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rumbling of the volcano,—these were the prin- in this small stream, in which were four mouths cipal incidents of this horrible, yet sublime in the shape of an inverted cone, the base of scene. The ruins of Pompeia, buried beneath which is in the surface of the lava. This stream heaps of drosses and powders, did not certainly terminates in a small and regular hill of a conipresent a spectacle near so striking. To these cal figure, on the summit of which are two objects, so powerfully calculated to fix the senses, mouths in form of inverted cones. The dimenwas added another, which forcibly touched the sions of this second current are nearly half those heart; this was a doleful group of fifteen thou- of the first; consequently the mass of the whole sand persons, bewailing the destruction of their is adequate to 2,804,440 cubic fathoms. city and property, who had had but a moment's The coincidence and perfect resemblance of notice to fee and abandon their homes for ever, these two currents of lava sufficiently prove that and were reduced to become wanderers, and de- they had but one common origin, and but one pendent on the world for refuge.
cauldron in which the matter was fused of which About dawn the summit of Vesuvius ceased to they were composed. How great then must that be visible: it was covered with a thick clond, recipient be in which such an enormous mass frequently furrowed with lightning. This cloud could be contained! And what powerful exgradually spread itself, and in a little time over ertion of strength must have been required to shadowed the gulf, the city of Naples, and its break through the mountain in such opposite divicinage. It was formed of a large quantity of rections ! The lava, agitated by the expansion of that fine sand called ashes, and prevented all elastic fluids, made its first efforts to liberate itself sight of the fire of the volcano. The sun, as it on the eastern flank, and found a passage; but appeared above the horizon, presented a still the resistance it met with from the mountain no more dismal picture. From the abundance of doubt occasioned its reflux or rebound against its ashes in the air, it seemed more pale than during opposite flank. The western current, taking its the strongest eclipse: and a black scarf appeared departure from a more elevated mouth, more to be spread over the whole of the gulf and the quickly terminated its course; but the cauldron country. At the extremity of the horizon, chiefly emptied itself by the eastern opening. towards the west, the day was more clear, while The lava issued from it very slowly, compared the light at Naples was fainter than twilight; with the celerity with which that flowed which and, with Pliny the younger, one might have proceeded from the eastern mouth, because it said, “Jam dies alibi illic nox omnibus nigrior was no longer driven forward, or compressed by densiorque.'
the total mass, which was already greatly diDuring this mournful night the air was per- minished. fectly unagitated, and the sea calm : it was not On the morning of the 16th the lava ceased disturbed even in the slightest degree, at least to flow over the western side, and the mouth of in the gulf of Naples. The slightest action of the volcano began to resume activity. The the volcano on it would have been perceptible whole of its cone was covered with a very thick at the base of the mountain, and I was within rain of ashes or powders, which totally hid it a distinct view of this part of the sea; but from sight, so that nothing could be distinguished its influence on that element was absolutely on Vesuvius, which was wholly inaccessible. null.
In this state it continued four days, during which While one current of lava flowed over the many shocks of earthquakes were felt, and loud western flank of Vesuvius, spreading ruin and claps of thunder were heard. Thunders raged desolation, another fell down its eastern slope, in every part of the adjacent country, and the from an opening of inferior height, and a greater flashes of lightning, by which they were accomdistance from the summit. This current was not panied at intervals, for an instant allowed a view visible at Naples: all that was perceived of it of the mountain through the darkness in which it was a great light in the atmosphere, produced by was involved by the rain of powders. This reflection from the rolling fire. At first it took darkness was so prodigiously great that at Caan eastern direction, turned afterwards to the serto, and other places ten or twelve miles from south, and descended to the spot called Cognolo. Vesuvius, it was impossible to walk the streets at There it fortunately found the valley of Sorienta, mid-day without torches, and that circumstance sixty-five feet wide, 121 deep, and 1627 long. This was renewed which is related by Pliny on the valley the lava filled ; but, as the volcano still occasion of the eruption in the time of Titus, continued to emit fresh matter, the current after- . 'faces multæ, variaque lumina solvebant obscuriwards spread into the plain of Forte, near to tatem.' It is utterly impossible to determine Pozzelle, where it divided into three branches; with precision the quantity of ashes or powders one proceeded towards Bosco, another towards that fell in the course of these days, as it was Mauro, and the third to the plain of Mulara. different in different places, according to the diThe length of this current of lava was not less rection of the wind; it is, however, computed, than an Italian mile; but, as it flowed constantly on the base of observations at different places, over old lavas, it did but little harm, merely that fourteen inches and six lines in depth fell laying waste and occupying a small extent of on an area the radius of which is three miles, vineyard. From the spot where it diverged from the summit of Vesuvius being the centre. its first direction, it projected a small branch in After the eruption of 1794 the cone lost much a continued line: falling to this point over a of its elevation ; a portion of it, after being shaken very rapid slope, the speed with which it flowed and even raised by the convulsion, sinking must have been considerable: and a portion of down into the crater and almost filling up the its mass preserving its first impulse, naturally fell cavity. The fire raging in the hollow of the
mountain, having thus lost its upward vent, ducing a legume: made of or abounding in burst through the side and poured out the lava, vetches. which rolled down the declivity all the way to If to my cottage thou wilt resort, the sea, burning up the cultivated ground, and There mayest thou ligge in a vetchy bed, covering with a fluid which afterwards became Till fairer fortune shew forth his head. Spenser. solid and hard the chief part of the town of
Where vetches, pulse, and tares have stood, Torre del Greco. The total number of great And stalks of lupines grew.
Dryden. eruptions on record is above thirty, reckoning
An ervum is a sort of vetch, or small pea.
Arbuthnol. from the celebrated one of A. D. 79, which proved destructive to Herculaneum. One of Vetch, in botany. See Vicia, and RURAL the latest, though not most formidable eruptions,
ECONOMY. took place in the end of the summer of 1819.
Vetch TARE. See TARGIONIA. The mountain had discharged almost daily small VETCHLING, in botany. See LATHYRUS. quantities of fire and lava; but on the 27th of VETERAN, n. s. & adj. Lat. veteranus. An July a thick smoke, accompanied by flames, and old soldier; a man long practised in any thing : the discharge of red hot stones, rose from the long experienced. crater. The shocks succeeded each other, and
The Arians, for the credit of their faction, took seemed to cause a trembling on the summit of the eldest, the best experienced, the most wary, and the mountain. Next day, the crisis took place; the longest practised veterans they had amongst them. one side of the crater was suddenly rent with a
Hooker. dreadful crash, and its highest point, with the There was a mighty strong army of land-forces, chief part of its south-west side, fell in. From to the number of fity thousand veteran soldiers. the breach thus opened there burst forth a great
Bacon. stream of lava; and this is at present (1829) the
The British youth shall hail thy wise command, principal opening, although eruptions take place Thy tempered ardour, and thy veteran skill.
Thomson. sometimes above, and sometimes below it, according to the pressure of the melted substance VETERINA'RIAN, n. 8. Lat. veterinarius. in the interior of the crater. The permanent One skilled in the diseases of cattle. effect of this last eruption has been to lower the That a horse has no gall is not only swallowed height of the summit.
by common farriers, but also received by good ceteVETCH, n. s. ? Lat. vicia. A plant with a rinarians, and some who have laudably discoursed Vetcu'y, adj. S papilionaceous flower, pro- upon borses.
V E T E RINARY ART
VETERINARY Art, from veterinarius, the which the formality of an arrangement possesses, name by which a farrier was known in the time which is, that it helps those who are otherwise of Columella. This term seems itself deduced unfurnished with a test to discover how far the from veterinus, a term applied by Pliny to the writer himself is able to fulfil his engagements horse, in allusion we presume to the staid and with the reader. steady disposition of that noble animal when Had our limits permitted us we should have properly reduced to the hand, and which, like been glad to preface this article with a history of the evocati or veterans of the Romans, is every this valuable animal, by illustrating and discussway worthy of our trust and confidence.
ing the merits of those elegant observations PART I.
which are to be found in the writings of Xeno
phon, Varro, Virgil, Columella, &c., and by OF VETERINARY SURGERY.
means of which it would have appeared that, In conformity to the general usage we may though the chirurgical treatment of disorders adopt the denomination surgery, in a more exc has shared in the modern improvements, yet the tended sense, to denote the curative treatment ancient methods of studying, training, and huof all those diseases which are incident to horses, moring the disposition of the horse were as since the mere administering of a ball requires a choice and excellent as the diction in which they certain adroitness in the manual operation; and are described. we have for the sake of convenience attempted Sect. I.-ClassificaTION OF THE DERANGEa classification of the diseases of the horse,
MENTS IN THE SOLIDS AND FLUIDS OF which will answer the purpose of an index.
Horse's Body. The laying a foundation for an arrangement of caballine maladies, besides habituating the
Order I.--SOLIDS. mind to the logic of method, admonishes the practical reader to renew his observations and to cules which compose an organ, or as they are
Alterations in the arrangement of the molecultivate a more intimate acquaintance with the otherwise called changes of continuity. The respective situations and tendencies of disorders; essential character of a genus is derived from the for experience has taught us that nothing has a nature of the texture which is effected. greater influence in sharpening our perceptive faculties than the carrying of a rational outline
Genera I.--Bones. of a treatise of this kind in the head. Nor Species 1. Bone spavin, an osseous enlargeought we to forget another species of utility ment upon the inner side of the hock.
2. Ring bone, bony excrescences about the 3. Mange, incessant itching and a desquamapastern.
tion of the cuticle. 3. Splints, bony protuberances upon the fore 4. Mallenders, a scabby eruption upon the .eg, near the knee-joint.
flexure of the knee joint. 4. Spring halt, lameness arising from diseased 5. Tallenders, a scabby eruption upon the vertebræ.
flexure of the hock joint. 5. Poll eril, an abscess arising from an in 6. Cracks in the heels. flammation in the synorical surface of the first 7. Crown scab, a scabby eruption upon the vertebra of the neck and adject ligan.ents. coronet, followed by loss of hair.
6. Fistula of the withers, a deep seated abscess, 8. Kat tails, a scabby eruption upon the arising from an inflammation in the spinous pro- back part of the leg, entering in lines from the cesses of the dorsal vertebræ.
foot lock upwards. 7. Sore mouth, sore in the lower jaw between 9. Treads, superficial injuries in the heels. the tusk and the first grinder.
10. Grease, a discharge of fætid matter from 8. Anchylosis, a preternatural apophysis of the heels. bony matter upon a joint.
11. Broken knees. 9. Enostosis, superfluous formation of bony
INTEGUMENTS, Foot. substance unlimited in its situation.
12. Sand cracks, a fracture in the weakest Genera II.-LIGAMENTS AND TENDONS. part of the hoof. Species 1. False-quarter, a change in the tex
13. Gravelling, formation of matter occasionture and color of the hoof, arising from an in- ed by the interposing of gravel between the
sole and the crust. jury of the coronary ligament. 2. Strain of the hip joint, injury in the round laminæ which occasion the blood to penetrate
14. Corns, ruptures of the sensible sole and ligament of the hip joint. 3. Breaking down, a disruption of the great
into the pores of the horn. suspensary ligament of the leg, or of the ligaments
15. Bruise of the sole. of the pastern.
16. Over-reaching, over-lashing, over-stopping, 4. Wind-galls, distended bursæ mucosa.
injuries in the heel, higher and nether attaint. 5. Curb, swelling on the back part of the hock.
17. Thrush, frog becoming rotten from long 6. Shoulder struin, rupture of the membranes standing in filthy litter. about the shoulder-joint.
18. Canker, neglected thrush extending to the 7. Strain in the back sinews, a rupture of the laminated surface and coffin bone. membranes which form the lower boundary of
19. Pomiced feet, an internal thickening of
the hoof. the synovial cavity on the back part of the fore leg.
20. Groggy feet, reeling, occasioned by weak 8. Strain of the fetlock joint, swelling of that joints. joint with lameness corresponding in degree.
21. Sit fasts, dead skin upon the back. 9. Strain of the coffin joint, with scarcely any
Genera V.-ABSORBENT SYSTEM. lameness.
Species 1. Farcy, inflammation of the lym10. Strain in the loins.
phatic glands, exhibiting small tumors on the 11. Bog spavin, rupture of the bursæ mucose inside of the legs, lips, face, &c. on the inside of the hock.
2. Glanders, ulceration of the lymphatic 12. Thorough-pin, rupture of the bursæ mu- glands affecting the conglomerate. cosæ on the outside of the hock.
3. Lampas, symptomatic swelling in the 13. Strain of the knee joint.
mouth. 14. Bursal swellings of the elbows and knees. 4. Bags or washes, swellings just within the Genera III.-CELLULAR Fissue.
corners of the mouth.
Genera VI.-CONGLOMERATE GLANDS. Species 1. Quitton, an ulcer produced by an injury on the coronet.
Inflammation of the tonsils terminating in an 2. Capelet, a swelling upon the point of the abscess under the jaws. lock.
Vives or ives, swelling of the parotid gland. 3. Saddle or harness galls, warbles, navel
Glanders, swelling of the glands under the galls, &c.
jaw and a gluey discharge from the nostrils. 4. Bruises by violent and continued pressure.
Genera VII.-SANGUIFEROUS SYSTEM. 5. Acute general Rheumatism, inflammation Blood spavin, varix or enlargement of the of the muscular system.
saphena vein, on the inside of the hock. 6. Rheumatic affection in the hock joint, with Genera VIII.-INTERNAL MEMBRANES. a morbid irritated state of the stomach.
Species. Hernia (epvos, a bud), a rupture of 7. Chest jounder, rheumatic affection of the the peritonæum. muscles of ihe chest, fore-leg, and diaphragm.
Genera IX.--BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM. 8. Acute founder, or chill, a general stiffness of the muscular system,
Species 1. Epilepsy, spasmodic contraction of
the nerves. Genera IV.-INTEGUMENTS, SKIN. 2. Spasms, twitchings of the muscles. Species 1. Surfeit, pimples changing into 3. Stringhalt, irritation of a nerve occasioned scabs.
by mechanical obstruction. 2. Hide bound, skin from a deficiency of nu 4. Titanus, spasmodic contractions of the tritive juices becoming rigid.
muscles of the lower jaw.
Order II.—Diseases ORIGINATING IN AN AL- produce an inflammation the inner coat of
10. Tympunitis (Tupravov, a timbrel or drum), tion occasioned by an unusual quantity of windy colic
. Air generated in the alimentary blood determined to any particular part
hy an excess of fermenting juices.
11. Hydrospanis (vowp, moisture, orans, want), or organ, or in a general excess of the red
dry gripes. fluid.
12. Scolecia (orw nĘ, a worm), worms. PuSpecies 1. Synochus (ovvexw, contrain, allud- trefactive tendency in juices generating worms. ing, we presume, to the general superabundance 13. Icterus, jaundice. Inactive state of the of constringing sensation of an iufarcled blood absorbent vessels of the liver. vessel), blood in the system,
Sect. II.-DETAILS. 2. Phrenitis (opnv, diaphragm, by a metaphor, the mind which divides or discriminates),
Order I. inflammation of the brain.
Genera I.-DISEASES OF THE BONES. 3. Peripneumonia (tepu, about, and avevuwv), inflammation of the lungs.
Species 1. Bone-spavin is a hard tumor or ex4. Pleuritis (adrvpa, side, membrane which
crescence formed on the inside of the hock; it lines the chest or thorax), inflammation of the sometimes occurs on the lower part of the hock, pleura.
at others it is more deeply seated in the centre 5. Influenza and catarrhus (rateppea, to flow of the joint; the latter is by far the most paindrwnwards), inflammation of membranes occa
ful. Cure.--Firing, and blistering immediately
after. sioned by the acrimony of the humors. 6. Gústrilis (yaorno, genitive yaotpos, the
2. Ring-bone. The term ring-bones is given belly), intlammation of the stomach.
to hard swellings extending round the fore part 7. Peritonilis ( TEPITovelov, web which encloses of the foot in the form of a ring, on the lower the bowels, from AepiTELVw, extend round about), part of the pastern near the coronet ; they occainflammation of the peritoneum.
sionally appear a little above the coronet only on 8. Enteritis (evtepa, inwards), inflammation each side, they are then termed splinters of a of the coats of the intestines.
ring-bone. The causes of these affections are 9. Splenitis (onlnv, the spleen), inflammation various; they are produced by strains, blows, of the spleen.
and other causes, which occasion a diminution 10. Hepatilis (yrap inatos, the liver), inflam- of synovia, when the great and little pastern mation of the liver.
bones enter more closely into contact with each 11. Nephritis (vęppos, a kidney), inflammation other, producing stiffness of the joint
. The forof the kidneys and bladder.
mer as frequently arises from a blow as any 12. Ophthalmia (oggalpos, the eye) inflamma- other cause, the latter from a stub; they are said
to be occasionally hereditary. Cure.-Firing the pos), inflammation of that part of the conjunc- the shank bone of the horse are termed splints ; 13. Psorophthalmia (yopa, a scab, and oq3al- only remedy likely to do good.
3. Splints. Hard excrescences which form on iiva which lines the eyelids.
14. Podilis (nous Todos, the foot), inflamma- they vary in size and shape, and are sometimes tion of the foot.
so large as to press against the back sinew, caus15. Anticore, painful swelling about the breasting stiffness, and in some instances decided lameand belly.
Those of a smaller kind are seldom of
much importance, unless situated on or near the Genera II.-ABSORBENT SYSTEM.
joint. The treatment in all these cases requires Species 1. Anasarca (ava, upon, gap qapkoç, but little variation. The horse will be very lame flesh), general dropsy. Superabundant humors on the first appearance of these excrescences and in the cellular substance, under the skin of the for some time previous, requiring judgment on body.
the part of the practitioner to ascertain the cause. 2. Hydrælcus (vòwp, water, elkos, an ulcer), Gentle treatment must be had recourse to in the water farcy. Accumated water producing ulce- first instance, and the following blister will be ration.
found efficacious :-Take Spanish flies, euphor3. Ascites (acros, a leathern bottle, from a bium, of each two drachms and a half; Egyptiafancied resemblance which the body bears to cum, strong vinegar, of each two ounces; spirit that vessel), water in the cavity of the abdomen. of turpentine, water of pure ammonia, of each
4. Hydrothorar (vowp, Iwpaš, the chest), wa ten drachms; oil of thyme one ounce. Mix ter in the cavity of the chest.
and put into a bottle, shaking previous to using. 5. Flydropericardium, water within the bag Lameness from a splint may sometimes be rewbich contains the heart.
moved by placing a pledget of old linen, wet 6. Hydrocephalus (vòwp, kepan, head), water with goulard or saturnine lotion, on it, and conwithin the meninges of the brain.
fining it with a bandage kept constantly wet. I 7. Hydrocnemia (võwp, kunun, leg), dropsy of have seen a good etfect from diluted vinegar
also. Saturnine lotion.-Super-acetate of lead 8. Diarrhæa (dia, through, pew, flow) unna. one ounce, vinegar four ounces, water one pint. tural defluxion of fluid down the intestinal Mix. canal.
4. String-halt. The string-halt, Mr. White 9. Dysenteria, defluxion acrimious, so as to observes, has been properly enough named blind
tion of the eyes.
spavin. It is thought by the French to be of those pipes, any further operation of scraping the same nature as bone spavin, the bony ex the bone will be unnecessary, and the wound crescence being concealed, or on the outside of may be perfectly healed by dressings of Friar's the small tarsal bones, and out of sight. If any balsam, or tincture of myrrh, and sprinkling a remedy is thought necessary for this, firing should little of the following powder on the part before be preferred; but this will generally be found dressing it every second day:-Take white vi. to fail. A few years ago, says Mr. White, I had triol and burnt alum of each three drachms; the pleasure of spending a day with the late Dr. white lead, yellow rosin, bole armoniac, of each Jenner at Berkeley, when he informed me that one ounce and a half. Mix well together. string-halt depended upon a disease of the spine, 7. Sore mouth. During the time that horses and showed me several vertebræ which afforded are breaking they are often hurt in the mouth a proof of it. From what I have since observed by the pressure of the bit, especially in that I am satisfied that this is the case. Firing and part where it bears when they are put upon all other operations must therefore be useless. the bit, as it is termed; that is, when their
5. Poll-evil. This disease derives its name noses are reined in towards the chest. The from its situation, which is between the poll-bone bit then bears on the under jaw between the and the first vertebra of the neck, and is pro- tush and the first grinder. The bone in this duced by a mangy horse rubbing his head under part being thinly covered with gum is often the manger, and sometimes lifting it up sud- bruised and inflamed; and being neglected, or denly when frightened ; also by hanging back rather the pressure being still continued, it beupon his halter. Repeated injuries of this kind comes carious, and a troublesome sore or sinus produce at length inflammation of the first ver is the consequence. This sore, in feeding, betebra of the neck, and the matter that forms in comes filled with masticated hay, which being consequence being so completely confined spreads discovered is supposed to be the cause of the and renders carious the under surface of the sore; and, as common hay cannot be supposed ligament of the neck as well as the posterior to be capable of such an effect, it is attributed to part of the occipital bone, and sometimes of the what the grooms term squirrel-tail grass, that is atlas or first bone of the neck also. This dis- wild barley. order then is precisely of the same nature as fis 8. Anchylosis. This is a deposition of bony tula of the withers, and requires a similar treat matter thrown out in the joints, and arising frorn ment. But it would seem that the poll-evil is hurts and bad treatment of punctures of the caused rather by an over-stretching of the neck, joints ; every joint is liable to it. The effect is or by a frequent effort to extend the ligaments to render the joint completely stiff and useless. which connect the first two bones of the neck, or We can do nothing to remove it, but a great deal those which unite the first two bones of the to prevent it. head. We have placed this disease among the 9. Exostosis. This is an excess of hone, a maladies of the bones to exhibit the importance super-abundance of osseous matter being thrown which it bears, though, if we regard the origin of out to various sizes. Pressure and blistering, in the evil, it would be more consistent to rank it the first instances, will be proper to try; further under the genus of ligamentous disorders. applications are useless. 6. Fistula of the withers, or winding ulcer.
Genera II.-LIGAMENTS AND TENDONS AND The above-named injury, although it derives its
CONNECTING MEMBRANES AS BY CONSEQUENCE origin from the severe pressure of the fore part of the saddle, and, if taken in time, would be
Tissue CELLULAR. easily cured, is, from neglect and repeated Species. 1. False quarter. When the corobruises, extended to a dangerous inflammation nary ligament has been much injured by treads of the spinous parts of the joints of the back or other contused wounds, it sometimes forms bone. The result is that an internal abscess is horn of a lighter color than the rest of the hoof, formed, and searches in various directions in- and less perfect, often leaving a fissure or seam wards, until at last it appears on the surface in from the top to the bottom. Sometimes the form of a violent inflamed ulcer. In this ad- whole quarter is imperfect, and incapable of vanced stage of the disease a moderate incision bearing pressure; therefore in such cases a bar must be made to allow the suppurated matter to shoe is necessary, by means of which, when the pass off. If upon examination the seat of the false quarter is kept properly pared down, it will disease cannot be discovered, tents of tow, steeped be at some distance from the surface of the shoe, in solution of blue vitriol, must be forced into
and thus be always free from pressure. the wound as far as possible; and, in about a 2. Strain of the hip joint, femur, hurdle bone, week, when the coat or core of the pipes or whirl bone, or round bone. Injuries of this kind channels has been removed, the probe must be are frequently brought on by negligence in used in order to determine the winding direction riding or driving, and sometimes from a sudden of those pipes, and the extremity of the diseased slip of the animal's hind feet on a bad road or part. When it is found that the pipes are not pavement, whereby he is thrown upon his side ; destroyed, and the seat of the wound is ascer in some cases the head of the bone or cup of the tained, if it appears from the feel of the probe joint may be affected; in other cases the thigh that the bare bone is sensible to its touch; in and hip joint are so severely injured that violent such case the bone should be well scraped, and inflammation and lameness of the parts ensue. afterwards a few dressings of Friar's balsam, or When the strain has been of a slight nature it tincture of myrrh, will effect a speedy and per- may not be perceptible at first, further than a fect cure. In some cases, where the caustic tenderness in leaning on the limb affected when application has, in the first instance, destroyed in exercise; but, if he has been left to stand for