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lable: as,

För no ārt could avāil.

all under the degree of nobles : but in coats of 3. The anapæstic dimeter hypercatalectic con

nobility it is called emerald ; and in those of

In engraving it is expressed by tains two anapastic feet, with an additional short kings venus. syllable ; as,

diagonals, or lines drawn athwart from right to In thẻ căve 1 of the moũn- | tain.

left, from the dexter chief corner to the sinister

base. 4. The anapæstic trimeter acatalectic three

VERTEBRE, n. s. ) Fr. vertebre; Latin anapæstic feet; as,

VER'TEBRAL, adj. S vertebra. A joint of the o yě wõõds, spread your brānchěs åpāce;

back : relating to the spine. To your deepest recesses I fly.

The carotid, vertebral and splenick arteries, are not 5. The anapæstic tetrameter acatalectic con only variously contorted, but here and there dilated, sists of four anapæstic feet; as,

to moderate the motion of the blood. Māy i gāvěrn my pāssions with ābsolúte swāy;

Ray on the Creation. And grow wiser and better as life wears away.

The several vertebres are so elegantly compacted 6. The anapæstic tetrameter hypercatalectic together, that they are as strong as if they were but

one bone.

Ray. adds to the end of the last verse a short syl

VERTEX, n. s. Lat. terter. Zenith ; the on thě top 1 of thắt hill / seě thě sūn | now point over head; hence the top of any thing. ăscēnd- / -ing.

These keep the vertex ; but betwixt the bear

And shining zodiack, where the planets err, OF THE CÆSURA.-In heroic verse the cæsura

A thousand figured constellations roll. Creech. may take place on the fourth syllable; as,

Mountains especially bound with different species Child of the sun", refulgent summer comes. of vegetables ; every verter or eminence affording 2. Or on the fifth; as,

new kinds.

Derham. He comes attended” by the sultry hours.

VERTICAL, adj. Fr. verticul, from Lat. 3. Or on the sixth ; as,

VERÓTICALLY, adv. vertex. Placed in the

Szenith : the adverb and But should he hide his face", th' astonish'd sun.

noun substantive corresponding. 4. Or, two cæsuras may divide a verse into three portions; as,

Unto them the sun is vertical twice a-year ; making Some love to stray" ; there lodg’d", amus'd, and

two distinct summers in the different points of the verticality.

Browne's Vulgar Errours. fed.

From these laws, all the rules of bodies ascending 5. Some lines admirably admit that subdivi.

or descending in vertical lines may be deduced. sion of the cæsural pause which may be called

Cheyne. a demi cæsura; as,

'Tis raging noon; and vertical the sun Warms' in the sun" refreshes' in the breeze,

Darts on the head direct his forceful rays.

Glows' in the stars” and blossoms' in the trees.
VER'SION, n. s.

VERTICʻILLATE, adj. Lat. verticillum.
Fr. version ; Lat. versio.

Defined below. Change; transformation; change of direction; translation.

Verticillate plants are such as have their flowers inComets are rather gazed upon, than wisely ob

termixt with small leaves growing in a kind of served in their effects, that is, what kind of comet,

whirls about the joints of a stalk, as pennyroyal, horehound, &c.

Quincy. for magnitude, colour, version of the beams, produceth what kind of effects.

Bacon. VERTICILLATÆ, a class in Ray's and BoSprings, the antients thought to be made by the erhaave's Methods, consisting of herbaceous veversion of air into water. Id. Natural History. getables, having four naked seeds, and the flowers

This exact propriety of Virgil I particularly regarded; but must confess that I have not been able placed in whorls round the stalk. The term is to make him appear wholly like himself. For where nefort"; and is exemplified in mint, thyme, and

synonymous to the labiati, or lip-flowers of Tourthe original is close, no version can reach it in the


Verticillatæ is also the name of the It will be as easy, nay much easier, to invent forty-second order in Linnæus's Fragments of a some pretence or other against the reading, version,

Natural Method, consisting of plants of the above or construction.



VERTICILLUS, a mode of flowering, in VERSTEGAN (Richard), an English anti- which the flowers are produced in rings at each quary, born in London, of Flemish parents, and joint of the stem, with very short foot-stalks. educated at Oxford. He went to Antwerp, and "The term is exemplified in mint, hore-hound, wrote on the Antiquities of the Renowned Eng- and the other plants of the natural order of verlish Nation. London, 1634, 8vo., and 1674.

ticillatæ. He also wrote, Regal Governments of England,

VERTIC’ITY, n. s. Lat. verter. The power &c. He died in 1625. VERT, n. s.

of turning ; circumvolution ; rotation.
Fr. vert. Greeu.
l'ert, in the laws of the forest, signifies every

Those stars do not peculiarly glance on us, but thing that grows, and bears a green leaf within the

carry a common regard unto all countries, unto forest, that may cover and hide a deer. Cowell.

whom their verticity is also common. I find no mention in all the records of Ireland of

Browne's Vulgar Errmurs. a park or free warren, notwithstanding the great certificate from the days of old.

We believe the verticity of the needle, without a plenty of vert and venison.

Glanville. Sir John Davies.

Whether they be globules, or whether they have Vert, in heraldry, the term for a green color. a verticity about their own centers, that produce the It is called vert in the blazon of the coats of idea of whiteness in us, the more particles of light

same compass.

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are reflected from a body, the whiter does the body umph. See PARTHIA. He died in his thirtyappear.


ninth year. He was a prince of dissolute manVERTICITY is that property of the loadstone ners. whereby it turns or directs itself to one parti VE’RY, adj. & adv. Fr. veray, or vrai ; Ital. cular point.

vera ; Lat. verus ; whence old English veray. It VERTIGʻINOUS, adj. Lat. vertiginosus. has its degrees verier and veriest. True; real; Turning round; rotatory.

complete ; more exact: it notes things emphatiThis vertiginous motion gives day and night suc

cally or eminently: as an adverb, in a great or cessively over the whole eartů, and makes it habitable high degree. all around.


in very deed, as the Lord liveth. 1 Sam. xxv. 34. These extinguish candles, make the workmen faint

That bold challenge was thought very strange.

Lestry. and vertiginous; and, when very great, suffocate and kill them.


Why do I pity him,

That with his very heart despiseth me? Shakspeare. VER’TIGO, n. s. Lat. vertigo. A giddiness ;

Was not my love a sense of turning in the head.

The verier wag o' the two ?

Id, Vertigo is the appearance of visible objects, that

We can contain ourselves, are without motion, as if they turned round, attended Were he the veriest antick in the world. Id. with a fear of falling, and a dimness of sight.

Women are as roses, whose fair flower

Being once displayed, doth fall that very hour. Ha. The forerunners of an apoplexy are dulness, vet Those who had drunk of Circe's cup were turned tigos, tremblings.

into very beasts.

That old vertigo in his head

There, where very desolation dwells, Will never leave him till he's dead. Swift.

By grots and caverns shagged with horrid shades, VERTOT D'ABOEUF (Rene Aubert de), à She may pass on.

Milion. celebrated bistorian, was born of a noble family

O that in very deed we might behold it!

Dryden and Lee. in Normandy, in 1655. At sixteen years of age he became Franciscan friar ; afterwards he heart; but, finding these very cocks cutting one

The cocks beat the partridge, which she laid to entered into the order of the Præmonstratenses, another, she comforted herself. L'Estrunge. in which he had several benefices; and at length

In a seeing age, the very knowledye of former was a secular ecclesiastic. He became secretary times passes but for ignorance in a better dress. to the duchess of Orleans, member of the Aca

South. demy of Inscriptions, and historiographer of The Greek orator was very famous for this. Addison. Malta. He died at Paris in 1735. His prin

The pictures of our great grandmothers in queen ripal works are, 1. The History of the Revo- Elizabeth's time are cloathed down to the very 'ution of Sweden. 2. The Revolutions of Por- wrists, and up to their very chin. Id. Guardiun. tugal. 3. The Revolutions of the Romans. 4. VESʻICATE, v. c. Lat. vesica. To blister. The History of Malta. These works are tran I saw the cuticular resicated, and shiving with a slated into most of the languages of Europe. burning heat.

Wiseman. VERTUE (George), a celebrated engraver, I applied some vinegar prepared with litharge, deborn in London, in 1684. His engravings are fending the vesication with pledgets. Id. Surgery. mostly portraits. He wrote a History of Painters, VESICATORIUM, a blister, an application which was published by Horace Walpole, in 3 of an acrid nature made to any part of the body, vols. 4to. He died in 1757.

in order to draw a flux of humors to that part, VERTUMNUS, in mythology, a god who pre- and thus elevate the scarf-skin into a blister. sided over gardens and orchards, honored among VES'ICLE, n. s. Lat. vesicula. A small cuthe Etruscans, from whom the worship of this ticle filled or intated. deity was transmitied to the Romans. Ovid has

Nor is the humour contained in smaller veins, but described the various forms assumed by this is a vesicle, or little bladder. deity, in order to obtain the love of Pomona.

Bronne's Vulgar Errouts. VER'VAIN, n. s. ) Fr. verveine ; Lat. ver The lungs are made up of such air pipes and resiVER'VINE. S vena. A plant.

cles, interwoven with blood vessels, to purify, ferShe night-shade strows to work him ill,

ment, or supply the sanguineous mass with nitioTherewith the verrain, and her dill,

aerial particles.

Ray. l'hat hindreth witches of their will. Drayton.

A muscle is a bundle of vesicular threads, or of Some scattering pot-herbs here and there he found, solid filaments, involved in one common membrane. Which, cultivated with his daily care,

Cheyne. And bruised with vervain, were his frugal fare. VESPA, the wasp, a genus of insects belong

Dryden. ing to the order of hymenoptera. The mouth VERVAIN, in botany. See VERBENA. consists of two jaws without any proboscis : the

VERULÆ, a town of Italy, possessed by the superior wings are plaited; the eyes are lunar; Hernici.

and there is a sharp sting in the tail. There are VERUMONTANUM, in anatomy, a small 159 species: three of which are natives of Brieminence near the passages where the semen is tain, viz. discharged into the urethra.

1. V. coarctata, the small wasp, has black anVERUS (Lucius Elius Aurelius Cejonius), tennæ, yellowish at the base; the head is black emperor of Rome, the son of Ælius by Domitia with a yellow spot between the antennæ, and anLucilla, was adopted by Marcus Aurelius as his other at the base of the upper lip. colleague; and was sent into Syria, out of which ment of the abdomen is bordered with yellow, he drove the Parthians, for which he had a tri- It is about half an inch long.

Each seg.

2. V. crabo, the hornet, has tawny antennæ ; are not indispensably necessary to it for finding the segments of the abdomen are black on the its way; 2d, That the organ of hearing appears anterior part, and yellow on the posterior, with to supply that of sight in the discovery of botwo black spots on each. Its length is an inch; dies, and to furnish these animals with different it builds in hollow trees. Its cakes or combs sensations to direct their flight and enable them are composed of a substance like coarse paper, to avoid those objects that may present themor rusty parchment. It is very voracious, de- selves. vouring other insects, and even bees.

2. V. noctulis, have the nose slightly bilo3. V. vulgaris, the common wasp. The male bated ; ears small and rounded ; on the chin a has seven yellow segments on the abdomen, with minute verruca ; hair reddish ash color: length a black triangle on each :—The head is yellow, of the rump two inches eight-tenths; tail one and the antennæ long. The upper lip of the inch seven-tenths; extent of wings thirteen female is yellow, the antennæ short; there are inches; inhabits Great Britain and France; fies six segments of the abdomen with two lateral high. A gentleman informed Mr. Pennant that black spots on each. M. Reaumur and Dr. he saw taken, under the eaves of Queen's ColDerham agree in distinguishing three sorts; viz. lege, Cambridge, in one night, 185 of these anithe queens or females, the males, and the com- mals; the second night sixty-three; the third mon laboring wasps, called mules, or neuters, night two; and that each that was measured had which, according to Reaumur, are neither males fifteen inches extent of wings. nor females, and consequently barren. The

3. V. spectrum, or spectre, with a long nose; queens, of which there is a great number, are large teeth; long, broad, and upright ears: at much longer in the body, and larger than any the end of the nose a long conic erect memother wasp: they have a large heavy belly, cor- brane, bending at the end, and flexible; hair on responding in size to the prodigious quantity of the body cinereous, and pretty long : wings full eggs with which they are charged. The males of ramified fibres; the membrane extends from are less than the queens, but longer and larger hind leg to hind leg; no tail; but from the rump than the common wasps, which are the smallest extend three tendons, terminating at the edge of of the species : they have no stings, with which the membrane. They inhabit South America; both the queens and common wasps are fur- live in the palm trees; grow very fat; called nished. There are in one nest 200 or 300 males, vampyre, by M. de Buffon, who supposes it to and as many females: but their number de- be the species that suck human blood. pends on the size of the nest. See ENTOMOLOGY. 4. V. vampyrus, the vampire, or Ternate bat,

VESPASIAN, the tenth emperor of Rome; 'with large canine teeth; four cutting teeth above, remarkable for his clemency and other virtues. the same below; sharp black nose; large naked See Rome.

ears; the tongue is pointed, terminated by sharp VESPASIAN (Titus). See Rome, and Titus. aculeated papillæ ; talons very crooked, strong,

VESPER, n. s. Lat. vesper. The evening and compressed sidewise; no tail; the memstar ; the evening; an evening prayer.

brane divided behind quite to the rump; head These signs are black Vesper's pageants. of a dark ferruginous color; on the neck, shoul

Shakspeare. der, and under side, of a much lighter and VESPERTILIO, the bat, a genus of quadru- brighter red; on the back the hair shorter, dusky, peds, belonging to the order of primates. All and smooth; the membranes of the wings dusky. the teeth are erect, pointed, near each other; They vary in color; some being entirely of a and the first four are equal. The fore feet have reddish brown, others dusky. These monsters the toes connected by a membrane expanded inhabit Guinea, Madagascar, and all the islands into a kind of wings by which the creature is thence to the remotest in the Indian Ocean. enabled to fly. There are twenty-eight species, They fly in flocks, and perfectly obscure the air of which four are natives of Britain. The most with their numbers. They live on fruits ;

and remarkable are, 1. V. murinus, common bat, are so fond of the juice of the palm tree that has a tail: the lips and nose are simple; and they will intoxicate themselves with it till they the ears are smaller than the head. It inhabits drop. Many are of an enormous size : BeckEurope, and is found in Britain. This animal man measured one whose extent from tip to tip flies only during the night, living chiefly on of the wings was five feet four inches; and moths : when it lights on the ground, it is un- Dampier another, which extended farther than able to rise again till it has crawled to some he could reach with outstretched arms. Their beight: it remains torpid during winter, revives bodies are from the size of a pullet to that of a in the beginning of the spring, and comes abroad dove: their cry is dreadful, their smell rank, in the dusk of the evening. This species is two their bite, resistance, and fierceness great, when inches and a half long, when full grown, and taken. The ancients had some knowledge of about nine inches extent; the fur is of a these animals. Herodotus mentions certain mouse color, tinged with reddish; it generally winged wild beasts like bats, that molested the skims near the ground, with an uneven jerking Arabs who collected the cassia, to such a degree flight; and often, seeking for goats and other that they were obliged to cover their faces, all aquatic insects, flies close by the surface of but their eyes, with skins. It is very probable, water. They breed in summer, and are preyed as Buffon remarks, it was from such relations on by owls. Bats are very voracious. They that poets formed their fictions of harpies. Linhave been subjected to some cruel experiments, næus gives this species the title of vampyre; by the abbe Spallanzani and M. de Jurine; from conjecturing it to be the kind which draws blood which it appears, 1st, That the eyes of the bat from people in their sleep, which however BufVOL. XXII.

2 B

Ital. vc

fon denies; ascribing that faculty only to the Had I been vested with the monarch's power, spectrum.

Thou must have sigbed, unlucky youth ! 'in vain.

Prior. VES'SEL, n. 8. & v. a. Fr. vasselle ; cello ; Lat. vas. Any thing containing liquids : Without whose vesting beauty all were wrapt

Light! Nature's resplendent robe ; hence a thing water-tight, as a ship or boat; any in gloom.

Thomson. thing containing; any capacity: to vessel is to put into a vessel.

VESTA, in pagan worship, the same with For Banquo's issue have I filled my mind;

Cybele. See CYBELE, and Ops. Also the godPut rancours in the vessel of my peace,

dess of Fire, the daughter of Saturn and Cybele,

and the sister of Ceres. She was so much in Only for them.

Shakspeare. Maebeth. The sons and nephews of Noah, who peopled the love with chastity, that on Jupiter's ascending isles, had vessels to transport themselves.

the throne, and offering to grant whatever she

Raleigh's Essays. asked, she only desired the preservation of her Take earth, and vessel it; and in that set the seed. virginity, which she obtained. Vesta was not


represented in her temple by any image. The Phænicians first invented open vessels, and the VES'TAL, n. s. & adj. Lat. vestalis. A Egyptians ships with decks.


virgin consecrated to Vesta; a pure virgin : perThe vessel is represented as stranded. The figure taining to or denoting a virgin. before it seems to lift it off the shallows.

Women are not
Addison on Medals.
If the rigid doctrines be found apt to cool all The ne'er touched vestal.

In their best fortunes strong; but want will perjure

Shakspeare. those men's love of God, who have not the confidence to believe themselves of the number of the few And none but fools do wear it.

Her vestal livery is but sick and green,

Id, chosen vessels, and to beget security and presumption in others who have conquered those difficulties. The world forgetting, by the world forgot.

How happy is the blameless vestal's lot !

I have my fill

The Vestals, among the ancient Romans, Of knowledge, what this vessel can contain. Milton.

were priestesses of the goddess Vesta, and had If you have two vessels to fill, and you emply one

the perpetual fire committed to their charge; to fill the other, there still remains one vessel empty. they were at first only four in number, bat af

Burnet. terwards increased to six ; and it does not apFrom storms of rage, and dangerous rocks of pear that their number ever exceeded six; among pride,

whom was one superior to the rest, and called Let thy strong hand this little vessel guide ;

vestalis maxima. The vestals were chosen It was thy hand that made it: through the tide from six to ten years of age, and obliged to Impetuous of this life let thy command

strict continency for thirty years ; the first ten of Direct my course and bring me safe to land. Prior.

which were employed in learning the ceremonies Another cause of a wasting ulcer in the lungs is of religion, the next ten in the performance of the disruption of a vessel, whence the blood issues them, and the ten last in teaching them to the into the cavities and interstices of the lungs, and thence is expectorated by a cough. Blackmore.

younger vestals. The habit of the vestals conOf these elements are constituted the smallest sisted of a head dress, called infula, which sat fibres; of those fibres the vessels ; of those vessels the close to the head, and whence hung certain laces organs of the body. Arbuthnot on Aliments. called virtæ; a kind of surplice made of white Now secure the painted vessel glides ;

linen, and over it a purple mantle with a long The sun-beams trembling on the floating tides. train to it.


VESTALIA, in Roman antiquity, a festival Vessel is a general name given to the dif- celebrated in honor of the goddess Vesta, on the ferent sorts of ships which are navigated on the fifth of the ides of June ; i. e. on the ninth of ocean, or in canals and rivers. It is, however, the month.

VESTIGE, n. s. more particularly applied to those of the smaller

Lat. vestigium. Footstep ; kind, furnished with one or two masts. See mark left behind in passing. SHIP.

The truth passes so slightly through men's imagiVEST, n. s. & v. a. Lat. vestis. An outer nations, that they must use great subtilty to track its cestiges.

Harody. garment: to dress ; deck; invest; place in pos

VESTMENT, n. s. Lat. vestimentum. Garsession. The militia their commissioners positively re

ment; part of dress.

Were it not better that the love which men bear quired to be entirely vested in the parliament.

unto God should make the least things, that are em

Clarendon. Over his lucid arms

ployed in his service, amiable, tban that their overA military vest of purple flowed.

scrupulous dislike of so mean a thing as a vestment Milton's Paradise Lost. should from the very service of God withdraw their

Hooker. Just Simeon and prophetic Anna spoke,

hearts and affections ? Before the altar and the vested priest.


The sculptors could not give vestments suitable to The verdant fields with those of heaven may vie,

the quality of the persons represented. Dryden. With either vested, and a purple sky. Dryden.

Heaven then would seem thy image and reflect To settle men's consciences, it is necessary that Those sable vestments and that bright aspect.

Waller. they know the person who by right is vested with


VES TRY, n. s. power over them.

Fr, vestiaire ; Lat. vestiEmpire and dominion were vested in him, for the arium. A room appendant to the church, in good and behoof of others.

Id. which sacerdotal garments and consecrated things When the queen in royal habit's drest,

are repoited : parochial assembly commonly conOld mystick emblems grace the imperial vest. Smith. vened in the vestry. See next page.

They create new senators, vestry elders, without Select vestries.-In large and populous paany commandment of the word.


rishes, especially in and about the metropolis, a The common-council are chosen every year, so custom has obtained of yearly choosing a select many for every parish, by the vestry and common number of the chief and most respectable paconvention of the people of that parish. Clarendon.

rishioners to represent and manage the concerns Bold Amycus from the robbed vestry brings of the parish for that year; and this has been The chalices of heaven, and holy things

held to be a good and reasonable custom. It Of precious weight.

Dryden. Go with me where paltry constables will not sum- able custom to choose a certain number of pa

seems also to have been held a good and reasonmon us to vestries.

Blount to Pope.

rishioners as a select vestry; and that as often as Vestry is also a meeting consisting of the any of the members die, the rest shall choose one minister, church-wardens, and chief men of most other fit and able parishioner of the same parish parishes, who make a parish vestry. By custom to fill up the vacancy of him so deceased; There are select vestries, being a certain number but this can only be supported upon the basis of persons chosen to have the government of the of prescription, and constant immemorial usage. parish, make rates, and take the accounts of The custom, however, differing in different church-wardens, &c.

parishes as to the election, government, and proBy stat. 58 Geo. III. c. 69 (amended by stat. ceedings of select vestries, it is enacted by the 59 Geo. III. c. 85) for the regulation of parish stat. 10 Ann. c. 11, sec. 20, for building fifty vestries, it is enacted that three days' notice shall new churches in or near London and Westminbe given of the holding of all vestries by publi- ster, that the commissioners shall appoint a concation in the church on a Sunday, and affixing a

venient number of sufficient inhabitants to be notice on the church door. That if the rector, vestrymen ; and from time to time, upon the vicar, or perpetual curate, is not present at the death, removal, or other voidance of any such vestry, a chairman shall be elected by the persons vestryman, the rest, or majority of them, may present; that, in cases of equality of votes, the choose another. In several local and personal chairman shall have the casting vote, in addition acts, the legislature has described the persons of to bis vote as a vestryman ; that votes shall be whom a select vestry shall respectively consist. proportioned to the amount of the poors' rate

VESTURE, n. 8. Old Ir. vesture; Ital. upon the parties voting, not exceeding six votes ;

vestura. Garment; robe; dress. the parties not having neglected or refused to What, weep you when you but behold pay the rates when called on. That the minutes Our Cæsar's vesture wounded ? Shakspeare. of the proceedings shall be entered in the parish- Her envious vesture greedy sight repelling, Fairfax.

Her breasts half hid, and half were laid to show ; books, and signed by the chairman, and such

Rocks, precipices, and gulfs, apparalled with a restrymen as choose so to do; and that such vesture of plants.

Bentley. books shall be carefully kept, &c. Provision is Here ruddy brass, and gold refulgent blazed ; made for vestries regulated by special acts, &c. There polished chests embroidered vestures graced. By the act 59 Geo. III. persons rated to the

Pope. poor, though not inhabitanis, and the clerks, &c. VESUVIAN, in mineralogy, white garnet of of corporations, are allowed to attend and vote. Vesuvius. See MINERALOGY.

A vestry was called to consider about building VESUVIUS, a volcanic mountain in the a work-house, where it was agreed to, and to south of Italy, about eight miles S. S. E. of Naborrow money for that purpose : and that who ples, celebrated for its eruptions. It rises in a ever should be bound for it, should be indemni- gentle swell from the bay of Naples, to an elefied by the parish. This order was confirmed by vation of nearly 3700 feet. The view from the another, and both signed by the vicar and several summit is very beautiful, including Naples, with of the inhabitants. £300, being the sum agreed its bay, its islands, and its promontories, as well upon, was borrowed of A., to whom B. gave as the delightful scenery of the Campagna Febond for it. An order of vestry was made for lice. To the west the prospect loses itself in raising the money; but, upon appeal at the the immensity of the sea; to the east it extends quarter-sessions by some new parishioners, was far into the interior, and is only bounded by the quashed. B. was sued on the bond, and paid Appennines. The summit of the mountain is the money, and then brought a bill for relief. in the form of a cone, and consists of masses of And the master of the rolls decreed him his prin- burned earth, ashes, and sand, thrown out in the cipal, interest, and costs at law, and in chancery; course of ages by the volcano. It is steep and and that the defendants the vicar, churchwardens, difficult of ascent from the looseness of the maand overseers of the poor, call a vestry to make terials. The crater is extensive, nearly a mile a rate for payment; and, if the inhabitants re- and a half in circumference, but has not above fuse payment, the plaintiff to be at liberty to ap- 350 feet of depth or descent from the ridge. Its ply to the court: And said that he did not see sides or interior surface has been progressively why the court might not as well compel those formed of ashes and cinders, intermixed with who are not parties, to pay the rate, as order te some rocks and dried lava. The lower part of nants, though not parties to pay the rates; and, the crater is a level spot, of nearly three-quarters because the defendants had put in a fair answer, of a mile in circumference, composed of a sort their costs were decreed to be raised by the same of crust of brown burned earth, and containing rate; but said, that if those who had appealed several orifices like funnels, not large, but emittto the quarter-sessions had been before the court, ing a thin vapor. they should have paid all the costs.--2 P. Wms. The first of these ons recorded in history 332. See 21 Vin. Abr. p. 448.

took place in the year 79: at which time the two

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