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cording to Bergius and some others, they possess instruments; and hence it is of all others the fittest an anodyne and pectoral quality. 2. V. palustris, for dancing. Yet there are ways of touching it marsh violet. The leaves are smooth, reniform, two which render it grave, soft, languishing, and fit for or three on each foot-stalk; flowers pale blue, small, church or chamber music. It generally makes inodorous. An infusion of the flowers is an ex the treble or highest parts in concerts. Its harcellent test of the presence of acids and alkalies. mony is from fifth to fifth. Its play is composed 3. V. tricolor, pansies, heart's-ease, or three faces of bass, counter-tenor, tenor, and treble; to which under a hood. The stems are diffuse, procumbent, may be added a fifth part; each part has four fifths, triangular; the leaves oblong, cut at the edges; which rise to a greater seventeenth. See Music. stipula dentated; the flowers purple, yellow and VIOLONCELLO, of the Italians, is properly our light blue; inodorous.

fifth violin ; which is a little bass violin, half the VI'OLATE, v.a. ) Latin violo. To injure; size of the common bass violin, and the strings VIOLA'TION, n. s. hurt; infringe ; break in bigger and longer in proportion; consequently VIOLA'TOR, upon; ravage ; ravish; de- its sound is an octave lower than our bass violin; VI'OLENCE, flour: the next two noun

which has a noble effect in concerts. Vi'OLENT, adj. substantives follow these VI’PER, n. s.? Lat. vipera. A serpent: hav

Vi’OLENTLY, adv. senses : violence is, force; VI'Perous, adj. S ing the qualities of a viper. strength; force employed in outrage ; attack; as A viper came out of the heat, and fastened on his sault; injury; eagerness; vehemence: the adjec- hand.

Acts. tive and adverb corresponding.

He'll gall of asps with thirsty lip suck in ; Those offences which are by their special qualities The viper's deadly teeth shall pierce his skin. Sandys. breaches of supernatural laws, do also, for that they

We are peremptory to dispatch

Shakspeare. are generally evil, violate in general that principle of This vip’rous traitor. reason, which willeth universally to fly from evil. Some vip'rous critick may bereave

Hooker. Th' opinion of thy worth for some defect. Daniel. We might be reckoned fierce and violent, to tear away

Viper-catchers have a remedy, in which they place that, which, if our mouths did condemn, our consciences such great confidence as to be no more afraid of the would storm and repine thereat.


bite of a viper than of a common puncture. This is no Some violent hands were laid on Humphry's life.

other than axungia viperina, presently rubbed into the

wound. Shakspeare.

Derham. Some of violated vows

Viper, in zoology. See COLUBER, Poison, and 'Twixt the souls of friend and friend.

SERPENT. Angelo is an adulterous thief,

Viper's Bugloss, n. s. Lat. echium. A plant. An hypocrite, a virgin violator.

Id. Each flower is succeeded by four seeds, which are in A noise did scare me from the tomb;

form of a viper's head.

Miller. And she, too desperate, would not go with me;

Viper's BUGLOSS. See ECHIUM. But, as it seems, did violence on herself.


Viper's Grass. See SCORZONERA. Flame burneth more violently towards the sides than

VIRA'GO, n. s. in the midst.

Lat. virago. A female warrior; Bacon.

a woman with the qualities of a man; a brawling Ancient privileges must not, without great necessities,

or violent woman. be revoked, nor forfeitures be exacted violently, nor penal laws urged rigorously.


Melpomene is represented like a virago, or manly Grieved at his heart, when looking down he saw

lady, with a majestick and grave countenance. Peach.

To arms! to arms! the fierce virago cries,
The whole earth filled with violence, and all flesh
Corrupting each their way.


And swift as lightning to the combat fies. Pope. Forbid to violate the sacred fruit.

Id. VIRECTA, in botany, a genus of plants of the Conqueror death discovers them scarce men ; class pentandria, and order of monogynia. Violent or shameful death their due reward,

VIR'ELAY, n. S. Fr. virelay, virelai. A sort I would violate my own arm rather than a church. of little ancient French poem, consisting only of


two rhymes and short verses with stops. Not used. Kindness for man, and pity for his fate,

The band of flutes began to play May mix with bliss, and yet not violate. Dryden. To which a lady sung a virelay :

we cannot, without offering violence to all records, And still at every close she would repeat divine and human, deny an universal deluge. Burnet.

The burden of the song, The daisy is so sweet. Dryd. The posture we find them in, according to his doctrine, must be looked upon as unnatural and violent; and no

VI'RENT, adj. Lat. virens. Green; not faded. violent state can be perpetual.


In these, yet fresh and virent, they carve out the May such places, built for divine worship, derive a

figures of men and women.

Browne. blessing upon the head of the builders, as lasting as the VIRGE, n. s. Lat. virga; better VERGE, which curse that never fails to rest upon the sacrilegious viola- see, from Fr. verge. A dean's mace. ters of them!

South. Suppose him now a dean compleat, VIOLET, n. s. Fr. violette ; Lat. viola. A Devoutly lolling in his seat; flower.

The silver virge, with decent pride, When daisies pied, and violets blue,

Stuck underneath his cushion side.

Swift. Do paint the meadows much bedight. Shakspeare. VIRGIL, or Publius VIRGILIUS MARO, prince

Sweet echo, sweetest nymph, that liv’st unseen of the Latin poets, was born at Andes, near ManBy slow Meander's margent green,

tua, about seventy years B.C.

His first years And in the violet-embroidered vale.


were spent at Cremona, whence be removed to Rome, Violet, in botany. See Viola.

when his country was partitioned out among the VIOLET CRAB, in zoology. See CANCER. soldiers after the battle of Philippi. There, by

VIOLIN, or Fiddle, a musical instrument, means of his friend Mæcenas, he was introduced mounted with four strings or guts, and struck or to Augustus, who restored to him his estate. On played with a bow. The style and sound of the this occasion he wrote his first Eclogue; and, on violip is the gayest and most sprightly of all other completing the Bucolics, he wrote the Georgics. VOL. XXII.

2 E


After these were finished, and had been read by the most part desert and barren, and extend sixty Augustus, he began the Æneid at the request of miles in length, and upwards of thirty-six in the emperor. The poet was engaged eleven years breadth ; but they are every way dangerous to naon this immortal work, but died without revising vigators, though there is a basin in the midst of it at Brundusium, B.C. 19, in the fifty-second them of eighteen or twenty miles in length, and year of his age. He left the greatest part of his nine or twelve in breadth, in which ships may property to Mæcenas, Tucca, and Augustus. His anchor, and be sheltered and landlocked from all remains were interred on a spot in the road leading winds, which is called the Bay of Sir Francis Drake, from Naples to Puteoli. He was of a remarkably from his having passed through them to St. Dotimorous disposition. The best editions of Virgil mingo. The English and Danes divide most of are Baskerville's 4to., Birmingham, 1757; the Vari- them; but the Spaniards claim those near Porto orum, 8vo., 1661 : and Glasgow, 12mo. 1758. This Rico. poet has been well translated into English by Dry VIRGINIA, one of the United States of North den, Pitt, and Warton,

America, is bounded north by Pennsylvania and VIRGIL (Polydore), an historian, born at Urbino Maryland; north-east by Maryland, from which it in Italy, was sent in the beginning of the sixteenth is separated by the Potomac; east by the Atlantic; century by pope Alexander VI., as sub-collector of south by North Carolina and Tennessee; west by the Papal tax called Peter pence, into this kingdom. Kentucky; and north-west by Ohio. It is 370 Having gained the favor of Henry VIII., he was pre- miles long, and 290, where widest, broad; containferred step by step to the archdeaconry of Wells. By ing about 64,000 square miles. The number o. order of that sovereign he wrote a History of the militia, in 1817, amounted to 84,010. England in Latin, more elegant than faithful. The counties, population in 1810, and chief Polydore continued in England during the whole towns, are exhibited in the following table reign of Henry VIII., and part of that of Edward VI. In 1550 he requested leave to revisit his native Counties. Population.

Chief Towns. country. He was accordingly dismissed with a Accomack

15,743 Drummondt'wn present of 300 crowns, and the privilege of holding Albermarle 18,268 Charlottesville his preferments to the end of his life. He died Amelia

10,594 at Urbino in the year 1555. He wrote also, 1. De Amherst


New Glasgow Rerum Inventoribus ; of which an English transla- Augusta

14,308 Staunton tion was published by Langley in 1663. 2. De Bath


Warm Springs Prodigiis et Sortibus. 3. Episcoporum Angliæ Bedford

16,148 Liberty Catalogus, MS. 4. De Vita Perfecta, Basil, 1546, Berkeley


Martinsburg 1553, 8vo. 5. Epistolæ Eruditæ ; and some other Botetourt

13,301 Fincastle works.



VIRÄGIN, n. s., adj., & v.n.

dierge ;

15,411 VIR'GINAL, adj., n. s., & v. n. Lat. virgo.

A Buckinghara 20,059

New Canton VIRGIN'ITY, n. s. maid; a woman Campbell

11,001 Lynchburg unacquainted with man; any thing pure or un- Caroline


Port Royal touched; the sign Virgo in the zodiac: as an Charles City 5,186 adjective, befitting or like a virgin : to virgin is Charlotte

13,161 Marysville used by Shakspeare for to play the virgin : virginal Chesterfield

9,979 Manchester is, maiden; becoming or pertaining to a virgin : as


9,992 Cartersvill a noun substantive, a musical instrument: to strike Culpeper

18,967 Fairfax or pat, as on the musical instrument so called : vir. Cabell

2,717 ginity is, maidenhead ; state of being unacquainted Dinwiddie 12,524 Petersburg with man.

Elizabeth City


Hampton On the earth more fair was never seen,


9,376 Tappahannock Of chastity and honour virginal. Faerie Queene.



Warrentown This aspect of mine hath feared the valiant ;


13,111 Centreville The best regarded virgins of our clime


4,775 Columbia Have loved it too.

Shakspeare. Frederick

22,574 Winchester What says the silver with her virgin hue ? Id. Franklin

10,724 Rocky Mount A kiss


10,427 Long as my exile, sweet as my revenge,


10,203 I carried from thee, my dear : and my true lip Grayson

4,941 Greensville Hath virgined it e'er since.



Still virginalling upon thy palm.


6,858 Hicksford Purity is a special part of this superstructure, restrain

Giles ing of all desires of the flesh within the known limits of


Halifax conjugal or virginal chastity. Hammond.

South Boston

22,133 Natural virginity of itself is not a state more accept- Hampshire


Romney able to God; but that which is chosen in order to the Hanover


Hanover conveniences of religion, and separation from worldly Hardy

5,525 Moorfields incumbrances.

Taylor. Harrison

9,958 Clarksburg With ease a brother overcame


9,945 Richmond The formal decencies of virgin shame. Cowley. Henry

5,611 Martinsville Likest to Ceres in her prime,

Isle of Wight 9,185 Smithfield
Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove.

James City

9,094 Williamsburg VIRGIN ISLANDS, a cluster of islands in the Jefferson

11,851 Charlestown West Indies, situated to the east of Porto Rico. Kenhawa

3,866 Charlestown They are upwards of twenty in number, but for King and Queen 10,988 Dunkirk

Counties. Population.

Chief Towns. Winchester, with permission to establish a branch King George 6,454

at some one of the counties of Jefferson, Berkley, King William

9,285 Delaware Hampshire, or Hardy. Lancaster

5,592 Kilmarnock Four colleges have been established in this state; Lee

4,694 Jonesville William and Mary College, at Williamsburg ; Loudoun

21,338 Leesburg Washington College, at Lexington ; Hampden SidLouisa 11,900

ney College, in Prince Edward county; and Central Lunenburg


Hungary College, at Charlottesville. There are academies Madison


at Abingdon, Clarksburg, Danville, Lynchburg, Matthews 4,227

New London, Martinsburg, Norfolk, Petersburg, Mecklinburg 18,453

St. Tammany Staunton, Winchester, Dinwiddie C. H., GloucesMiddlesex


ter C. H., near Halifax C. H., in Albermarle -Monongalia 12,793 Morgantown county, also Potomac Academy in Prince George Monroe


Uniontown county, Rappahannock Academy in Caroline Montgomery

8,409 Christiansburg county, and Rumford Academy in King William Mason

1,991 Point Pleasant county. The literary fund of Virginia, which conNansemond


sists of moneys received from the United States, Nelson 9,684

for military expenses during the late war, and fines, New Kent


Cumberland penalties, forfeitures, escheats, &c., amounted in Nicholas

stock and funds, December 10th, 1817, to Norfolk county


90,380,831 dollars; the interest of which, accordNorthampton 7,474

ing to the president and directors, in their report Northumberland 8,308 Bridgetown to the general assembly, would be 61,534,49 dolNottaway 9,278

lars per annum. Of this sum 45,000 dollars are Ohio

8,175 Wheeling appropriated, by the act of the legislature, to the Orange


Stannardsville support of primary schools, and 15,000 dollars to Patrick 4,695

the university which has been projected, and Pendleton


which, it is expected, will soon be established. Pittsylvania 17,172


The denominations of Christians in Virginia, are Powhatan 8,073

Baptists, who according to the Baptist Report, in Preston

1817, had 314 congregations; Presbyterians, who Prince Edward 12,409

Jamestown had in 1818, forty-one ordained ministers, and sevePrincess Anne 9,498 Kempsville ral licentiates : Episcopalians, who had in 1817 Prince William 11,311 Haymarket thirty-four ministers; Friends, who had in 1812 Prince George 8,050

thirty-three meetings. There are also many MethoRandolph 2,854 Beverly

dists, some Lutherans, Roman Catholics, Jews, &c. Richmond 6,214

The legislature is composed of a senate and house Rockbridge

10,318 Lexington of representatives. The senate consists of twentyRockingham 12,753

four 'members, chosen for four years, by districts, Russell 5,316 Franklin

one-fourth being chosen every year. The repreShenandoah

13,646 Woodstock sentatives are chosen annually, two from each Southampton 13,497 Jerusalem county, and one from several cities and boroughs. Spotsylvania 13,296 Fredericksburg The governor is chosen annually by a joint ballot Stafford


Falmouth of both houses, and can hold the office but three Surry 6,855 Cobham

years in seven. The principal rivers are the PotoSussex 11,362

mac, Shenandoah, Rappahannock, Matapony, PaTazewell

3,007 Jeffersonville munky, York, James, Rivanna, Appomatox, ElizaTyler

beth, Nottaway, Meherrin, Staunton, Kenhawa, 0Warwick 1,885

hio, Sandy, Monongahela, and Cheat. The staple Washington 12,136 Abingdon productions are wheat and tobacco. The exports of Westmoreland 8,102 Leeds

the state, for the year ending September 30th, 1817, Wood

3,036 Newport amounted to 5,621,442 dollars; and the value of Wythe

8,356 Evansham the manufactures, in 1810, was estimated at York 5,187 York

15,203, 473 dollars. Richmond City 9,735

The state of Virginia may be divided into four Norfolk Borough 9,193

zones, essentially differing from one another. The Petersburg 5,668

first extending from the sea-coast to the termination Richmond is the metropolis of the state. The of tide at Fredericksburg, Richmond, &c., is low other most considerable towns are Norfolk, Peters- and flat, sometimes fenny, sometimes sandy, and burg, Lynchburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, on the margin of rivers composed of a rich loam Portsmouth, Williamsburg, Staunton, and Wheel- covered with a luxuriant and even rank vegetation. ing. The bank of Virginia was established_at This part is unhealthy in the months of August, Richmond in 1804, with branches at Norfolk, Pe- September, and October. The next division extersburg, Fredericksburg, and Lynchburg. The tends from the head of tide-water to the Blue Ridge. Farmers' Bank of Virginia was established in 1812, The surface near the tide-water is level; higher at Richmond, with branches at the same places, up the rivers it becomes swelling; and near the and at Winchester in addition. The western bank mountains it is often abrupt and broken. The soil of Virginia was established in 1817, at Wheeling, is divided into sections of very unequal quality, with permission to establish branches at Wells- parallel to each other, and extending throughout burg, Morgantown, and Clarksburg. The bank of the state. The parallel of Chesterfield, Henrico, the valley in Virginia was established in 1817, at Hanover, &c., is a thin, sandy, and, except on the




rivers, an unproductive soil. That of Goochland, VIRIPLACA, a goddess among the Romans, Cumberland, prince Edward, Halifax, &c., is gene- who presided over the peace of families. rally fertile. Fluvanna, Buckingham, Campbell, VIRMILION, n. s. Properly VERMILION, Pittsylvania, again, are poor; and Culpeper, which see. A red color. Orange, Albermarle, Bedford, &c., a rich, though

Ægle, the fairest Nais of the food, frequently a stony, broken soil, on a substratum of With a virmilion dye his temples stained. Roscommon. tenacious and red colored clay. The population of

VIRTUE, n. s. Latin virtus.

Power; this section, especially near the mountains, is more

VIR'TUELESS, adj. efficacy; excellence; varobust and healthy than that of any other part of

Vir’tuoUS, the state. The scenery of the upper part is highly

lor; particularly moral VIR TUOUSLY, adv.

excellence: picturesque ard romantic. There is a vein of

Vir’TUOUSNESS, n. s. | Milton speaks of an order limestone running through Albermarle, Orange, &c.

VIR'TUAL, adj. of angelic beings under Pit coal of a good quality is found within twenty

Vir’tually, adv. this name: the adjectives, miles above Richmond, on James river. The third

VIRẤTUATE, v. a. adverb, and noun subdivision is the valley between the Blue Ridge, and

stantive following, follow each of these senses : North and Alleghany mountains; a valley which virtual means having real, though unseen or unacextends, with little interruption, from the Potomac, knowledged, efficacy: the adverb corresponding : across the state, to North Carolina, and Tennessee, virtuate, to make efficacious (not used). narrower, but of greater length, than either of the preceding divisions. The soil is a mould formed on Jesus, knowing that virtue had gone out of him,

Mark. sometimes broken by sharp and solitary mountains love of Britomert, and virtuousness of Belphæbe ; and bed of limestone. The surface of the valley is turned him about.

Many other adventures are intermed ed; as the detached from the general chain, the sides of which, the lasciviousness of Helenora.

Spenser. nearly bare, or but thinly covered with blasted pines,

Out of his hand form disagreeable objects in the landscape. The bed That virtuous steel he rudely snatched away. of the valley is fertile, producing good crops of In In sum, they taught the world no less virtuously how dian corn, wheat, rye, oats, buck wheat, hemp, flax, to die, than they had done before how to live. Hooker. timothy, and clover. The farms are smaller than Trust to thy single virtue ; for thy soldiers in the lower parts of Virginia, and the cultivation Took their discharge.

Shakspeare. is better. Here are few slaves.—This valley has

All blest secrets, inexhaustible mines of excellent iron ore. Chalk All you unpublished virtues of the earth,

Id. is found in Botetourt county. The fourth division Be aidant and remediate. extends from the Alleghany mountains to the river The devil their virtue tempts not, they tempt heaven.

They that mean virtuously, and yet do so, Ohio; a country wild and broken, in some parts

Id. fertile, but generally lean or barren; but having

In Belmont is a lady, mines of iron, lead, coal, salt, &c.—The soil of a

And she is fair, and fairer than that word, great proportion of the county of Randolph, and of wondrous virtues.

Id. the adjacent counties in the north-west part of the Some observe that there is a virtuous bezoar, and anstate, is of an excellent quality, producing large other without virtue ; the virtuous is taken from the crops of grain. The surface is uneven and hilly. beast that feedeth where there are theriacal herbs; and The county is well watered, is excellent for graz- that without virtue, from those that feed where no such

Bacon. ing, and bas a very healthy climate. There are many mineral springs in Virginia.

Heat and cold have a virtual transition, without

ld. The hot and warm springs of Bath county, the communication of substance. sweet springs of Monroe county, the sulphur Which, with Her virtuous drugs, so tame she made,

Before her gates, hill-wolves and lions lay; springs of Greenbrier and of Montgomery counties, That wolf

, nor lion, would one man invade. Chapman. and the baths of Berkley county, are much fre

She moves the body, which she doth possess ; quented.—The most remarkable curiosities are

Davies. the Natural Bridge, the passage of the Potomac Yet no part toucheth, but by virtue's touch.

Some would make those glorious creatures virtueless. at Harper's Ferry, the cataract of Falling Spring,

Hakeuill. and several caves.

They are virtually contained in other words still conVIRGO, in astronomy, one of the signs or con- tinued.

Hammond. stellations of the zodiac. See ASTRONOMY.

Not from gray hairs authority doth flow, VIRIATHUS, a shepherd of Lusitania, who, Nor from bald heads, nor from a wrinkled brow; from heading a gang of robbers, came to command But our past life, when virtuously spent, a powerful army. He made war against the Ro- Must to our age those happy fruits present. Denham. mans for fourteen years with success. Many gene He owned the virtuous ring and glass.

Milton. rals, and Pompey himself, were beaten. Cæpio being Thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers, sent against him, meanly bribed his servants to

Id. murder him.

What she wills to do or say,

Id. VIRIDOMARUS, a young man of great power Is wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best. among the Ædui. Cæsar greatly honored him, but

Every kind that lives,

Fomented by his virtual power and warmed. Id. he fought at last against the Romans.

Neither an actual or virtual intention of the mind, VIRʻILE, adj. ? Fr. virilité ; Latin virilitas. VIRILʻITY, n. s. ) Manly; belonging to man

but only that which may be gathered from the outward

Stillingtleet. hood: manhood; character of man.

Nor love is always of a vicious kind, The lady made generous advances to the borders of But oft to virtuous acts inflames the mind. Dryden. virility.


The ladies sought around The great climacterical was past, before they begat For virtuous herbs.

Id. children, or gave any testimony of their virility; for The coffeeman has a little daughter four years old, none begat children before the age of sixty-five. Browne. who has been virtuously educated.


herbs are.


If there's a power above us,

A tenuous emanation, or continued effluvium, after And that there is, all nature cries aloud

some distance, retraceth unto itself, as is observable in Through all her works, he must delight in virtue, drops of syrups and seminal viseosities. Browne. And that which he delights in must be happy.

Id. The air, being mixed with the animal fluids, deterRemember all his virtues,

mines their condition as to rarity, density, viscosity, teAnd shew mankind that goodness is your care. Id. nuity.

Arbuthnot. They are not sure by virtue of syllogism, that the Catharticks of mercurials precipitate the viscidities by conclusion certainly follows from the premises. Lucke.

their stypticity.

Floyer. This they shall attain, partly in virtue of the promise VISCONTI (John Baptist Anthony), an Italian made by God: and partly in virtue of piety,

antiquary, born at Vernazza, in 1722, was educated Atterbury.

at Rome by an uncle, a painter, and who designed Virtue only makes our bliss below.


his nephew for that profession. But the latter preA winged virtue through the' etherial sky From orb to orb unwearied dost thou fly. Tickel.

ferred the study of antiquities, and purchased the Religion, virtue, truth, whate'er we call

office of apostolic notary. Becoming connected A blessing-freedom is the pledge of all.


with the celebrated Winckelmann, he succeeded him, 'Tis to the virtues of such men, man owes

in 1768, in the station of prefect or commissary of His portion in the good that heaven bestows. Id. antiquities; and Clement XIV., on his elevation to

Virtue, in ethics, a term used in various sig- the papacy, having formed the design of founding nifications. In general it denotes the power, or the a new museum in the Vatican, the execution of the perfection of any thing, whether natural or super- plan was entrusted to Visconti. Among the relics natural, animate or inanimate, essential or accessory.

of former ages brought to light was the tomb of But, in its more proper or restrained sense, virtue the Scipios, relative to which Visconti published signifies a habit, which improves and perfects Letters and Notices in the Roman Anthology; he the possessor and his actions. See Moral Phi- was the author also of some other archæological

memoirs. His death took place September 2, 1784. LOSOPHY.

VIRTUOʻSO, n. s. Ital. virtuoso. A man skilled He was appointed editor of the Museum Pio-Clein antique or natural curiosities; or in the fine mentinum, but the text accompanying the engrav

ings of that work was written by his son. arts. Methinks those generous virtuosi dwell in a higher

Visconti (Ennius Quirinius), eldest son of the region than other mortals.

Glanville. preceding, was born at Rome, November 1, 1751, Virtuoso, the Italians call a man who loves the noble and studied under his father. At three years and arts and is a critick in them. And, amongst our French a half old he was able to read Greek and Latin, in painters, the word vertueur is understood in the same which he sustained at this period a public examisignification.

Dryden. nation. His subsequent progress was not less reThis building was beheld with admiration by the markable; in 1764 he translated from Greek into virtuosi of that time.


Italian verse the Hecuba of Euripides. He Showers of rain are now met with in every water- studied the canon and Roman law, and in 1771 work; and the virtuosos of France covered a little vault took the degree of doctor: soon after he was made with artificial snow.


a papal chamberlain and sub-librarian of the VatiVIRÄULENT, adj. Fr. virulent ; Lat. viru- can. Having however formed an attachment to a VIR'ULENCE, n. s. lentus. Poisonous ; venom- lady, whom he wished to marry, he refused to enter

VIR'ULENCY. ous: hence malignant; bit- into holy orders; in consequence of which he was ter of spirit : the noun substantive corresponding. through the interference of his father deprived of

Disputes in religion are managed with virulency and his post. A reconciliation, however, subsequently bitterness.

Decay of Piety.

took place. It instils into their minds the utmost virulence, in VI'SCOUNT, n. 8. ? Latin vicecomes. A title stead of that charity which is the perfection and orna VI'SCOUNTESS. of nobility: the lady of a ment of religion.


viscount. VIRULENT, a term applied to any thing that yields Viscount signifies as much as sheriff; between which a virus; that is a contagious or malignant pus. two words there is no other difference, but that the one

VIS'AGE, n. s. French visage; Ital. visaggio. comes from our conquerors the Normans, and the other Face; countenance; look.

from our ancestors the Saxons. Viscount also signifies His visage was so marred more than any


a degree of nobility next to an earl, which is an old Isaiah.

name of office, but a new one of dignity, never heard Phebe doth behold

of among us till Henry VI. his days. Cowell. Her silver visage in the watery glass,

Viscount (Vice Comes), was anciently an officer Decking with liquid peal the bladed grass. Shakspeare. under an earl, to whom, during his attendance at With hostile frown,

court, he acted as deputy to look after the affairs And visage all inflamed, first thus began. Milton. of the county.

Now a viscount is created by Love and beauty still that visage grace;

patent as an earl is; his title is Right Honorable; Death cannot fright 'em from their wonted place.

his mantle is two doublings and a half of plain fur; Waller.

and his coronet has only a row of pearls close to the VISCERA, in anatomy, a term signifying the circle. same with entrails; including the heart, liver, VISCUM, in botany, a genus of plants of the lungs, spleen, intestines, and other inward parts class diæcia, order tetrandria, and in the natural of the body. See Anatomy, Index.

system arranged under the forty-eighth order, agVIS’CID, adj. Lat. viscidus. Viscid and gregatæ. The male calyx is quadripartite; the an Viscid'ity, n. s. viscous mean glutinous; te- theræ adhere to the calyx; the female calyx consists Viscos'ity, nacious: the noun substan- of four leaves; there is no style; the stigma is Vis'cous, adj. tives corresponding.

obtuse. There is no corolla; the fruit is a berry Holly is of so viscous a juice as they make birdlime with one seed. There are nine species; only one of the bark.

Bacon. of which is a native of Britain, viz. V. album, ne

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