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heroical fortitude, invincible resolution, and glorious All vast possessions; just the same the case, patience.

Taylor. Whether

you call them villa, park, or chace. Pernicious fire withered all their strength,

At six hours distance from Bizantium's walls,
And of their wonted vigour left them drained. Milton.
Famed for his valour young ;

Where Bosphorus into the Euxine falls,
At sea successful, vigorous, and strong!


In a gay district, called the Elysian vale,

A furnished villa stands, proposed for sale. Harte. The vigour of this arm was never vain : Witness these heaps of slaugliter.

Dryden. Villa Franca, an old town on the southern Though the beginnings of confederacies have been

coast of the island of St. Michael, one of the Azores. always vigorous and successful, their progress has been It is founded on lava, and partly destroyed by generally teeble, and event unfortunaie. Davenant.

earthquakes ; prior to which it was the principal If the fire burns bright and vigorously, it is no matter

town of the Azores. It now contains only 2000 by what means it was at first kindled.


inhabitants; and the commerce has been transferrTheir appetite is not dulled by being gratified, but re

ed to Ponte del Jada. turns always fresh and vigorous.


Villa Franca, a town of Italy, in Piedmont, VILE, adj. Fr. vil; Lat. vilis. Base; the resort of consumptive invalids. It has a spaciVi’LED, adj. mean ; worthless; despicable;

ous and secure harbour, and a dock for the royal Vile’ly, adv. sordid : viled, abusive; defama- galleys. Its trade, however, is limited. PopulaVILE'NESS, n.s. tory: vilely, basely; meanly: tion 2200. Two miles east of Nice. VIL'Ify, v.a. the noun substantive corres

Villa FRANCA, another town of Piedmont, conponding: to vilify is to debase; degrade ; defame.

tains nearly 7000 inhabitants, and is situated in a Our case were miserable, if that wherewith we most fertile plain on the banks of the Po. Twenty endeavour to please God were in his sight so vile and miles south by west of Turin. despicable as men's disdainful speech would make it.

Villa Real, a town of Spain, in Valencia, on

Hooker. I disdaining scorned, and craved death,

the Mijares, near the Mediterranean. It has 7000 Rather than I would be so vile esteemed. Shakspeure.

inhabitants, who manufacture woollens and silks. The Volscians vilely yielded the town.

The vicinity is favorable to the culture of the vine Re granted life to all except one, who had used viled and mulberry tree. Thirty-five miles north by speeches against king Edward.

Hayward. east of Valencia, and twenty east of Segorbe.
Tomalin could not abide

Villa Rica, a town of Brasil, the capital of the To hear his sovereign vilified. Drayton. province of Minas Geraes, is situated on the side That sinful creature man elected is,

of a large mountain. Most of the streets range in And in our place the heavens possess he must;

steps, as it were, from the base to the summit, and Vile man, begot of clay, and born of dust. Fairfur. Reflect on the essential vileness of matter, and’its im- The town is divided into two parishes, and con

are crossed by others which lead up the acclivity. potence to conserve its own being.

Creech. Restored by thee, vile as I am, to place

tains about 20,000 inhabitants, white and black. Of new acceptance.


The climate is delightful. The greatest heats preConsidering the vileness of the clay, I wondered that yail in January : thunder storms are common, but no tribune of that age durst ever venture to ask the by no means violent, and the sun is sometimes potter, What dost thou make ?

Swift. clouded by dews and mist, so dense as not to subHow can I

side until the forenoon is far advanced. As there Forget my Hector, treated with dishonour,

is scarcely a piece of level ground, even ten yards Deprived of funeral rites, and vilely dragged,

square, on the whole side of the mountain, the deA bloody corse, about the walls of Troy. A. Philips. fect has been remedied by cutting spaces one above

The displeasure of their friend those may expect who another at regular distances, and supporting them would put in practice all methods to vilify his person.

by low walls, the top of one being on a level with Addison.

the base of that next above it. An easy flight of UILKENS (James Albert), divine and naturalist, was born at Wierum, near Groningen, in 1772, and steps leads from one to the other. These terraces was passed through his academical studies at Gronin- ilowers. The market of Villa Rica was, according

are covered with a profusion of the most delicate gen with reputation. In 1795 he took the degree to Mr. Mawe, but ill provided; pulse and vegeof M. D. On proceeding doctor in philosophy, he supported an ingenious thesis On the Nature of tables for the table were scarce : even grass was an the Atmosphere; and afterwards produced an

article in great demand, and milk was as dear as Elementary Treatise on Physics, for which he ob- in London. Poultry sold at from 3s. 6d. 10 4s. 6d. tained the prize offered by a learned society. This per couple. Beef of a tolerable kind, but by no work became very popular. His Discourse on the

means good, might be had at 1}d. per pound. Pork Perfections of the Creator considered in the Crea

was very fine. Tallow was exceedingly dear; but ture, 4 vols. 8vo., is another valuable piece, as also English manufactures were in abundance. It owes are his Memoir on the Utility of Insects.; and his its origin to the rage for discovering gold mines ; Manual of Technology. In 1815 he was chosen to

and at present is much declined from its former

consequence. the newly established chair of Rural Economy at

VILLAGE, n. s.

Fr. village. A small colGroningen, and in 1819 published a treatise on


lection of houses in the counthat subject. He died in 1825, having written se

VIL'LAGERY, try, less than a town: an veral other works.

VILLATIC, adj. inhabitant of a village : a VILL, n. s. Fr. ville ; Lat. villa. A village; a small collection of houses. Little in use.

district or collection of villages : villatic is belongThis book gives an account of the manureable lands ing to villages. in every manor, town, or vill.


The country villages were burnt down to the ground. VIL'LA, n. s. Lat. villa. A country seat.

Knolles. The antient Romans lay the foundations of their

The early village cock villas and palaces within the borders of the sea. Addison.

Hath twice done salutation to the morn. Shaksveure



Brutus bad rather be a villager,

In 1733 he was sent into Italy, where he took Than to repute himself a son of Rome

Pisighitone, and died at Turin 1734. Under such hard conditions.

Id. VILLENAGE, in law. The folk-land, or esRobin Goodfellow, are you not he

tates held in villenage, was a species of tenure That fright the maidens of the villagery? Id. When once her eye

not strictly feudal, Norman, or Saxon; but mixed Hath met the virtue of this magick dust,

and compounded of them all; and which also, on I shall appear some harmless villager ;

account of the heriots that usually attend it, may

seem to have somewhat Danish in its composition. Whom thrift keeps up about his country geer. Milton. Next in order ranged

Under the Saxon government there were, as Sir Of tame villatic fowl.

William Temple speaks, a sort of people in a conIf there are conveniences of life, which common use dition of downright servitude, used and employed reaches not, it is not reason to reject them because in the most servile works, and belonging, both every villager doth not know them.

Locke. they, their children, and effects, to the lord of the VILLAIN, n. s. Fr. vilain ; low Lat. vil- soil, like the rest of the cattle or stock upon it. VIL'LANAGE, lanus

. One who held by a These seem to have been those who held what was VILLANIZE, v.a. base tenure : hence, in

called the folk-land, from which they were reVIL Lanous, adj. { modern times, a low man

moveable at the lord's pleasure. On the arrival of VilʻLANOUSLY, adv. | from whatever cause;

the Normans here, it seems not improbable, that VIL'LANY, n. s. j wicked wretch : villanage, they, who were strangers to any other than a feudal the state or tenure of a villain; servitude; base- state, might give some sparks of enfranchiseness; infamy: villanize, debase; degrade; de

ment to such wretched persons as fell to their share, fame: villanous, base ; vile; sorry; wicked: the by admitting them, as well as others, to the oath of adverb following corresponds: villany is wicked- fealty; which conferred a right of protection, and

raised the tenant to a kind of estate superior to ness; baseness; a wicked action.

downright slavery, but inferior to every other conWe were prevented by a dozen armed knights, or dition. This they called villenage, and the tenants rather villains, who, using this time of their extreme

villeins. These villeins, belonging principally to feebleness, all together set upon them. Sidney. They exercise most bitter tyranny

the lords of manors, were either villeins regardant,

that is, annexed to the manor or land; or else they Upon the parts brought into their bondage : No wretchedness is like to sinful villanage. Spenser.

were in gross, or at large, that is, annexed to the O villain! villain ! his very opinion in the letter. Ab- person of the lord, and transferable by deed from horred villain! unnatural, detested, brutish villain!

one owner to another. They could not leave their Shakspeare.

lord without his permission; but if they ran away, We shall lose our time,

or were purloined from him, might be claimed and And all be turned to barnacles or apes,

recovered by action, like beasts or other chattels. With foreheads villanous low.

Id. They held indeed small portions of land by way of The Irish inhabiting the lands fully conquered, being sustaining themselves and families; but it was al in condition of slaves and villains, did render a greater the mere will of the lord, who might dispossess them revenue than if they had been made the king's free sub- whenever he pleased ; and it was upon villein jects.


services, that is to carry out dung, to hedge and Upon every such surrender and grant there was but ditch the lord's demesnes, and any other the one freeholder, which was the lord himself ; all the rest were but tenants in villanage, and were not fit to be base but uncertain both as to their time and

meanest offices : and their services were not only sworn in juries.

Id. Such villa nies roused Horace into wrath;

quantity. A villein could acquire no property, And 'tis more noble to pursue his path

either in lands or goods; if he purchased either, Than an old tale.


the lord might seize them to his own use; unless he No villany, no flagitious action, was ever yet com contrived to dispose of them again before the lord mitted, but a lie was first or last the principal engine to had seized them. In many places also a fine was effect it.

South. payable to the lord, if the villein presumed to marry Calm thinking villains, whom no faith could fix; his daughter to any one without leave from the lord, Of crooked counsels and dark politicks. Pope. and, by the common law, the lord might also bring

VILLAIN, or Villein, in our ancient customs, an action against the husband for damages for thus denotes a man of servile or base condition, riz, a purloining his property. For the children of vilbond-man or servant.

leins were also in the same state of bondage with VILLALPANDUS (Jolin Baptist), Jesuit, who their parents; whence they were called in Latin died in 1608. He wrote a comment on Ezekiel, nativi, which gave rise to the female appellation 3 vols. folio, 1596, and an Exposition of St. Paul's of a villein, who was called a neife. In case of a Epistles.

marriage between a freeman and a neife, or a vilVILLARET (Claude), born at Paris 1715. He lein and a free woman, the issue followed the was first an actor, then became an author. He condition of the father, being free if he was free, continued Velley's Ilistory of France, and wrote and villein if he was villein ; contrary to the maxim a treatise on Acting, and a tract On the Mind of of the civil law, that partus sequitur ventrem. But Voltaire. He died in 1766.

no bastard could be born a villein, because by VILLARS (Lewis Hector), peer and marshal of another maxim of our law he is nullius filius; and France, and grandee of Spain, was born at Mou as he can gain nothing by inheritance, it were bard lins in 1653. After distinguishing himself on va that he should lose his natural freedom by it. The rious occasions in the army, he was made marshal law, however, protected the persons of villeins de-camp in 1690, and was sent against Marlborough, against atrocious injuries of the lord: for he might but was defeated at Malplaquet, and danger- not kill or maim his lein ; though he might beat ously wounded. He was appointed plenipoten him with impunity. Villeins might be enfranchised tiary for concluding a peace at Rastadt in 1714. by manumission. In process of time they gained

considerable ground on their lords; and in particular villenage, noted by Bracton, and remaining to this strengthened the tenure of their estates to that de- day, viz. that they cannot be conveyed from man to gree that they came to have in them an interest in man by the general common law conveyances of many places full as good, in others better than feoffment, and the rest; but must pass by surrender their lords. For the good-nature and benevolence to the lord or his steward, in the manner of comof many lords of manors having, time out of mind, mon copyholds; yet with this difference, that, permitted their villeins and their children to enjoy in the surrenders of these lands in ancient demesne, their possessions without interruption, in a regular it is not used to say, 'to hold at the will of their course of descent, the common law, of which cus- lord,' in their copies ; but only, 'to hold according tom is the life, now gave them title to prescribe to the custom of the manor.' against their lords; and, on performance of the VILLENEUVE (Gabrielle Susannah Barbot, De), same services, to hold their lands, in spite of any novel writer, was the widow of a French lieutenantdetermination of the lord's will. For though in colonel. Her novels are numerous. She died in 1755. general they are still said to hold their estates at VILLERS (Charles François Dominique de), the will of the lord, yet it is such a will as is agree- a modern French writer, was a native of Belchen able to the custom of the manor; which customs in Lorraine, where he was born 1764. In the are preserved and evidenced by the rolls of the se- earlier part of his life he served as a lieutenant of veral courts baron in which they are entered, or kept artillery, but on the breaking out of the revolution on foot by the constant immemorial usage of the emigrated, and joined the Royalist force under the several manors in which the lands lie. And as prince de Condé. After this he retired to Lubec, such tenants had nothing to show for their estates and devoted himself to literary pursuits. Villers but these customs, and admissions in pursuance obtained the prize given by the institute for an of them entered on these rolls, or the copies of such Essay on the Influence of the Reformation ; and entries witnessed by the steward, they now began was at length invited to fill the professor's chair in to be called tenants by copy of court roll, and philosophy at Gottingen. This situation, when the their tenure itself a copyhold.

French influence predominated, he was compelled VILLENAGE, PriviLEGED, a species of tenure to resign, but received a pension. During the ocotherwise called villein soccage. See Tenure. cupation of Hanover by the troops of that nation, Ancient demesne consists of those lands or manors under Davoust, the excesses committed by the which, though now perhaps granted out to private soldiery induced him to address a letter to Fanny subjects, were actually in the hands of the crown Beauharnois, with the hope of procuring, through in the time of Edward the Confessor or William her interest, some mitigation of these evils; but the the Conqueror, and so appear to have been, by only effect was to draw on its author the personal the great survey in the exchequer, called doomsday hatred of the French commander. He also adbook. The tenants of these lands, under the dressed to the Institute two reports on the state of crown, were not all of the same order or degree. ancient literature, and on the history of Germany. Some of them, as Britton testifies, continued for The Swedish government made him a chevalier of a long time pure and absolute villeins, dependent the order of the polar star. Villers died in the spring on the will of the lord ; and common copyholders of 1815. in only a few points. Others were in a great mea VILLIERS (George), duke of Buckingham, was sure enfranchised by the royal favor; being only born at Brookesby, 1592.

He became a very bound in respect of their lands to perform some of great favorite of James I., who advanced him to his the better sort of villein services; but those deter- dignity of duke, and made him a knight of the minate and certain; as, lo plough the king's land garter, lord high admiral, and master of the horse, for so many days, to supply his court with such and gave him the disposal of all places in church a quantity of provisions, and the like; all of which and state. He retained the same place in the favor are now changed into pecuniary rents; and in con- of Charles I., but the people detested him. He sideration hereof they had many immunities and took the command of an expedition for the relief privileges granted to them; as, to try the right of of Rochelle, instead of which he made a descent iheir property in a peculiar court of their own, on the Isle of Rhé, and lost the greater part of called a court of ancient demesne, by a peculiar his troops. A new expedition was planned, but process denominated a writ of right close; not to he was stabbed by a lieutenant Fellon, when at pay toll or taxes ; not to contribute to the expenses Portsmouth ready to embark, 23d of August 1628. of knights of the shire; not to be put on juries, Villiers (George), duke of Buckingham, son of and the like. These tenants, therefore, though the preceding, was born in 1627. He was educated their tenure be absolutely copyhold, yet have an at Cambridge, and, on the breaking out of the civil interest equivalent to a freehold: for though their wars, served the king with great zeal, till the ruin services were of a base and villeinous original, yet of the royal cause, when he went abroad.

He the tenants were esteemed in all other respects to afterwards accompanied Charles II. to Scotland, be highly privileged villeins; and especially for and was with him at the battle of Worcester, when that their services were fixed and determinate, and he had the good fortune to escape. By marrying that they could not be compelled (like pure vil- the daughter of lord Fairfax, he recovered a princileins) to relinquish those tenements at the lord's pal part of his estate before the Restoration, when will, or to hold them against their own : et ideo he was made a lord of the bed-chamber, member of (says Bracton) dicuntur liberi. Lands holding by the privy-council, and master of the horse. But, this tenure are therefore a species of copyhold, and entering into a conspiracy against the king, he as such preserved and exempted from the operation lost his places. He afterwards recovered the royal of the statute of Charles II. Yet they differ from favor, and was sent ambassador to France.

He common copyholds, principally in the privileges died in 1688. He wrote the celebrated comedy before mentioned : as also they differ from free- of the Rehearsal, and some poems. His morals holders by one especial mark and tincture of were very dissipated.

VIL·LOUS, adj. Lat. villosus. Shaggy; rough; cennes, a favorite resort of the Parisians. Populafurry.

tion 1800. The liquor of the stomach, which with fasting grows

VINCENNES, a post town of the United States, sharp, and the quick sensation of the inward villinus coat and capital of Knox county, Indiana, on the east of the stomach, seem to be the cause of the sense of bank of the Wabash, 100 miles from its junction hunger.

Arbuthnot. with the Ohio, in a direct line, and nearly 200 VIMIN’EQUS, adj. Lat. viminus. Made of miles by the course of the river. twigs.

VINCENT (Thomas), a divine who continued

to preach regularly during the plague. He died in As in the hive's vimineouis dome

1671. He wrote God's Terrible Voice in the City Ten thousand bees enjoy their home; Each does his studious action vary,

by Plague and Fire, an Explanation of the Cale

chism, and other religious books. To go and come, to fetch and carry.


VINCENT (Nathaniel), a non-conformist, wrote VINCA, in botany, a genus of the monogynia the Conversion of a Sinner, and the Day of Grace, order, and pentandria class of plants; natural 8vo.; several sermons and other pious books. Ile order thirtieth, contortæ : cor. twisted; there are two died in 1697. erect follicles : SEEDS naked. There are five spe Vincent (William), D. D., master of Westcies; only two of which are natives of Britain. minster School, was born in London in 1739. He 1. V. major, great periwinkle. It has a woody, was educated at Westminster, and Trinity College, erect stem; leaves broader and sharper pointed; Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship. In pedicles of the flowers straight, and calyx as long 1762 he became an usher, and nine years after sucas the tube; otherwise like the next. 2. V. minor, ceeded to the office of second master, at Westminsmall periwinkle, has a woody, creeping, slender, ster. He now took the degree of D. D., and was crooked stem; leaves long, oval, entire, pointed, appointed chaplain in ordinary to the king. In opposite, glossy. Flowers single, on long curved 1778 he became vicar of Longdon, in Worcesterpedicles from the alæ of the leaves, which are large shire; but soon after resigned his benefice for the and blue.

rectory of Allhallows, Thames Street, in London. VINCE (Rev.Samuel), A. M., F.R.S., late Plu- In 1788 he became head master at Westminster, mian professor of astronomy and experimental where he continued to preside till 1801, when he philosophy a: Cambridge, was of humble Suffolk was made a prebend; and two years after he sucparentage; but the munificence of Mr. Tilney, of ceeded to the deanery of Westminster, on the proHarleston, enabling him to enter himself of Caius motion of Dr. Horsley to the see of St. Asaph. As College in 1775, he distinguished himself by gain- an author dean Vincent is principally known on ing one of Smith's mathematical prizes, and became account of his commentary on Arrian's Voyage of the senior wrangler of his year. In 1796, then a Nearchus ; and his Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, fellow of Sidney Sussex College, he was elected to republished together under the title of The Comthe professorship, which he afterwards filled in so merce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian distinguished a manner, and which he held till his Ocean, 1807, 2 vols., 4to. The Voyage of Neardeath in 1821. His works are a treatise on the chus was translated into French by Billecocq, Elements of Conic Sections, 8vo. 1781; another Paris, 1800. Dr. Vincent died in December 1815. on Practical Astronomy, 4to., 1790; Plan of a He published also The Conjugation of the Greek Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy, 8vo., Verb, and the Greek Verb Analysed; A Defence 1793 ; The Principles of Fluxions, 2 vols., 8vo. of Public Education; and a Charity Sermon. A 1795; The Principles of Hydrostatics, 8vo., 1796, volume of his Discourses, with his life, was pub1800; A Complete System of Astronoiny, 2 vols., lished posthumously. 410., 1797–1799 : 3 vols., 4to., with additions, Vincent (St.), an island of the West Indies, 1814; A Vindication of Christianity against the is twenty-three miles long, and eighteen broad, objections of Hume, in two discourses, preached containing 84,000 acres, of which nearly one half before the University, 1798-1809; A Treatise on consist of mountains incapable of improvement. Trigonometry, the nature and use of Logarithms, The island is sufficiently watered by twenty small &c., 8vo., 1800; A Confutation of Atheism, from rivers, turning sugar mills. It is divided into five the Laws of the Heavenly Bodies, 8vo., 1806; and parishes, with one town, named Kingston, on the On the Hypotheses accounting for Gravitation from south-west, and three insignificant villages. The Mechanical Principles, 8vo., 1806. He was, at population in 1787 was 1450 whites and 11,853 the time of his decease, rector of Kirkby Bedon, negroes. In the same year the exports of the vicar of South Creak (both in Norfolk), and arch- island sold for £186,450 in England. They were deacon of Bedford.

composed of coffee 634 cwt., cotton 761,880 lbs., VINCENNES, a town and castle of France, sugar 65,000 cwt., rum 88,000 galls., and cocoa near the confluence of the Seine and Marne, 143 cwt.' The peace establishinent of the island is about three miles east of Paris. The castle was


a regiment of regular infantry, and a company, built in a remote age, as a country residence of artillery, besides a Negro corps, raised in the the royal family. It continued a palace during island, and a militia of two regiments, serving three centuries; but, since Louis XIV. removed without pay. The governor's salary is £2000. the court of Versailles, has been used as a state Vincent, Cape St., the south-west point of prison. It is surrounded by a deep ditch, and Portugal, noted for the naval victory gained off it has nine towers, of great height and solidity. The on 14th February 1797, by Sir John Jervis. Long. largest, called the dungeon, is surrounded by a 8° 58' 39" W., lat. 37° 2' 54" N. separate ditch of forty feet in depth. It was here Vincent (St.), Bay, a bay on the north coast of that the unfortunate duke d'Enghien was murdered Terra del Fuego, a little to the east of cape on 21st March 1804. Adjoining to the castle is a Vincent. fine park, and a forest called the Bois de Vin VINCENTIUS, one of the Christian Fathers,



A. D. 434. His works are best edited by Balu- those counsels where divine justice avenges the innozius, Paris, 1699.

L'Estrange. VINCI (Leonard), Da, was born in the castle of Do not too many believe no zeal to be spiritual but Vinci near Florence in 1445. Verochio was his what is censorious or vindicative? whereas no zeal is master, whom he soon excelled, as he did all the spiritual that is not also charitable.

Sprat. painters of his time. At Milan he founded his ce

Where the respondent denies any proposition, the lebrated school of painting. He was also an excel- opponent must directly vindicate and confirm that

propolent architect, and constructed the famous aqueduct clusion of his next syllogism.

sition ; i. e. he must make that proposition the con

Watts. which supplies Milan with water. From that place he went to Florence, where he labored with Michael

VINE, n. s. Lat. vinea. The plant that

VINEYARD, Angelo, in ornamenting the grand council chamber.

bears the grape: the field or At the invitation of Francis I. he visited the French

Vi'nous, adj. ground where vines grow: vi

VINT'AGE, n. s. court, where he died in the arms of that monarch,

nous is consisting, or having the

VINT'NER. in 1520. He composed a great number of discourses

qualities, of wine: vintage, the on curious subjects; but none of them have been annual produce of vines, or the season for gathering

it: published but his Treatise on the Art of Painting.

: vintner, a seller of wine. VINCIBLE, adj. Lat. vinco. Conquerable;

The captain left of the poor to be vine-dressers. superable.

2 Kings. He, not vincible in spirit, and well assured that short

The vine-prop elm, the poplar never dry. Spenser. ness of provision would in a short time draw the sedi

Let us not live in France ; let us quit all, tious to shorter limits, drew his sword. Hayward.

And give our vineyards to a barbarous people. Shaksp.

The vintner may draw what religion he pleases. VINCULUM, in algebra, a character in form of

Howell, a line, or stroke drawn over a factor, divisor, or The best wines are in the driest vintages. Bacon. dividend, when compounded of several letters or Our first success in war makes Bacchus crown, quantities, to connect them, and shows that they And half the vintage of the year our own. Waller. are to be multiplied or divided, &c., together by the The motion of the oily drops may be in part due to other term. Thus d xa+b-c shows that d is

some partial solution made by the vinous spirit. Boyle.

Water will imbibe
to be multiplied into a +b-
VINDALIUS, a writer in the age of Augustus,

The small remains of spirit, and acquire
A vinous flavour.

Philips. who wrote ten books on agriculture.

Depending vines the shelving cavern screen, VINDELICI, an ancient people of Germany, With purple clusters blushing through the green. between the head of the Rhine and the Danube;

Pope. Vindelicia, their country, forms now part of Su The vintner, by mixing poison with his wines, deabia, and Bavaria, and Augsburg was their chief stroys more lives than any malignant disease. Swift. town, Augusta Vindelicorum.

Vine, in botany. See Vitis. VINDEʻMIATE, v. n. Lat. vindemia. To VINEGAR, n. s. Fr. vinaigre. Wine, or vigather the vintage.

nous liquor, grown sour; any thing acid or acrid, Now rindemiate, and take your bees towards the ex- literally or metaphorically. piration of this month.

Evelyn. Some laugh like parrots at a bag-piper, VINDEX (Julius), a governor of Gaul, who And others of such vinegar aspect revolted against Nero, and on being defeated slew That they'll not shew their teeth in way of smile. himself.

Shakspeare. VIN'DICATE, v.a.? Lat. vindico. To justify; the hot sun; and therefore vinegar will not burn, much

Vinegar is made by setting the vessels of wine against Vindica’tion, n. s. | support; maintain; clear; of the finer parts being exhaled.

Bacon. Vindicative, adj. ( proiect from censure; Heaven's blest beam turns vinegar more sour. Pope. Vix'DICATOR, n. s.

( avenge: vindication, vinVindic'ATONY, adj. | dicative, vindicator, and trating liquor, prepared from wine, cyder, beer,

VINEGAR, acetum, an agreeable acid and peneVindic'TIVE. j vindicatory, follow all and other liquors ; of considerable use, both as a these senses : vindictive means given to revenge; medicine and a sauce. The word is French, vinaimalicious; and is only used in this sense.

gre; formed from vin, 'wine;' and aigre, ‘sour'. He, in heat of action,

See ACETUM, and CHEMISTRY. Wine and other Is more vindicative than jealous love. Shakspeare.

vinous liquors are changed into vinegar by the acePublic revenges are for the most part fortunate; but in private revenges it is not so. Vindicative persons live

tous fermentation, which is nothing more than the the life of witches, who, as they are mischievous, so end acidification or oxygenation of wine, produced in they unfortunate.


the open air by means of the absorption of oxyger. The afflictions of Job were no vindicatory punish- Vinegar is composed of hydrogen and carbon united ments to take vengeance of his sins, but probatory chas- together in proportions not yet ascertained, and tisements to make trial of his graces. Bramhall. changed into the acid state by oxygen. As vinegar

The fruits of adusted choler, and the evaporations of is an acid, we might conclude from analogy that it a vidicative spirit.


contains oxygen; but this is put beyond doubt by I may assert eternal providence,

direct experiments. In the first place, we cannot And vindicate the ways of God to man. The more numerous the offenders are, the more this change wine into vinegar without the contact of air

containing oxygen; secondly, this process is acjustice is concerned to vindicate the affront. Tillotson.

companied by a diminution of the air in which it is Suits are not reparative, but vindictive, when they are cotomenced against insolvent persons.

carried on from the absorption of its oxygen; and,

Kettlewell. Augustus was of a nature too vindictive to have con. thirdly, wine may be changed into vinegar by any tented himself with so small a revenge. Dryden.

other means of oxydation. Independent of the Assemble ours, and all the Theban race,

proofs which these facts furnish of the acetous acid To vindicate on Athens thy disgrace.

Id. being produced by the oxygenation of wine, an exDistinguish betwixt a passion purely vindicative, and periinent made by Chaptal gives a distinct view of

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