will make these evils the occasion of a greater Already have our quarrels filled the world good, by turning them to advantage in this world, or With widows and with orphans.
Id. Cato. increase of our happiness in the next. Tillotson. Christianity directs our actions so, as every thing
Sheep, and great cattle, it seems indifferent which we do may turn to account at the great day.
Id. Spectator: These are certain commodities, and yield the rea After a turbulent and noisy course among the
tocks, the Teverne falls into the valley, and after had great offers made him from Italy, Germany, many turns and windings glides peaceably into the and England; but he preferred poverty in France 'Tiber.
to riches any where else. He taught polite liteWit doth not consist so much in advancing things rature first at Toulouse; but, in 1547, went to new, as in giving things known an agreeable turn.
be Greek professor at Paris; in 1552 he took A young man of a sprightly turn in conversation upon him the care of the royal Greek press for had an inordinate desire of appearing fashionable.
three years, when he quitted it on being adSpectator.
mitted into the number of royal professors. He The three first stanzas are rendered word for
died in 1565; and his works, which are all in word with the original, not only with the same ele- Latin, were printed at Strasburg in 1 vol. folio, gance, but the same short turn of expression peculiar 1600. to the sapphick ode.
Addison. TURNER (William), M. D., a celebrated He turned his parts rather to books and conversa- physician and divine in the sixteenth century, tion, than to politicks.
Prior. born at Morpeth, in Northumberland, and eduA man must guard, if he intends to keep fair with cated at Cambridge where he became a Protesthe world, and turn the penny.
tant, travelled over England to preach the reCollier of Popularity.
formed faith, for which bishop Gardiner put him Every one has a fair turn to be as great as he in prison. On his release he went to Italy, and pleases.
Luther's conscience, by his instigations, turns these graduated at Ferrara. On the accession of Edvery reasonings upon him.
ward VI. he returned, and was made dean of Though they held the power of the civil sword un
Wells. When ry succeeded he again went lawful, whilst they were to be governed by it, yet abroad, and did not return till after her death. they esteemed it very lawful when it came to their Queen Elizabeth restored him to his preferments. turn to govern.
Id. . He wrote a Treatise on the Baths of England A saline constitution of the fluids is acid, alka- and Germany; a Complete Herbal, or History line, or muriatic : of these in their turns.
of Plants, folio; Historia de Naturis Herbarum, Arbuthnot.
Scholiis et Notis Vallata, 8vo.; and some other The gates are shut, and the turnpikes locked. Id.
botanical works. He died in 1568. The ancle-bone is apt to turn out on either side, by reason of the relaxation of the tendons upon the cated at Winchester ‘and at New College, Oxford.
TURNER (Francis), son of the above, was eduleast walking.
Wiseman. If we repent seriously, submit contentedly, and He became prebendary of St. Paul's, dean of serve him faithfully, afflictions shall turn to our ad- Windsor, and bishop of Rochester in 1683, and vantage.
Iake. in 1684 bishop of Ely. He was one of the seven The choler of a hog turned syrup of violets green. bishops whom James VII. sent to the tower; yet
Floyer. he was deprived of his bishopric at the revoluThe first platform of the poem, which reduces into tion for refusing to take the oaths. He pubone important action all the particulars upon which lished some sermons, several sacred poems, and it turns.
the life of Mr. Nicholas Ferrar. He died in The rage of thirst and hunger now supprest, 1700. The monarch turns him to his royal guest.
TURNERITE, a rare mineral in small crys
Id. Odyssey. The bard, whom pilfered pastorals renown;
tals of a yellowish-brown, or brownish-yellow Who turns a Persian tale for half a crown,
color. Brilliant. Primary form an oblique Just writes to make his barrenness appear. Pope.
rhombic prism. Scratches Auor, but yields to This beastly line quite turns my stomach. Id. the knife. Powder grayish-white. It contains Eastern priests in giddy circles run,
alumina, lime, magnesia, and a very little iron. And turn their heads to imitate the sun. Id. It has been found only on Mount Sorel in DauThus a wise taylor is not pinching,
phiny. But turns at every seam an inch in. Swift. TURNHOUT, an inland town of the NeThe nymph will have her turn to be
therlands, the chief place of a district in the The tutor, and the pupil he.
province of Antwerp. It is well built; has Books give the same turn to our thoughts and rea
canal conveyance; and its principal industry soning that good company does to our conversation.
consists in manufacture of ticking. It has a Rather than let a good fire be wanting, enliven it traffic also in the produce of the neighbourhood, with the butter that happens to turn to oil.
and several extensive bleaching establishments. The very turn of voice, the good pronunciation, In 1596 prince Maurice of Nassau, at the head and the alluring manner which some teachers have of a detachment, defeated here a considerable attained, will engage the attention.
Watts. body of Spaniards; and in October 1789 an Turn these ideas about in your mind, and take a action took place here between the Austrian view of them on all sides.
Id. troops and the insurgents of Brabant. PopulaHis cares all turn upon Astyanax,
tion 10,000. Twenty-four miles east by north Whom he has lodged within the citadel. A. Philips.
of Antwerp. For want of due improvement, these useful inven
TURNING is the art of forming hard bodies, tions have not turned to any great account. Buker's Reflections on Learning.
as wood, ivory, iron, into a round or oval shape
by means of a machine called a lathe. This art TURNEBUS (Adrian), an eminent critic, was well known to the ancients, and seems to born in 1512. His father was a Scotch officer have been carried by them to a very great degree whose name was Turnbull, which Adrian varied of perfection; at least Pliny and other authors to Turnebe, in Latin Turnebus. He acquired tell us that those precious vases, enriched with so extensive a reputation by his learning that he figures in half relief which still adorn our cabi.