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a short time in the stable, and he be taken out, the generally the consequence of a strain, accompalameness will be obvious. In this case the horse nied with inflammation, the coagulable lymph must be kept quiet in stable for some time after which is thrown out is often left, and causes a wards, until by repose he gradually recovers his hardness to remain. If the affection be observed strength. In severe strains a strong blister should in its early stage, those applications which are be applied to the part, and if necessary it would used in strains of the back sinews will generally be expedient also to fire the limb injured, and of effect a cure. Should the pain and substance course bleed and purge.
however continue ten or twelve days after having 3. Breaking down. This accident often occurs had recourse to this treatment, a more powerful in racing, and sometimes in hunting, but very plan must be pursued. When this is the case rarely upon the road. A strain in the back cut the hair close, and use the following blistersinews is sometimes called by this name; but, ing spirit :-Take euphorbium, Spanish flies when a horse breaks down, the fetlock joint, powdered, of each two drachms; oil of thyme, when he rests on that leg, absolutely bears upon spirit of turpentine, pure ammonia water, of each the ground. This accident is supposed to de- one ounce; vinegar, egyptiacum, of each two pend on a rupture of the great suspensory liga- ounces. Let them be put into a bottle, and well ment of the leg; but sometimes it is occasioned shaken before they are used. Let the part affected by a rupture of the ligaments of the pastern, and be well rubbed with the hand for six or seven a consequent dislocation of the small with the mornings following. After which turn the anilarge pasterns. If we examine the tendons and mal out to grass for five or six weeks ; if at this igament, on the back part of the shank, we shall period the curb should not be entirely removed, find that the great flexor, or perforans tendon, is, the blistering spirit should be again resorted to. supported by a strong ligament, nearly as large 6. Shoulder strain. Strains of the shoulder as itself, which proceeds from the back part of appear trifling in some cases at first, and lamethe knee, or from the upper and posterior partness is not observable until the horse cools; in of the great metacarpal or canon bone. About strains of a severe or desperate nature the animal three or four inches down it joins the perforans can hardly lay his foot to the ground, and tendon, and becomes intimately mixed with it. stands upon three legs. In all slight cases If this part is examined it will clearly appear copious bleeding, and confinement to the stable, that a rupture of the suspensory ligament of the in a spacious stall, so that he can move about, fetlock joint would not bring the horse down will be sufficient; but in severe strains it will be upon his fetlock joint unless this suspensory necessary, besides bleeding, to introduce a rowel ligament of the perforans tendon were to give to the chest, and if that be not effectual in re
moving the strain, the shoulder must be blistered, 4. Windgalls. The term windgall is given or the same embrocation as prescribed for strain popularly to swellings situated on the joints, and of the loins should be well rubbed into the chest which are enlargements of the bursæ mucosæ, or and shoulder. Send him out to graze in a well mucous bags, with which every joint is furnished, enclosed field, and he will gradually recover. to contain a lubricating oil. These enlargements 7. Strain in the back sinews, or clap. This acciare termed, according to their situation, bog dent may happen in either fore or hind legs, and spavin, thorough pin,
capped hock or capulet, may be either a simple extension of the tendons, windgalls of the knee joint and of the elbow. or accompanied with some degree of laceration The diseased enlargement of the bursæ mucosæ of the cellular substance or ligaments. It occurs arises from hard work, and, if we attempt a cure, generally from down-leaps, false steps, or sudden this must be discontinued. Horses once affected attempts at recovering the feet from a slip. There in this way are always liable to a return if worked are frequently hard lumps remaining after the hard again. Let be particularly remembered inflammation abates and the strain is recovered, that this tumor is never to be opened : the worst which arise from the coagulable lymph being of consequences would follow such a step. Pres- thrown out in the accident and ultimately besure by Aannel bandages and pads, placed be- coming callous. These lumps are early felt; tween the folds, upon the tumor, and continued they are not of very great consequence, but in a considerable time, with strict rest, will often general a slight lameness accompanies them, cure, and should be first tried in all cases. Then, which goes off
' when the animal trots a little and if not successful, blister the part; or perhaps becomes warm ; but, if the horse be much firing it would be better, as the marks of the iron worked, the lameness returns from the constant leave a contraction in the skin, which acts as a action upon the parts. The treatment will be bandage perpetually. In using pressure by in the first instance nearly the same as in other bandage and pads, a solution of sal ammoniac and strains ; next bleeding, purging, and cold applivinegar should be poured upon it occasionally, cations to the injured limb, with a moist diet. so as to wet the bandage through. Goulard water Cold poultices should be applied every morning may be used in the same manner.
and night, which should enwrap the limb from 5. Curb or strain of the hock. This disease above the knee joint downwards. The best was formerly considered as a kind of exostosis, poultice is— linseed cake six ounces, bran (suffibut now it is properly admitted under the head ciently wetted) three pints ; mix. It will be of strains. The back part of the hind leg is the more beneficial to look to the horse's constitution, seat of this disease, arising from the articulation and lessen the action of the blood vessels acof the same bones which are affected in spavin, cording to the strength and irritability of the aniand is succeeded by the formation of a consi- mal, than to depend on local remedies. When derable tumor a little below the hock. It is the inflammatory stage has gone by it will be
then right to use rubbing with liniments and there is a swelling on the outside of the hock oils, such as camphorated liniment, soap, and also, and in that case the fluid or synovia which spirits, &c., and to bandage the limb. If this the swelling contains may be forced from one plan do not quite remove the swelling in a fort to the other. Only remedy, firing and sufficient night, a blister must be applied ; and, when rest, but not always necessary. healed, the horse turned out to grass. It may be 12. Thorough pin. Of the same nature, and a long time before a perfect cure can be estab- requires the same treatment, as bog spavin. lished, and the only hope is in repeated blisters 13. Strain of the knee joint. There is a corat the interval of a month between each. When, respondence between the knee joint of the horse however, full trial be given to this, firing may and the human wrist, and the stifle joint with be resorted to.
the human knee. When tne knee joint is strained 8. Struin of the fetlock joint. The symptoms it is mostly acompanied by that common accident of this injury are similar to those of strain in the called broken knees, and is in consequence disback sinews; the fetlock joint appears swollen tinguished with difficulty. Bleeding and rest and inflamed, attended by lameness. The horse must, however, be employed here, as, should the must be copiously bled, and kept tranquil in a case turn out to be simply a broken knee, bleedroomy stall; in slight cases this will be sufficient. ing will be found extremely serviceable. A few emollient poultices, in bad cases, will be 14. Bursal swellings of the elbows and knees. necessary, and the body should be kept cool by The elbows frequently are affected by such moderate aperients. Firing the limb is frequently swellings, often occasioned by the shoes in lying practised by veterinarians as a sure preventive down when the horse sleeps with his fore legs against the recurrence of the injury; this opera- doubled under him. Sometimes there is a hard tion also tends to strengthen the joint. After a tumor formed by the same cause ; in this case rest of about a fortnight, in the stable, he may be the tumor might be dissected out safely. The turned out to grass in an enclosed field, when he swellings on the knee occur seldom, and are of will gradually recover.
no consequence. 9. Strain of the coffin joint. Those accidents are more difficult to ascertain at first than strains
Genera III.-CELLULAR TISSUE. in any other part of the horse, as the lameness Species 1. Quittor. This injury arises when is hardly perceptible for some time after the in- a horse, in frosty weather, endeavours to recover jury has been received. In gentle exercise the himself from falling on his side, which causes the coffin joint is excited to little or no action; but animal to step in a most violent manner on the in a quick pace a tenderness and slight lameness inside foot; it also is occasioned by punctures, will be observable. Unless remedies be applied &c. Quittor is, properly, a degenerative and in proper time, strains in the coffin joint are the ulcerative state of it, generally attended with most difficult to cure. The animal should be pipes, and the inner parts seldom escape injury. bled freely, his bowels kept cool by moderate În such cases the winding and extent of the purgatives, and the foot, from the fetlock joint pipes should be ascertained by the probe. Then down, should be well poulticed every morning prepare a piece of light brown paper, cut into and night with Goulard water and linseed meal. small pieces, and grease them with a light surHe should be kept quiet, and the poultice con- face of lard; after this get some corrosive sublitinued for a week or ten days, and longer if the mate, finely powdered, and sprinkle it over case require it. After this he may be turned out them; then roll them round, and twist them at to grass until the joint, is restored to its original each end, and pass them, by the aid of the probe, strength and flexibility.
one after the other successively, to the extremity 10. Strain in the loins. The symptoms of this of the pipe, until it is completely stuffed ; after strain are either a partial stiffness of the back, this lay on a small pledget of tow, and bandage and an involuntary yielding of the horse to any the part. In about a week remove the bandage, weight placed upon him, or, in very bad cases, when the core will be extracted,
and an extengeneral lameness ensues. The animal should, as sive open sore will be visible. By this process soon as possible after the accident, be freely the extent of the wound will be ascertained. bled, which, together with rest, may be sufficient Tents of tow or lint should be then steeped in in slight injuries ; but, if otherwise, in addition solution of blue vitriol, and lodged in the bottom to bleeding, even to faintness, the following em- of the wound; when the carious parts are suffibrocation should be applied to the loins ; viz.- ciently corroded, apply a few dressings of tincLiquor ammonia of two ounces, oil of turpentine ture of myrrh, or Friar's balsam, and in a very one ounce, olive oil three ounces. A fresh sheep short time the animal will be in an advanced skin, with the fleshy side in, should be laid state of convalescence. across the strained parts.
2. Capellet, or capped hock. There are par11. Bog spavin. This is a swelling on the in- ticular swellings which horses are subject to, of side of the hock, rather towards the fore part : a wenny nature, which grow on the heel of the the large vein, which is so conspicuous on the hock, and on the point of the elbow, and are inside of the leg, passing over it. It depends called by the French and Italians capellets : either upon a distension or rupture of the mem- they arise often from bruises and other accidents; branes which form the synovial cavity, or bursa and, when this is the case, should be treated with mucosa, through which the great flexor tendon vinegar and other repellers ; but, when they passes. The swelling is soft and yielding to the grow gradually on both heels or elbows, we may pressure of the finger, but rises again as soon as then suspect the blood and juices in fault; that ihe pressure is removed. Sometimes, however, some of the vessels are broke and juices extrava
sated ; in this case the suppuration should be duced to the bottom, and then the wound will promoted by rubbing the part with marsh-mal- heal as it ought; whereas, if it be dressed superlow ointinent, and, when matter is formed, the ficially, or only syringed, it will often close over skin should be opened with a lancet in some at the surface and the wound appear healed, dependent part towards one side, to avoid a scar: while the matter is spreading and doing mischief the dressings may be turpentine, honey, and at the bottom. There are four obstacles to the tincture of myrrh. The relaxed skin may be complete healing of wounds which sometimes bathed with equal parts of spirit of wine and occur, and these are, when the wound has been vinegar, to which an eighth part of oil of vitriol complicated with an injury of a bone, a ligament, may be added. The contents of these tumors are a cartilage, or a tendon. In any of these cases various, sometimes watery, at others suety, or the fleshy parts and skin will generally heal like thick paste; which, if care be not taken to readily, and the wound will appear nearly or digest out properly with the cyst, will frequently quite healed, except a small or minute orifice collect again : was it not for the disfigurement, from which a little matter oozes ; and this orifice the shortest method would be to extirpate them is not perceptible, being covered with spongy with a knife, which, if artfully executed, and the flesh, until a probe is introduced; it will then skin properly preserved, would leave very little be found that there is a sinus running down to deformity. When these tumors proceed from an the bottom of the original wound, and there the indisposition of the blood they are best let alone, probe will be resisted by the diseased bone, ligaespecially those of the watery kind, which will ment, cartilage, or tendon. The bone may be often wear off insensibly without any appli- easily distinguished by the sensation conveyed to cations; but, when they are likely to prove the hand through the probe; and when this is tedious, endeavour to disperse them by bathing felt a free opening should be made if the situawith repellers, and have recourse to rowels, tion of the wound will admit of it, and the dispurges, and diuretic medicines, to carry off the eased surface scraped off. A tent of Friar's superfluous juices, and correct the blood. And balsam should then be introduced, and continued experience and observation, which were said to until it is cured. If the first scraping bas not be apioon oodaoralia, the best master, has been freely performed, a second may be necestaught that most attempts towards a removal sary. Sometimes sinuses, or pipes as they are of this deformity are of no avail, and little or no termed, remain after the inflammation of wounds expense ought to be incurred in fruitless efforts has subsided. If these are superficial, running to cure it.
under the surface, or nearly horizontally, they 3. Suddle or harness galls, warbles, navel galls, require to be laid open, and then they heal &c. These may be considered as bruises, and readily. Sometimes they run obliquely inward, when it can be done should be poulticed, until or perpendicularly, and then require to be dressed the swelling has been dispersed or has suppu- at first with stimulating or even caustic tents, of rated. If the matter has not sufficient vent, the solution of blue vitriol; and these must be reopening may be enlarged, or the sinus laid open peated until the sides of the sinus have sloughed if there is any. It must then be dressed with off
, and the very bottom of the wound can be digestive ointment, and, when it has been re- distinctly felt. In all complicated ulcers of this duced to the state of a clear open sore, the cure kind, where the sinus runs in a winding or may be finished by the astringent paste.
crooked direction, or where there are two or 4. Bruises by violent or continued pressure. more sinuses, the caustic tents must be repeated These injuries may happen in various ways, by until they are brought to the state of one simple kicks, by bites, in leaping over hedges or gates, sore, the bottom of which can be distinctly felt; by kicking against stalls, and many other ways. and, if the bottom happen to be bone, it must Various names have been applied io such inju- be scraped freely and dressed with Friar's bal. ries, according to the manner in which they are sam. A good method of destroying such sinuses inflicted; but there is no occasion for such dis- is to take some corrosive sublimate, or finely tinctions ; they are all bruises or contused pulverised blue vitriol, and fold it up in a long wounds, and require to be poulticed or fomented; narrow slip of thin whity-brown paper ; this the horse should immediately be bled freely, being neatly folded may be twisted at each end and his bowels opened by a dose of physic. The and may thus be conveniently introduced into diet also should be attended to, allowing only a the sinuses, and forced to the very bottom with very moderate quantity at first of grass, or bran a strong probe. Several small parcels of this mashes. In all these cases poultices are by far kind may be made and forced in one after anthe best remedy, until the inflammation is com other, until all the sinuses are completely filled. pletely subdued ; and when the situation of the By these means a large core or slough will be part will not admit of a poultice, which is sel- brought out in four or five days; and if the dom the case, then fomentations of warm water sinuses are not then so destroyed that the bottom only, almost constantly applied, are the best sub can be ascertained, the same dressing must be stitute. When inflammation has quite ceased, repeated. which may be known by an abatement of the 5. Acute rheumatism. Acute general rheupain and swelling, and by the appearance matism, or rheumatic fever, is inflammation of white matter, the poultice may be discontinued, the muscular system, and has been already and then the wound should be carefully dressed noticed under the head Founder, or Chill. There to the bottom with a tent of tow, dipped in is, however, a different kind of rheumatic affecmelted digestive ointment. The cavity is not tion I have sometimes met with, in which the to be filled with the tent, but it must be intro- joints are affected; generally, I believe, the hock
joint; but probably the other joints are equally cles of respiration, and of the shoulder, are so liable to this affection. It is sometimes accom- affected as io render them quite unsafe for the panied with a morbidly irritable state of the saddle. It is to be regretted that such horses stomach and bowels, and, if a strong or even a are frequently used in stage-coaches and postcommon purgative is given in such a case, there chaises, and urged to exertions far beyond their will be danger of its producing inflammation of powers. Horses laboring under this disorder these parts. The same irritable state of the have generally been possessed of great spirit and stomach and bowels is sometimes observable also power, and will, if fed high, and urged by the in chills, as they are termed, and when the hind whip, appear to go on with spirit for a short leg is suddenly attacked with inflammation and time, but after standing they suffer great pain, swelling, after violent shivering and fever. In all and terminate their short career by a miserable such cases, though physic is often necessary, that death. The animal should not be exposed to is, when the bowels are in a costive state, yet it cold, and should be covered with a rug in the is likely to do great harm unless in a moderate stable. He should be kept regular by aloetic dose, and guarded with cordials or opium. The and antimonial balls, and often have a warm following ball may be given on such occasions : mash, with nitre. Perhaps the mustard seed it must be observed, however, that copious might be given with advantage; and blister on bleeding is the essential remedy, and must pre- the chest, which we think better than rowels. cede every other. Purgative with opium, or 8. Acute founder, or chill. This disorder is cordial cathartic :- Barbadoes aloes four to five brought on by excessive exertion, and a consedrachms, ginger one drachm, hard soap three quent exhaustion of nervous power, and not drachms; syrup enough to form the ball. The merely by a chill or suddenly cooling the animal, affected parts may be fomented and rubbed with as it is supposed to be. This excessive exertion some stimulating liniment or embrocation. of the muscular system brings on a peculiar
6. Rheumatic affection in the hock-joint, accom- state of inflammation in the whole body; so that panied by an irritable state of the stomach. In not only the muscles of the loins and hind parts, this, and every other case in which the constitu- but every other muscle, and even the heart and tion is any way affected, the affection ought first capillary arteries, participate in the affection. The to be removed by an attention to the general kidneys often partake of the affection, the horse health of the animal, and we may fairly expect voiding high-colored urine, sometimes mixed that, as soon as the constitutional debility is with blood : this happens only in bad cases, and healed, the local disease will disappear; and we then the kidneys are often inflamed; and the take this opportunity strenuously to recommend pulse is quick, and accelerated by the slightest the observation now made to such of our rea exercise. The inner surface of the eye-lids are ders as may bave the care of this noble creature always very red. The horse should be immeconfided to their charge; for the primary proce- diately bled until he becomes faint; the bowels dure of first considering whether the topical should be emptied with clysters, and the stable malady was not occasioned by the disordered should be made as cool as possible. functions of the system, has been many years established with respect to the human constitution,
Genus IV.--INTEGUMENTS. and has been one essential means of securing to Species 1. Surfeit. This word, derived from surgery ils modern name.
super over and above or excess, and fio to be 7. Chest founder, or flying lameness. Some made, applies to the notion which was entermodern practitioners have disputed the existence tained that the malady arose out of a superaof this disease, and the ancients attributed the bundance of humors produced by over feeding. lameness arising from it to some disorder in the There are different causes which produce surfoot; there is, however, little doubt but it is feits, but they mostly arise from bad food. When rheumatism. There is an affection of the muscles the coat of a horse is of a dirty color, and stares, of respiration, some of which support the body, he is said to labor under a surfeit. The skin is and advance the fore legs. There is also an covered with scurf and scabs; these return, alaffection of the diaphragm ; from which, as well though rubbed off. Sometimes the surfeit apas the increase of the disease, after considerable pears on the skin of the horse in small lumps, exercise, with every appearance of the lungs like peas or beans; this is often occasioned by partaking of the attack, obtained for it the name his drinking much cold water when unusually of bastard peripneumony. In this disorder the heated. This kind of surfeit will be cured efmuscles of the shoulder and chest are of a dimi- fectually by a gentle purge and bleeding. In nished size, with a contracted motion of the fore some cases the scabs appear covering the whole legs, and weakness of all the supporting muscles. of the body and limbs; at times moist, and at The feet will almost always be found affected in others dry. The irritation is generally so great, horses laboring under chest-founder, from their as to cause the horse to chase himself, producpartaking in the rheumatic affection; but often ing rawness in many parts, and degenerating disease of the foot is mistaken for chest-founder: inio mange. In the first instance, it will be rehowever, examining the foot will often decide, quisite to give him a dose or two of mercurial and if no apparent cause of lameness appears physic. Should his condition be good, and then, and yet the horse suddenly becomes stiff able to bear it, he may subsequently take the and lame after heats, swimming, &c., we may con- following balls, which will produce a gentle clude it is rheumatism. All that it is necessary purging and perspiration on the skin, and lead to say on it is, that horses so affected are fit only to beneficial results :for very moderate work in harness; for the mus Take crocus of antimony, flour of sulphur Vor XXII.-.PART 2.
nitre, Venice soap, Barbadoes aloes, of each in very obstinate. An emollient poultice should fine powder, four ounces ; precipitated sulphur be first applied, and continued for a few days, of antimony one ounce. Let them be mixed, or until the inflammation has completely subadd a sufficient quantity of honey or treacle, and sided. The crack or ulcer, as well as all the liquorice powder, and make them into a mass fit hollow part of the pastern or heel, should be for balls.' The weight of each ball should be covered with the following paste, which is to one ounce and a half.
remain two or three days, and then to be washed 2. Hide-bound. When a horse's hide or skin off and repeated. When the crack is perfectly sticks to his ribs, as it were, and cannot be drawn healed or dried up by this astringent 'paste, a out or moved, as in the healthy state, he is said little sallad oil or fresh hog's lard is often neto be hide-bound. It indicates great weakness cessary to supple the part. In obstinate cases and poverty, and sometimes a diseased state of it is necessary to keep the horse perfectly at the mesenteric vessels, and consumption. It is rest until the crack is healed, and sometimes to generally occasioned by ill usage, and bad or apply the following ointment, spread on a pledget insufficient food, and can only be removed by of tow, and confined by a bandage :- Take of proper feeding and good treatment. A good litharge plaster two ounces, best sallad oil one piece of grass is the best remedy, especially in
Melt slowly; and when removed the early part of summer.
from the fire, continue stirring until it is cold. 3. Mange. This is a well known disease, Three of these dressings will generally cure highly contagious. It however as frequently the disorder. During this treatment the horse arises from debility as from contagion. The must not be taken out for exercise, but be turned horse first begins to rub and scratch; the hair, loose into a cool box or out-bouse, where he then, at various parts, falls off, leaving bare may move himself about gently. As he takes patches; and, if the disease be suffered io con no exercise during this time, he should be fed tinue, the animal pines away amazingly. The with bran mashes, and have only very little hay, cure of mange is simple : common sulphur as his bowels would otherwise be loaded with ointment rubbed well in, all over the animal, excrement, and much mischief might thereby once a day, will cure it in a week. The following be done. Though the disease is entirely local, remedies are also effectual :
it may not be amiss to give half an ounce of Lotion.—Take of tobacco and white helle- nitre once or twice a day in his mash. Horses bore, three ounces; and boil in two quarts of that are constantly kept trimmed out in the water to three pints; then add an equal portion heels often lose the hair from the part by of lime water. Wash the horse all over with the constant friction of the dirt of the roads; this every day.
and, besides the deformity this occasions, they Ointment.--Arsenic one drachm, sulphur eight are still more liable to those painful cracks. I ounces, lard a pound, train oil sufficient to im- have lately, Mr. White observes, found the folprove its consistence. In curing the mange, the lowing treatment successful :-If the cracks are horse should have a purging ball first, and then very painful, poultice for one day and night, in a day or two a dose of nitre and cream of then wash them three times a day with the foltartar. His food should be green if it can be lowing lotion, for one or two days, after this obtained, or, if not, turnips, carrots, or speared apply the astringent ointment, which generally
heals them in a short time. Lotion.-Super4. Mallenders. This is a scurfy eruption at acetate of lead and sulphate of zinc, of each two the back part of the knee, or bending of the drachms, water eight ounces. Mix. joint. The affection, if allowed to remain, de 7. Crown scab, of the same nature as the malgenerates into a disagreeable discharge. By lender, and may be cured by the same means : washing the parts with soap and water, and dry- it generally leaves a blemish consisting in the ing them with a soft cloth or sponge, and then loss of hair. anointing with the following ointment once a 8. Rat-tails, an affection of the same kind day, the disease will be removed :—Take of mer- essentially as the preceding, but under a difcurial ointment an ounce, sulphate of zinc a ferent formality, the eruption appearing in lines scruple. Mix.
or wheals, which from their shape have received 5. Sallenders. This is the same disease as the fanciful denomination of rat-tails. mallenders, only that it affects the inside of the 9. Treads. Waggon horses, especially in hock joint. Its treatment is precisely the mangy stables, have often an itching about the
heels, which causes them to injure themselves, 6. Cracks in the heels. These are frequently sometimes severely, in endeavouring to rub or occurring, especially in saddle horses, even when scratch the part with their own feet. It is thus properly treated, except in one particular, and that they tread on the coronet or heel, and somethat an important one, for it is occasioned en times cause quittor. The injury, however, is tirely by the foolish practice of trimming out seldom so severe as this, and may be soon cured the heels. This renders them liable to injuries by poulticing for a few days, and dressing the in travelling on gravelly or muddy roads, or part afterwards with the tar ointment. It is indeed in any kind of road, as loose stones can always better to lay up the horse, and poultice not be avoided. In this way small bruises take him, than to put him immediately to work, as is place in the bend of the pastern, the skin is in- commonly done, because the disease appears flamed, and an ulcer or crack follows. These trifling: they are almost always obliged to do cracks are very painful, and often cause lame- it at last, and then a much longer time is reness: from improper treatment they often prove quired for the cure. Treads have been noticed