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cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were entirely vitrified matter, like spun glass, were mixed and buried under the stones and ashes thrown out. fell with these ashes ; several birds in cages Incredible mischief was also done to the neigh- were suffocated, and the leaves of the trees in the bouring country, and numbers of people lost neighbourhood of Somma were covered with their lives, among whom was Pliny the elder. white and very corrosive salt. About twelve at It is the opinion of the best judges, however, night on the 7th, the fermentation of the mountain that this eruption was by no means the first that seemed greatly to increase. Our author was had ever happened. The very streets of those watching the motions of the volcano from the cities which were at that time overwhelmed are mole at Naples, which has a full view of it. Seunquestionably paved with lava. Since that veral glorious picturesque effects had been obtime thirty different eruptions have been recorded, served from the reflection of the deep red fire some of which have been extremely violent. In within the crater of Vesuvius, and which mounted 1538 a mountain, three miles in circumference high amongst those huge clouds on the top of it: and a quarter of a mile in perpendicular height, when a summer storm, called in that country a was thrown up in the course of one night. In tropea, came on suddenly, and blended its heavy 1766 Sir William Hamilton began to observe watery clouds with the sulphureous and mineral the phenomena of this mountain, and since that ones, which were already like so many other time the public has been favored with more ex- mountains piled up on the top of the volcano. act and authentic accounts of the various changes At this moment a fountain of fire was shot up to which have taken place in Vesuvius than what an incredible height, casting so bright a light were to be had before. The first great eruption that the smallest objects were clearly distinguishtaken notice of by this gentleman was that of able at any place within six miles or more of 1767, which, though very violent, was mild in Vesuvius. The black stormy clouds, passing comparison with that of 1538. From 1767 Ve- swiftly over, and at times covering the whole or suvius never ceased for ten years to send forth a part of the bright column of fire, at other times smoke, nor were there many months in which it clearing away and giving a full view of it, with did not throw out stones, scoriæ, and cinders; the various tints produced by its reverberated which, increasing to a certain degree, were usu- light on the white clouds above, in contrast with ally followed by lava; so that from the year the pale Aashes of forked lightning that attended 1767 to 1779 there were nine eruptions, some the tropea, forming such a scene as no power of of them very considerable. In the month of art can express. One of the king's game keepers, August that year, however, an eruption took who was out in the fields near Ottaiano while place, which, for its extraordinary and terrible this storm was at its height, was surprised to find appearance, may be reckoned among the most the drops of rain scald his face and hands : a remarkable of any recorded concerning this or phenomenon probably occasioned by the clouds any other volcano. During the whole of July having acquired a great degree of heat in passing the mountain continued in a state of fermenta- through the above-mentioned column of fire. tion. Subterraneous explosions and rumbling On the 8th the mountain was quiet till towards noises were heard ; quantities of smoke were six P. M., when a great smoke began to gather thrown up with great violence, sometimes with over its crater; and about an hour after a rumb. red-hot stones, scoriæ, and ashes; and towards ling subterraneous noise was heard in the the end of the month these symptoms increased neighbourhood of the volcano; the usual throws to such a degree as to exbibit, in the night, the of red-hot stones and scoriæ began and increased most beautiful fire-works. On Thursday 5th every instant. The crater, viewed through a August the volcano appeared most violently agi- telescope, seemed much enlarged by the violence tated ; a white and sulphureous smoke issued of last night's explosions, and the little mountain continually and impetuously from its crater, one on the top was entirely gone. About nine a puff seeming to impel another; so that a mass most violent report was heard at Portici and of them was soon accumulated, to appearance, its neighbourhood, which shook the houses to four times the height and size of the volcano it- such a degree as made the inhabitants run out self. These clouds of smoke were exceedingly into the streets. Many windows were broken, white, resembling an immense accumulation of and walls cracked by the concussion of the air on bales of the whitest cotton. In the midst of this this occasion, though the noise was but faintly very white smoke, vast quantities of stones, scoriæ, heard at Naples. In an instant a fountain of liand ashes were thrown up to the height of 2000 quid transparent fire began to rise, and, gradually feet; and a quantity of liquid lava, seemingly increasing, arrived at last at the amazing height very heavy, was lifted up just high enough to of 10,000 feet and upwards. Puffs of smoke, as clear the rim of the crater, and take its way down black as can possibly be imagined, succeeded one the sides of the mountain. This lava, having another hastily, and accompanied the red-hot, run violently for some hours, suddenly ceased, transparent, and liquid lava, interrupting its just before it had reached the cultivated parts of splendid brightness, here and there, by patches of the mountain, nearly four miles from the spot the darkest hue. Within these puffs of smoke, whence it issued. The heat all this day was in- at the very moment of emission, a bright but tolerable at the towns of Somma and Ottaiano; pale electrical fire vas observed playing briskly and was sensibly felt at Palma and Lauri, which about in zig-zag lines. The wind was southare much farther off. Reddish ashes fell so west, and, though gentle, was sufficient to carry thick on the two former that the air was dark- these puffs of smoke out of the column of fire : ened so that objects could not be distinguished and a collection of them by degrees formed a at the distance of ten feet. Long filaments of a black and extensive curtain behind it; in other
parts of the sky it was perfectly clear, and the streets still weighed upwards of sixty pounds. stars bright. The fiery fountain, of such im. When these large vitrified masses either struck mense magnitude, on the dark ground just men- against one another in the air, or fell on the tioned, made the finest contrast imaginable ; ground, they broke in many pieces, and covered and the blaze of it reflected from the surface of large space of ground with vivid sparks of fire, the sea, which was at that time perfectly smooth, which communicated their heat to every thing added greatly to this sublime view. The Java, that was combustible. These masses were mixed with stones and scoriæ, having risen to formed of the liquid lava; the exterior parts of the amazing height already mentioned, was partly which were become black and porous by cooling directed by the wind towards Ottaiano, and in their fall through such a vast space'; whilst partly falling, still red-hot and liquid, upon the the interior parts, less exposed, retained an extop of Vesuvius, covered its whole cone, part of treme heat, and were perfectly red. In an instant that of the summit of Somma, and the valley be- the town and country about it were on fire in many tween them. The falling matter, being nearly parts; for there were several straw huts in the as infamed and vivid as that which was conti- vineyards which had been erected for the watchnually issuing fresh from the crater, formed with men of the grapes, all of which were burnt. A it one complete hody of fire, which could not be great magazine of wood in the heart of the town less than two miles aud a half in breadth, and of was all in a blaze; and had there been much wind the extraordinary height above-mentioned, cast a the flames must have spread universally, and all heat to the distance of at least six miles round. the inhabitants would have been burnt in their The brushwood on the mountain of Somma was houses; for it was inpossible for them to stir out. soon in a blaze, and the flame of it being of a Some, who attempted it with pillows, tables, different color from the deep red of the matter chairs, the tops of wine casks, &c., on their heads, thrown out by the volcano, and from the silvery were either knocked down or soon driven back blue of the electrical fire, still added to the con to their close quarters under arches and in the trast of this most extraordinary scene. The cellars of their houses. Many were wounded, black cloud, increasing greatly, once bent to- but only two persons died of their wounds. To wards Naples, and threatened the city with add to the horror of the scene, incessant volcanic speedy destruction; for it was charged with lightning was whisking about the black cloud electrical fire, which kept constantly darting that surrounded them, and the sulphureous smell about in bright zig-zag lines. This fire, how- and heat would scarcely allow them to draw their ever, rarely quitted the cloud, but usually re breath. In this dreadful situation they remained turned to the great column of fire whence it pro- about twenty-five minutes, when the volcanic ceeded; though once or twice it was seen to fall storin ceased all at once, and Vesuvius remained on the top of Somma, and set fire to some dry sullen and silent. Some time after the eruption grass and bushes. Fortunately the wind carried had ceased the air continued greatly impregnated back the cloud just as it reached the city, and with electrical matter. The duke of Cottosiano hard begun to occasion great alarm. The co- told our author that having, about half an hour lumn of fire, however, still continued, and dif- after the great eruption bad ceased, held a Leyfused such a strong light, that the most minute den bottle, armed with a pointed wire, out at his objects could be discerned at the distance of ten window at Naples, it soon became considerably miles or more from the mountain. Mr. Morris charged. But, whilst the eruption was in force, informed our author that at Sorrento, which is its appearance was too alarming to allow one to twelve miles distant from Vesuvius, he read the think of such experiments. He was informed title page of a book by that volcanic light. All also by the prince of Monte Mileto that his son, this time the miserable inhabitants of Ottaiano the duke of Populi, who was at Monte Mileto were involved in the utmost distress and danger the 8th of August, had been alarmed by the by the showers of stones which fell upon them, shower of cinders that fell there; some of which and which, had the eruption continued for a he had sent to Naples weighing two ounces ; and longer time, would most certainly have reduced that stones of an ounce weight bad fallen upon their town to the same situation with Herculane an estate of his ten miles farther off. Monte um and Pompeii. The mountain of Somma, at Mileto is about thirty miles from the volcano. the foot of which the town of Ottaiano is situated, The abbé Cagliani also related that his sister, a hides Vesuvius from the view of its inhabitants; nun in the convent of Manfredonia, had written so that, till the eruption became considerable, it to enquire after him, imagining that Naples must was not visible to them. On Sunday night, have been destroyed, when they, at so great a when the noise increased and the fire began to distance, had been alarmed by a shower of ashes appear above the mountain of Somma, many of which fell on the city at 11 P. M. so much as to the inhabitants flew to the churches, and others open all the churches and go to prayers. As the were preparing to quit the town, when a sudden great eruption happened at pine, ihese ashes must and violent report was heard ; soon after which have travelled 100 miles in two hours. Nothing they found themselves involved in a thick cloud could be more dismal than the appearance of of smoke and ashes; a horrid clashing noise was Ottaiano after this eruption. The houses were heard in the air, and presently fell a vast shower unroofed, half buried under the black scoriæ and of stones and large pieces of scoriæ, some of ashes; all the windows towards the mountain which were of the diameter of seven or eight were broken, and some of the houses themselves feet, which must have weighed more than 100lbs. burnt; the streets choked up with ashes in some before they were broken, as some of the frag- narrow places not less than four feet thick; and ents which Sir Willian Hamilton found in the a few of the inhabitants who had just returned
were employed in clearing them away, and of this volcano that many of its eruptions pass piling thein up in hillocks, to get at their ruined unnoticed by at least two-thirds of them. Ai the houses. The palace of the prince of Ottaiano is same time we know from undoubted evidence situated on an eminence above the town, and and enquiry on the spot, that, during a violent nearer the mountain. The steps leading up to it eruption which seems to threaten danger to the were deeply covered with volcanic matter; the city, the Neapolitans carry their clamors and their roof was totally destroyed, and the windows superstition to almost an incredible height; going broken; but the house itself, being strongly built, in troops to their churches, and particularly adhad not suffered much. An incredible number dressing themselves to their tutelar saint, Januof fragments of lava were thrown out during the arius. It is very probable, however, that the eruption, some of which were of immense mag moment the danger is over they forget it. It is nitude. The largest measured by Sir William remarkable to observe with what readiness and Hamilton was 108 feet in circumference, and sang froid they inhabit the towns and villas on seventeen in height. This was thrown at least a the brow of the mountain, and how quickly they quarter of a mile clear of the mouth of the vol return to spots which have suffered the most
Another, sixty-six feet in circumference, severely. Torre del Greco exhibited in 1802 the and nineteen in height, being nearly of a sphe- appearance of a ruined town; but the inhabitrical figure, was thrown out at the same time, and ants were living in it in perfect security; a lay near the former. This last had the marks of church had been completely overwhelmed, i.e. being rounded, nay almost polished, by continual covered with lava, leaving about the height of rolling in torrents or on the sea shore. Our author two moderate stories of the steeple visible. To conjectures that it might be a spherical volcanic this they were at that time adding a new church, salt, such as that of forty-five feet in circum- which was nearly completed. We were assured ference mentioned by M. de St. Fond in his upon the spot that, in the eruption 1794, the lava Treatise of Extinguished Volcanoes. A third of flowed down slowly like a river into the sea; sixteen feet in height, and ninety-two in circum- that when it was opposed by' walls or houses it ference, was thrown much farther, and lay in the accumulated and covered them, unless it found valley between Vesuvius and the Hermitage. It an easy vent elsewhere. It was added, and we appeared also, from the large fragments that firmly believe it, that the accumulated mass of surrounded this mass, that it had been much liquid rock continued hot for a full twelvemonth. larger while in the air. Vesuvius continued to The inhabitants are not much alarmed by a emit smoke for a considerable time after this great stream of lava, which moves slowly, from which eruption, so that our author was apprehensive they can always remove themselves, and carry that another would soon ensue; but from that off their moveable property; the great danger time nothing comparable to the above has taken consists in the clouds of burning ashes, which place. From the time of this great eruption to fly to a great distance, and the fall of which can 1786 our author kept an exact diary of the ope- neither be anticipated nor avoided. In 1794 we rations of Vesuvius, with drawings, showing, by were told that one night an immense mass of the quantity of smoke, the degree of fermentation matter issued with prodigious force from the within the volcano. The operations of the sub- crater, and rose to a great perpendicular height; terraneous fire, however, appear to be very ca it for the most part fell down into the crater pricious and uncertain. One day there will be again, leaving a considerable hollow, which in the appearance of a violent fermentation, and 1802 was already covered with a slight vegetable the next every thing will be calmed ; but, when- mould. ever there has been a considerable ejection of The Italian geologist Breislak has given an inscoriæ and cinders, it has been a constant obser- teresting description of the eruption of 1794; vation that the lava soon made its appearance, the most important particulars of which we shall either by boiling over the crater or forcing its select. way through the crevices in the conical part of The present cone of Vesuvius, he says, is trunthe mountain. In the year 1794 there was a very cated, so as to form an inclined plane, sloping from tremendous eruption, and the mischief done was the north-east to the south-west. The circumfervery considerable; the lava covered and totally ence of the summit, which forms the brim of the destroyed 5000 acres of rich vineyards and cul- cauldron, is about 3000 feet; and at the bottom tivated land, and drove the inhabitants of Torre is distinguished an oblong plain, the greatest didel Greco from the town, a great part of the ameter of which is from east to west. Having houses being either burned or so injured as to since ascended several times to the top of the be uninhabitable. The damage done in the vine- cone, I perceived that its depth had gradually yards by the ashes was also immense. The diminished, and that the bottom of the crater writer of this was on the top of Vesuvius in the became higher daily, owing to the different matter month of May 1802 ; the mountain was perfectly which falls down, especially from the almost quiet, with smoke issuing from a few crevices perpendicular sides on the east and north. One like the smoke of a small fire. The effects of the can at this time easily scan the extent and depth eruption in 1794 were very visible, especially in of its mouth, but occasionally it is much encumTorre del Greco. A very violent eruption has bered, and sometimes totally clogged. In 1755 been mentioned in the papers about two years the bottom of the funnel rose so considerably, ago, but we have no authentic description either that it presented a vast plain only twenty-three of its nature or of its effects. Sir William Hamil- feet beneath the brim, and in the midst of this ton observes that the inhabitants of Naples in plain was another cone from eighty to ninety feet general pay so little attention to the operations high, with a small crater, from which the erup
tions proceeded. Braccini has left us a curious La Barra and St. Jorio, discharged itself into description of the state of Vesuvius, after a long this valley, which it filled to a certain height, and period of rest, and before the grand eruption of afterwards flowed further, spreading itself to the 1631. The whole of it, or at least the greater plain. As it is already covered by the crumpart of it, had become accessible. Having him- blings from the flank, in order to examine it, the self descended into the crater, he says, he found enquirer must repair to the plain of St. Jorio, in it covered with plants and trees, and that a road the neighbourhood of the chapel of St. Vito. Its down it was practicable for the space of a mile; grain is crystallised but fine, and oftentimes so at this depth a very deep cavern was seen, which close as to be nearly equal to petro-silex, or hornhaving passed, the way was again open for two stone. It contains many small crystals of pymiles by a very steep but at the same time very roxene and fragments of leucite, which is rarely safe road, owing to the trees growing near to each found in its perfect form of crystallisation. The other. At length a large plain presented itself, lava of La Scala passes beneath the garden of surrounded by a number of grottoes and caverns, La Favorita. It is of the color of ashes, whitish, which might be entered, but which the party were and of a crystallised grain. It contains many deterred from on account of their darkness. crystals of pyroxene, few of leucite, and small This plain, which was not accessible otherwise pieces of felspar, in groups in its cavities. This than by a very rapid slope, nearly three miles in lava, where it is hewn on the sea-shore near La length, must assuredly have been much beneath Cavalleria, is worthy of attention. Under a the level of the sea. When the volcano is at uniform bed, from fifteen to twenty feet in thickrest, vapors are seen to arise from the cauldron's Dess, the lava is found divided into strata of from brim, or from the interior of its sides, which are three to four feet: these divisions are formed by very perceptible. When the mouth of Vesuvius parallel and horizontal lines ; and, where these is observed from any distance, and during the are dug down to, the lava is found to have sepaprevalence of moisture in the atmosphere, a mass rated itself spontaneously into beds. Below of vapor seems to rise from it which mingles them are large prisms, commonly hexagonal, with the clouds.
which are disjoined with great ease : in some The western portion of Somma must be con- places these prisms, instead of the lower, are sidered as connected with the cone of Vesuvius found in the upper part of the current. The by a hill of smaller eminence, denominated same tendency to a basaltic conformation, which Monte Cantaroni, on which is the hermitage del is noticed in the lava of La Scala, is observed Salvatore. This hill is intersected by three valleys, again in the neighbouring current of Calastro. that deserve to be examined with attention, on ac- This, after passing through a defile below Vallecount of the quantity of primitive substances which longa, spreads to a broad front on reaching the the volcano has thrown thither during old erup sea. What most deserves observation in the lava tions. The northern valley is that termed La Fossa here are the small crystallisations it presents, di Pharaone, near the plain, and Vallone della Ve- which seem to be the olivine of Werner. It is trana, in its more elevated part, where the cur moreover of a deeper color than the lava of rent of lava flowed in 1785. This vale, hollowed Scala, more porous, and like that, contains many by rains, is the only interval between mount crystals of augite and fragments of felspar. Somma and mount Cantaroni. South of this Next to this lava is found that of the eruption vale are two others, nearly parallel, the first called of 1794. Of the different eruptions of Vesuvius, Rio Cupo, the second Fossa Grande, which, this is the most recent, and was one of the most taking a direction from east to west, emerge in considerable. the plain of St. Jorio. Its northern side, nearly Vesuvius had continued tranquil for a long perpendicular, rises to a considerable height time. On the 12th of June, 1794, towards above the valley, and being composed only of eleven in the evening, a very violent shock of an cemented fragments of porous lava, called ca- earthquake was felt, which induced many of the pillo, of masses of spongy lava, and other sub- inhabitants of Naples to leave their houses for stances of an adhesive quality, is subject fre- the night. The tranquillity of the mountain did quently to crumble and fall in large quantities. not, however, appear disturbed, either on the Along the whole extent of the southern side, at 13th, 14th, or 15th, nor did it exhibit any sympits upper part, is seen an ancient current of lava, tom of an approaching eruption; but towards which at first sight appears to be several strata of nine in the evening of the last day many symplava imposed one on the other, but which a little toms were manifested. The houses about the attention shows is but one current, in which mountain experienced violent shocks, which horizontal chasms have been occasioned by re- gradually increased in force: a very powerful frigeration, and into which the wind has since one was felt at ten o'clock in Naples and its enintroduced a slight quantity of vegetable earth. virons. At this instant, on the western base of This lava is hard and compact; it contains but the cone, at the spot called La Pedamentina, and few fragments of augite or pyroxene, and seems from the midst of ancient torrents, a new mouth to be an assemblage of leucites, the superficial disgorged a stream of lava. This opening was crystalline lustre of which having been impaired, 2375 feet in length, and 237 in breadth. Scarcely by decomposition, makes it resemble variolite in had the stream of lava begun to flow, before four its exterior. Many detached masses of this cur conical hills, each having its small crater (the rent have fallen to the bottom of the valley. Each third alone excepted, which had two distinct fall of matter brings down calcareous stones, mouths), arose out of the stream itself. From mica, and mixtures of felspar and vesuvian. The these different mouths stones were darted into lava of 1767, which threatened the villages of the air with great noise, and in a state so highly
ignited that they resembled real flames; the ex 12,961 feet.
Its breadth varied greatly; in plosions indeed were so quickly repeated that some places it scarcely exceeded 322 feet, but in they seemed but one, and formed a continued the plain it spread to 1111; and at a medium, sheet of fire in the air, which received no other without risk of any great error, it may be cominterruption than what was occasioned by the puted to have been 725 feet broad. In thickness inferiority of force of some of the ejections. also it differed according to the depth of the holThey sometimes vomited substances, I may say, lows it filled; in the plain it was constantly from in a fuid state, for they expanded in the air like twenty-four to thirty-two feet thick: and, if its a soft paste, so that one may imagine they were mean thickness be reckoned at the latter number either a part of the running lava, or masses of of feet, it may possibly be nearest the truth. old lava fused and projected. Some of these According to these data, the mass of molten hills were contiguous one to the other; and it matter is 1,869,627 cubic fathoms. During the seems as if the force by which they were pro- eruption the convulsion of the mountain was so duced had met with obstruction to the disgorge- great that even the houses in Naples were shaken ment of the substances at one point, and conse- by it. Still it was not constantly alike. At the bequently effected several issues in the same line. ginning the trembling was continual, and accomThe lava flowed in one body for some time, and panied by a hollow noise, similar to that occasioned at intervals flashes of light arose from the surface by a river falling into a subterranean cavern. of it, produced by jets of hydrogenous gas, The lava, at the time of its being disgorged, which disengaged itself from the lava, precisely from the impetuous and uninterrupted manner in in the same manner as the gases expand from the which it was ejected, by striking against the walls surface of a fluid. Its first direction was towards of the vent occasioned a continual oscillation of Portici and Resina, so that the inhabitants of the mountain. Towards the middle of the night Torre del Greco already bewailed the fate of their this vibratory motion ceased, and was succeeded neighbours, and began their thanksgivings to the by distinct shocks. The fluid mass, diminished Almighty for their escape. Collected together in in quantity, now pressed less violently against the church, they were still singing hymns of joy, the walls of the aperture, and no loager issued and expressing their gratitude, when a voice an in a continual and gushing stream, but only at nounced to them the fatal news of their altered intervals, when the interior fermentation elevated destiny. The stream of lava, on flowing down a the boiling matter above the mouth. About four declivity it met in its way, divided itself into in the morning the shocks began to be less nuthree branches; one bearing towards Sta Maria merous,
and ihe intervals beeween them rende Pugliano, traversed a space of 2063 feet; an dered their force and duration more perceptible. other, directing its course towards Resina, flowed One might compare them to the thunder heard to the distance of 3181 feet; while the remainder in Italy during storms in summer, the loudest of the stream, falling into the valley of Malomo, claps of which are succeeded by rumbling flowed towards La Torre. On reaching the cha- sounds, which gradually die away. pel of Bolzano, it formed a branch towards the While I was making my observations on this south-east, which terminated in the territory of grand eruption at the foot of Vesuvius, its sumAniello Tirone, after having run the length of mit was tranquil, and no phenomena were visible 1490 feet; the residue of the lava pursuing its about its crater. I passed the night at sea, becourse flowed upon Torre, presenting a front tween Calastro and La Torre, to have a nearer from 1200 to 1500 feet in breadth, and filling view of this great operation of nature, and to several deep ravines.
prove the truth of the opinion generally received, On reaching the first houses of the town, the that great eruptions are accompanied hy extraorstream divided according to the different slopes dinary phenomena in the sea. A more grand of the streets, and the degrees of opposition pre- spectacle there could not be. On one of those sented by the buildings. An idea may easily be serene and brilliant nights, known only in the formed of the accidents consequent on such a delightful climate of Naples, a majestic stream flood of fire; accidents which bear relation to the of fire, 11,868 feet in length, and 1483 in breadth, site of the manufactories, the thickness of the was seen at the foot of Vesuvius; its reflected walls, and the manner in which they were as surface formed in the atmosphere a broad and sailed by the lava. Had not the mass of the brilliant aurora borealis, regularly spread and terstream suffered a diminution from the different minated at its upper part by a thick and dark divergencies noticed, not a single house would border of smoke, which, dilating itself in the air, have been left standing in Torre del Greco. covered the disc of the moon, the shining silvery The lava, after a serpentine course through the light of which was enfeebled and obscured. The town, at length reached the sea-shore. The con sea again reflected the illuminated sky, the surtact with the water diminished the speed of its face of it corresponding with this portion of the course: still the current flowed into the sea in a atmosphere appearing as red as fire. At the source body 1127 feet in breadth, and advanced into it of this river of fireinflamed matter was incessantly a, distance of 362 feet. Its entrance into the sea spouted out to a prodigious elevation, which, as was not marked by any singular phenomenon ; it diverged on all sides, resembled an im. it began to issue from the volcano at ten at night, mense fire-work. On the sea-shore, finally, the and reached the sea-shore by four in the morn mournful spectacle of the conflagration of La ing, continuing a very slow progressive move Torre completed the picture. The vast clouds ment into the sea throughout the whole of the of thick black smoke which rose from the town, 16th, and the following night. The main stream, the flames which occasionally crowned the sumfrom the point where it issued from the volcano mits of the houses, the ruins of the buildings, to that at which it stopped in the sea, measured the noise of the falling palaces and houses, the