صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

2319,993 { Vergennes
18 15,893 { Peanchester

15

23

34,877 Windsor

in 1810, 217,895. The number of militia in 1817 are from ten to fifteen miles wide, intersected by amounted to 20,903.

valleys. They lie principally on the east side of The counties, number of towns, population, Bennington, Rutland, and Addison counties. In and chief towns are exhibited in the following Chittenden county they appear to divide, the table:

highest chain continuing a northern course through Counties. Towns. Pop. Chief Towns.

Chittenden county, while the Height of Land,

so called from its not being broken through by Addison

any river, owing to its uniform elevation, strikes

off to the north-east as far as Cabot. The westBennington

ern range presents much the loftiest summits, Caledonia

but has inequalities which afford a passage for | 18

Onion and Lamoile rivers. The highest summits Chittenden 16 14,684 Burlington

of the Green Mountains in Vermont are KillingEssex

19 3,087 Guildhall ton Peak, Camel's Rump, and Mansfield MounFranklin 19 16,427 St. Albans tains. Ascutney is a noted mountain on the east Grand Isle 5 3,445 North Hero side of the state, south of Windsor.

Chelsea

A large proportion of the soil in this state is Orange 18 22,085 Newbury

fertile, and fitted to the various purposes of Randolph

agriculture. It is generally deep, of a dark color, Orleans 23 5,838 'Irasburg

rich, moist, warm, loamy, and seldom parched Rutland 27 29,487 Rutland

with drought. The low lands on the interval are Washington 10,372 Montpelier

thought the best : bordering on these is usually a

strip one or two miles wide, comparatively poor; Windham

26,760 Brattleborough beyond which, the land recovers a fertility nearly

Manchester equal to that on the rivers. Much of the land

Woodstock among the Green Mountains is excellent for Windsor 23

grazing, and here are found many fine farms. Royalton.

Wheat is extensively cultivated, particularly

on the west side of the mountains. Barley, rye, Montpelier is the seat of government. The oats, peas, and flax, flourish in all parts of the other most considerable towns are Burlington, state. Corn thrives best on the intervals, but is Middlebury, Windsor, Brattleborough, and Ben- also raised in abundance on the uplands. The nington. There is no bank at present in this exports of Vermont consist of pot and pearl ashes, state.

beef, pork, butter, cheese, flax, live catile, &c. There are two colleges in Vermont, one at The trade is chiefly with Boston, Hartford, New Burlington and the other at Middlebury; and York, and Montreal. academies have been established at Addison, Ar Iron ore of good quality is found in several lington, Bennington, Brandon, Burlington, Cas- places. There are quarries of marble at Middletleton, Cavendish, Chester, Fairfield, Middlebury, bury, Bennington, Arlington, Shaftsbury, PittsMontpelier, Norwich, Peacham, Randolph, Roy- ford, and Swanton. Porcelain earth is found at alton, Shaftsbury, Shoreham, St. Albans, and Monkton. There are also some lead and copWindsor. Common schools are supported peras mines. There are twelve paper mills in throughout the state. The principal denomina- the state. Among the most considerable manutions of Christians in Vermont are Congrega- facturing towns are Middlebury, Bennington, tionalists, who had, in 1818, seventy-five minis- Brattleborough, Burlington, and Montpelier, ters and a much larger number of congregations; Large quantities of maple sugar are made in Baptists, who had, in 1817, 112 congregations. this state for home consumption, and some for There are also some Methodists, Episcopalians, exportation. Friends, Universalists, &c.

The climate is healthy, but subject to great The legislative power is vested in a house of extremes of heat and cold. Winter in its severepresentatives. Every town has the right to rity commences about the 1st of December, and send one representative. The executive power continues to about the middle of March. During is vested in a governor, lieutenant-governor, and this season the weather is generally fair, and the twelve counsellors. All these officers, together cold more uniform and steady than in the other with the representatives, are chosen annually on New England states. An extraordinary cave the first Tuesday in September. The legislature was discovered in the town of Plymouth in this

on the second Thursday in October. state in 1818. Judges and other officers are appointed for one VERNACULAR, adj. Lat. vernaculus. Nayear.

tive; of one's own country. The west bank of Connecticut River forms the Which instances do evidently bring a consumpeastern boundary of Vermont. The most consi- tion under the notion of a vernacular disease to Eng. derable rivers within the state are Lamoile, Onion, land.

Harvey. Otter Creek, Misisque, Deerfield, White, Black,

The histories of all our former wars are transand Pasumsic.

mitted to us in our vernacular idiom. Addison. The face of the country is generally uneven, VER'NAL, artj. Lat. vernus. Belonging and a great part of it is mountainous. The Green Ver'nant. to the spring Mountains (in Latin Ver Mons), from which the

With the year state takes its name, extend through the whole Seasons return; but not to me returns, length of the state nearly north and south, and Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose. Millon.

meets

If n =

:; then

1

10

1

201

[ocr errors]

1

1

[ocr errors]

4

n

1

n

n

n X n +

n

10

375

15

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Else had the spring

a degree, or 30", which is the least part of a dePerpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers. Id.

gree that instrument can show. VERNIER Scale, a scale excellently adapted

1

1
1

60

and m=s. for the graduation of mathematical instruments,

3
36

x
5

36 5 X 30 thus called from its inventor Peter Vernier, a of a minute, or 20'. person of distinction in the Franche Comté.

The following table, taken as examples in the Vernier's method is derived from the following instruments commonly made from three inches principle:-If two equal right lines, or circular 10 eight feet radius, shows the divisions of the arcs, A, B, are so divided that the number of limb to nearest tenths of inches, so as to be an equal divisions in B is one less than the number aliquot of 60's, and what parts of a dezree may of equal divisions of A, then will the excess of be estimated by the vernier, it being divided into one division of B above one division of A be such equal parts, and containing such degrees, compounded of the ratios of one of A to A, and as their columns show. one of B to B. For let A contain 11 parts, then one of A to A

Radical Parts in Parts in Breadth of Parts is as 1 to 11, or. Let B contain 10 parts,

inches. a deg. vernier. vernier. observed. 11°

1
3 1 15

4' 0"

151

Now then one of B to B is as 1 to 10, or

10

6
20

3
11-10 1

9 2 20

104 1 30 Х

12 11 10X11

24 10 x 11 10 11

123

1 15 15 20

1 0 Or if B contains n parts, and A contains 1

1
18

30
101

040 n + 1 parts; then is one part of B, and

21

30
74

0 30
n+1
24 4 36

93

0 25 1 is one part of A. And

n + 1
30 5 30

7

0 20 1+1

36 6 30 51 0 20 1 1

42

33

0 15 =-X 1+1

48
40

0 10 The most commodious divisions, and their

60
36

010 aliquot parts, into which the degrees on the

72
12
30
2,3

0 10 circular limb of an instrument may be supposed

84 15 40

23

0 6 to be divided on the radius of that instrument.

96

4 Let R be the radius of a circle in inches, and a degree to be divided into n parts, each being By altering the number of divisions, either in 1 -th part of an inch.

the degrees or in the vernier, or in both, an angle P

can be observed to a different degree of accuNow the circumference of a circle, in parts racy. Thus, to a radius of 30 inches, if a deof its diameter 2 R inches is 3,1415926 X 2 R gree be divided into 12 parts, each being 5', inches.

and the breadth of the vernier be 21 such parts, 3.1415926

1 Ther: 360°: 3,1415926 X 2R:: 1°:

or 18°, and divided into 20 parts, then Х

12 20 360 x 2 Rnches.

1° 0: 0.01745329 X R is the length of 1o in

= 15': or taking the breadth of the ver

240 inches.

Х Or, 0.01745329 x R x p is the length of 1° nier 27°, and divided into 30 parts ; then

12 in pth parts of an inch.

1

1° But, as every degree contains n times such

or 10': Or

Х 360'

12

600 parts, therefore n = 0.01745329 x R x p.

where the breadth of the vernier is 41°. The most commodious perceptible division is

VERNON (Edward), a celebrated Englisla ioth th of an inch.

admiral of great bravery, born in Westminster in

1684. He acquired great fame by his exploits in Erumple.—Suppose an instrument of thirty the Spanish West Indies. He bombarded Carinches radius, into how many convenient parts thagena and took Porto Bello in 1739. He died may each degree be divided ? how many of these in 1757 at an advanced age. parts are to go to the breadth of the vernier ? and

VERONA, a province of Austrian Italy, in to what parts of a degree may an observation be the government of Venice, with a superficial exmade by that instrument? Now 0·01745 x Rient of 1330 square miles, and a population of = 0.5236 inches, the length of each degree; and, 285,000. It is watered by the Adige, and, if p be supposed about one-eighth of an inch for though mountainous, has an agreeable climate one division, then 0-5236 X p = 4:188 shows and fertile soil. The principal productions are the number of such parts in a degree. But, as corn, wine, oil, flax, and silk. The mountains this number must be an integer, let it be 4, each contain quarries of beautiful marble. being 15'; and let the breadth of the vernier con

VERONA, a city of Austrian Italy, the capita! tain 31 of those parts, or 71°, and be divided of the preceding delegation or province, stands into 30 parts.

in a pleasant and picturesque situation, partly 1 Х

of on the border of a large plain. In that direction 30

120 are the rich tracts extending along the banks of

[blocks in formation]

the Mincio and the Po; to the north the Ty- 45,000. Its principal manufacture is that of rolese Alps, the first step to the ascent of which silk. The lesser manufactures are woollens, leamay be said to take place in this city.

ther, gloves, and shoes. The form of the city is irregular, the modern Julius Cæsar established a colony here. On buildings extending considerably beyond the old the decline of the empire, Verona experienced walls. Its circuit is about six miles. It retains the fate of the other towns in the north of Italy. its fortification of a moat and earthen mound, It was taken by Charlemagne in 774; became and has also two castles on high ground, with a subsequently a free town; fell, in the course of third on the plain; but it is not at present capa- time, under the sway of leading families ; and, ble of standing a siege. The Adige is crossed by in 1405, was united to the territorial possessions four different bridges which connect the respec. of Venice. With these it enjoyed many ages of tive divisions of the city. They are all of stone; peace and tranquillity until the year 1796, when and one, the bridge of the Castello Vecchio, has Italy was invaded by the French. It was then an arch somewhat resembling the Rialto of Ve- added to the kingdom of Italy. In 1814 it again nice. Verona has five gates, of which one called fell into the hands of Austria. Twenty miles Porta del Paglio is of elegant architecture. north-east of Mantua, sixty west of Venice, and

The streets are mostly narrow and dirty; ninety east of Milan. others, however, are spacious and well paved; in VERONICA, in botany, a genus of plants of particular that which leads to the Mantua gate, the class of diandria and order monogynia, arand the Corso, or street where horse-races are ranged in the natural system under the fortieth held. The houses, though built in general in order, personatæ. There are forty species, fifan antique style, are of good appearance from the teen are natives of Britain, only two of which quantity of marble employed in their construc- have been applied to any use. 1. V, beccation. The best buildings are in the principal bunga, or common brook-lime, the flowers of square. Verona also contains a cathedral and a which are blue, in loose lateral spikes ; leaves number of churches, noted for their paintings or sessile, oval, opposite, thick, notched. It was architecture. The latter forms the characteristic formerly considered as of much use externally in of the church of St. Zeno, remarkable for its fa- wounds and ulcers; but, if it have any peculiar çade, its vast portal, and the rows of columns, etficacy, it is to be derived from its antiscorbutic each of a single piece of marble, which support virtue. To derive advantage from it the juice its roof. The town-house has on the outside ought to be used in large quantities, or the fresh niches containing busts of statues of the distin- plant eaten as food. 2. V. officinalis, common guished natives of Verona–Pliny the elder, Vi- male speed-well, or fluellin, a native of Britain, truvius, Cutullus, and Cornelius Nepos. The growing on heaths and barren grounds. The royal palace has never been completed. The blossoms are blue, the leaves elliptical, serrated, Palazzo Bevilacqua, said to be the oldest build- and hairy. The leaves have a small degree of ing in Verona, is a stately edifice going fast to astringency. Cows, sheep, goats, and horses, eat decay. Opposite to it is the Palazzo Cannosia, it; swine refuse it. admired for its front.

VERRHEYEN (Philip), M.D., an eminent Of all the monuments of Verona the most in- anatomist, born in Holland in 1648. He lateresting is the Roman amphitheatre in the spa- bored as a farmer till his twenty-second year, cious square called the Piazza del Bra. This is when he studied physic at the university of Louone of ihe most magnificant remains of Roman vain, where he graduated and became a proarchitecture that exists. The arena, situated fessor. He died in 1710. He published, 1. De in the centre, and of an oval form, is 220 feet in Corporis Humani Anatomia, 2 vols. 4to; 2. De length, in breadth 130. The seats rise in suc- Febribus, 8vo. cessive ranges from the arena to a height corre VERRMEYEN (John Cornelius), an eminent sponding to the top of the second row of out- painter at Haerlem in 1500. He was employed ward arches. These seats, as well as the different by Charles V. He died at Brussels, in 1559, passages, the stair-cases, and galleries of commu- aged fifty-nine. nication, remain entire. The number of ranges VERRNET, an eminent French painter, born of seats is forty-five; that of spectators which at Avignon in 1712. He died in 1789, might be contained within them about 22,000; VERROCHIO (Andrew), a painter and stathe outward circumference of the amphitheatre tuary, born at Florence in 1432. He discovered 1290 feet. The whole consists of vast blocks of the art of taking casts in plaster from the faces marble, and forms a solid mass resting on a of the dead or the living. He executed some double row of vaults, which, in former ages, were fine statues in bronze. He died in 1488. appropriated to the custody of the lions, tygers, VERSAILLES, a celebrated town of France, and other wild beasts. The Academia Phil-ar- twelve miles west by south of Paris, and long monica, founded by the celebrated Maffei, and the residence of the court. In 1666 it was little the Philoli, are both remarkable for a number of more than a village, with a hunting lodge for the ancient monuments, not only in Greek and Latin, royal family, when Louis XIV., desirous of rebut in the Punic and Egyptian languages. siding out of Paris, began to erect a splendid

Verona is the seat of one of the five sections palace. No expense was spared by him or his of the imperial and royal institute of Austrian successors to render it the most magnificent resiItaly. It contains, besides, a lyceum or great dence in Europe; and though uninhabited since school, a gymnasium or classical school, an aca 1789 it retains almost all its beauty. The situademy of painting, a public library, and several tion of the palace is on a rising ground; its front private collections. The population is about and wings are of polished stone, ornamented with

statues, and a colonnade of the Doricorder is in the verse or poetically, (disused): to be versed is to centre. The great hall is above 220 feet in lenoth, be skilled in ; acquainted with: a verseman is a with costly decorations in marble, painting, and poet; writer of verse : versification, the art or gilding. The other apartments are of correspond- practice of making verses: versify, to make ing size and elegance. This beautiful structure verses, or relate in verse : versifier and versificais approached by three great avenues, each lined tor corresponding with a double row of trees, and leading respec You would wonder to hear how soon even chiltively from Paris, St. Cloud, and Sceaux. No dren begin to versifu,

Sidney. city or royal residence can boast a greater dis To follow rather the Goths in rhyming, than the play of reservoirs, fountains, and canals. The Greeks in true versifying, were even to eat acorns spacious park and gardens, situated behind the with swine, when we may freely eat wheat bread

Ascham. palace, contain parterres, jets d'eau, cascades, among men. and thickets, in pleasant variety; also a magni

Thou hast by moonlight at her window sung, ficent orangery. At some distance, in a retired With feigning voice, verses of feigning love.

Shakspeure. spot, are the Two Trianons, which may be termed royal residences in miniature; seats to which the Playing on pipes of corn, and versing love.

In the shape of Corin sate all day,

I. king and queen retired when desirous to lay

Unintermixed with fictious fantasies, aside their rank and state. The expense thus I'll versify the truth, not poetize.

Duniel. incurred amounted, from first to last, to many She might be ignorant of their nations, who was millions sterling ; for the attractions of Ver- not versed in their names, as not being present at the sailles are principally those of art. The town general survey of animals, when Adam assigned unto contains about 30,000 inhabitants. The market- every one a name concordant unto its nature. places and squares are larger than is common in

Broune's Vulgar Eirours. I'rance; and the avenues leading to the palace

Some object to his versificution ; which is, in poetry, divide the town into two parts, of which the one what colouring is in painting, beautiful ornament. situated to the left is called the Oid, the other But if the proportions are just, though the colours the New Town. The latter contains the princi- should happen to be rough, the piece may be of in

.

Glanville. pal church and the greater proportion of elegant

This versed in death, the infernal knight relates, buildings. The removal of the royal residence And then for proof fulfilled their common fates. in 1789 was a great blow to the prosperity of

Dryden. Versailles. A manufacture of fire-arms has been Statius, the best versificator next Virgil, knew not established here. Clocks and watches are also how to design after him.

Id. made; and the spinning and weaving of cotton, Donne alone had your talent, but was not happy as well as the bleaching of linen, are carried on to arrive at your versification. on a small scale ; and since 1814 the chief be Thus far the questions proceed upon the connefit to the place has arisen from the visits and struction of the first earth ; in the following verses residence of English families. Versailles has a they proceed upon the demolition of that earth.

Burnet. cathedral, with eight churches, a high school,

Whilst she did her various power dispose ; several private seminaries of education, a valua- Virtue was taught in verse, and Athens' glory rose. ble library, a cabinet of natural history, and a

Prior. botanical garden. It is the chief place of a de

The god of us versemen, you know, child, the sun. partment (Seine and Oise), and has three annual

Id. fairs, viz. in May, August, and October.

In Job and the Psalms we shall find more subVERSCHURING (Ilenry), a painter born at lime ideas, more elevated language, than in any of Gorcum, of which he was chosen magistrate. He the heathen versifiers of Greece or Rome. was drowned in 1699, aged sixty-eight.

Watts on the Mind. VER'SAL, adj. A cant word for universal. From limbs of this great Hercules are framed Total; whole.

Whole groupes of pigmies, who are versemen named.

Harte. Some, for brevity, Have cast the versal world's nativity. Hudibras. VERSIFICATION. If the utility of the whole VER'SATILE, adj. Lat. versatilis. That

art of poetry may be reduced, as we think with may be turned round.

Temple it may, to the hindering some men One color to us standing in one place hath a con

from becoming very bad poets,' we have the less trary aspect in another; as in those versatile represen- being very brief on this topic in this place.

to regret that our limits impose the necessity of tations in the neck of a dove, and folds of scarlet.

Glanville.

What the hints given in the article QUANTITY The adventurous pilot in a single year

will not supply to our readers, as to the classical Learned his state cock-boat dexterously to steer ; languages, must be matter of a deeper enquiry Versatile, and sharp-piercing like a screw,

than we can here institute : we shall confine Made good the old passage, and still forced a new. ourselves to a few familiar illustrations of the

Harte. principles of English versification. VERSE, n. s. & v. a. French vers; Latin All the different feet used in English poetry Vers’ed, part. adj.

A line con- may be reduced to eight kinds, four of two and VERSE'MAN, M. S. sisting of a certain four of three syllables ; as, VERSIFICATION, succession of sounds,

Dissyllabic feet. VERSIFICA'TOR, and syllables; poetry; 1. An iambus, u-; as, bětrāy, consist. VER'S FIER,

metrical language; 2. A trochee, -v; as, e'xtort, gū’iltless, VER'sify, v. n. & v. a.) and (Fr. verset) a sec- 3. A spondee, -- : as, the pāle mõõn. tion or paragraph of a book : to verse is to tell in 4. A pyrric, Uu; as, on thě tall tree.

Id.

versus,

[ocr errors]

as,

Trisyllabic Feet.

And as thẻ mnd 8f such & mãn, thắt hath &

long way gone, 5. Ananapæst, vuo; as, acquiesce, còntrăvēne. 6. A dactyl, - vv; as, lābourěr, possible.

Ănd eithěr knowěth not his wāy, ör ēlse would

lēt alone. 7. An amphibrac,u - v; as, doméstic, dělightfúl.

Chapman. 8. A tribrach, UUv; as, conquerable, numěråble. It is usual now to break this verse into a lyric The trochee, iambus, dactyl, and anapæst,

measure, or into two verses, consisting alterhave been called principal feet; as those of which nately of eight and six syllables; as, verse may be wholly or chiefly formed. The Whěn āll thy mērciěs, my God, others are denominated secondary, because their

My rising sõul sărveys, use in English versification is merely to diver Transported with the view. I'm lost sify rhythm or to improve the verse.

In wonder, joy, and praise. I. IAMBIC VERSE.—The shortest form of the II. Trochaic VERSE.—The shortest trochaic English iambic consists of an iambus and an verse in the English language consists of one additional short syllable. It is only found in trochee and a long syllable, and is called the stanzas, and has been called the lambic Mono- trochaic monometer catalectic; as, meter Catalectic : the following are instances, Ăssäiling,

Āre būt tõys.
Availing,

2. The trochaic monometer acatalectic conRělēnting,

sists of one trochaic metre, or two trochaic feet; Repenting 2. The iambic monometer acatalectic con

in the grássy

Meadow vērdănt. tains an iambic metre, or two iambic feet; as, With răptăr'd eārs

3. The trochaic monometer hypercatalectic Thẽ mónănch bears.

contains one syllable more than the exact tro3. The iambic monometer hypercatalectic chaic monometer; as, is the same as the former, with an additional

Happy farming age, short syllable, as,

Healthy, blithe ănd sāge.

4. A trochaic dimeter brachycatalectic conůpon à mountain Beside a fountain.

tains two syllables, or one foot less than two

trochaic metres; i. e. three trochees; as, 4. The iambic dimeter brachycatalectic con

Blõõm yě sūmměr rösės! sists of three iambic feet; being one foot less 5. A trochaic dimeter catalectic consists of than the iambic dimeter; as,

one syllable less than two trochaic metres; or Though in thě utmost pēak

of three trochees with an additional long sylA while we do remain,

lable; as,
Amongst the mountains bleak,

Fairěst piēce of wēll-sõrmed earth.
Exposed to sleet and rain.

6. The trochaic dimeter acatalectic contains two 5. The iambic dimeter catalectic is one syl- trochaic metres, or four trochaic feet; as, Jable less than the iambic dimeter; as,

Roūnd ŭs shine thě sūn-beams brightěr. Oŭr hearts no longěr languish.

7. A trochaic dimeter hypercatalectic contains 6. The iambic dimeter acaralectic contains

a long syllable more than the last verse; as, exactly two iambic metres, or four feet; as,

See yon cloūds thắt now disperse and clear.
The spacious firmămēnt on high
With all the blue ethereal sky.

8. A trochaic trimeter brachycatalectic, seldom 7. The iambic trimeter brachycatalectic, or employed, contains five trochaic feet, and, of heroic measure, contains one foot (or two syl- course, one foot less than three trochaic metres; lables) less than the iambic trimeter; as,

as,

All thăt walk on fõõt, or ride Yn chariots. Děsēr not till tò mõrrow to bě wise ; To-morrow's sun to thee may never rise.

9. The trochaic trimeter acatalectic contains In its pure state this verse consists of five six trochees, or three trochaic metres; as, jambic feet only. But not only this, but most

on å mountain strētched běnēath a hõary willow of the English common measures admit, for the Lay a shepherd swain, and viewed the rolling

billow. sake of variety, of the occasional introduction of the trochee, dactyl, anapæst, &c.

III. ANAPÆSTIC Verse.—In dactylic and ana8. An iambic trimeter acatalectic, or Alexan- pæstic measure oue foot forms a metre, but in drine verse, consists of six iambic feet; as, every other case two feet form a metre. 1. The Ěspēciăl audience crāves, offēnděd with thě anapæstic monometer acatalectic contains, withthrong

Draylon. out' redundance or defect, one anapæstic foot ; The Alexandrine verse is only used in modern as, times (and too often) to diversify the heroic

Now ăgain

They remain. measure; as, I needless Alẽ xändrắne &nds thể sống

But, by laying the stress of the voice on the Which like a wounded snake drags his slow length first syllable, we reduce the verse into trochaic along.

i hythm ; the simplest form of our regular ana9. The iambic tetrameter brachycatalectic pæstic verse is the consists of one foot less than four jambic metres, 2. Anapæstic dimeter acatalectic, or verse of i. e. of seven iambuses; as,

two anapæstic feet:

« السابقةمتابعة »