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extend with the course of the river, dividing it into professor of Greek and Latin in the university of three channels. They afford the finest rice fields Paris : but, Bellai being disgraced, Wilson's prosin the state.

pects faded. Wilson was taken ill at Avignon, and WILMOT (John), earl of Rochester, a great the cardinal proceeded without him. After his rewit in the reign of Charles II., the son of Henry covery, he paid a visit to the celebrated cardinal earl of Rochester, was born in 1648. He was Sabolet, the Mæcenas of his time, who was also taught classical learning at the free-school at Bur- bishop of Carpentras, where he then resided. The ford. In 1659 he was admitted a nobleman of cardinal was so charmed with his erudition that he Wadham College, where he obtained the degree of appointed him professor of the learned languages, M. A. He afterwards travelled through France with a stipend 100 pistoles per annum. During and Italy; and at his return was made one of the his residence at Carpentras, he wrote his celebrated gentlemen of the bed-chamber to the king, and treatise De Animi Tranquillitate. Mackenzie says comptroller of Woodstock park. •In 1665 he went that he afterwards taught philosophy in Italy; and to sea, and was in the Revenge, commanded by that, being at length desirous of returning to ScotSir Thomas Tiddiman, when an attack was made land, he began his journey homeward, was taken ill on Bergen. During the action, he acted so well, at Vienne in Dauphiny, and died there in 1547. that he gained a high reputation for courage, which He was generally esteemed an accomplished line he supported in a second expedition, but afterwards guist, philosopher, and Latin poet. He wrote, belost it in a private adventure with lord Mulgrave. sides the above treatise, 1. Poemata, Lond. 1619, His mode of life had never been regular; but at 4to. 2. Commentatio quædam theologica in apholast he became so sunk in debauchery that he was rismos dissecta, per Sebast. Gryph. 3. Philosofor five years together intoxicated. In October phiæ Aristot. Synopsis, lib. iv 1679, when recovering from a violent disease, which Wilson (John), a native of Kendal in Westended in a consumption, he was visited by Dr. morland, whose first employment was that of Burnet. The doctor published an account of their knitting stockings; but, acquiring a great knowledge conferences ; in which it appears that, though he had of botany, he commenced lecturer on that science, lived the life of a libertine and atheist, yet he died both at Kendal and Newcastle, with great success. the death of a penitent and Christian. His death in 1744 he published A Synopsis of British Plants, happened in 1680; since which time his poems in Mr. Ray's method, 8vo. He died in 1750. have been various times printed, both separately Wilson (Matthias). See Knot. and together; but many pieces not of his writing Wilson (Richard), an eminent painter, born at have crept into the later editions.

Pineges in Montgomeryshire, in 1714. He stuWILNA, an extensive province of the north- died portrait paintings at London; and in 1749 west of European Russia, containing the north went to Italy. In 1755 he returned to London part of Lithuania. It extends from 53° 40' to 56° with high reputation, became a member of the 15' of N. lat. ; has an area of 2300 square miles; Royal Academy, and in 1779 librarian. He died and a population of 1,000,000. The trade, such as in 1782, aged sixty-eight. it is, is carried on by the Jews. The principal WILSON (Thomas), lord bishop of Sodor and rivers are the Niemen, the Vilia, the Pripez, and Man, was born in 1663, at Burton, in Cheshire. the Narew.

He commenced his education at Chester, and Wilna, a city of Russian Lithuania, the chief thence was removed to Dublin. He continued at town formerly of a palatinate, at present of a pro- college till 1686, when, on the 29th of June, he vince or government. It is situated in a hilly was ordained deacon. In 1686 he was licensed country, and occupies several eminences near the to the curacy of New Church in Winwick. In river Vilna or Vilia. Its circuit is nearly four 1692 he was appointed domestic chaplain to Wilmiles; its population, amounting in 1788 to liam earl of Derby, and tutor to his son James lord 21,000, is now nearly 30,000. Like other towns in Strange. He was soon after elected master of the Poland and Russia, it is built chiefly of wood, very alms house at Latham. As his income increased, deficient in cleanliness, and exhibits a striking con be increased the portion of it which was allotted to trast of wretchedness and tawdry magnificence. the purposes of charity. At first he set apart a Wilna is the see of a Greek metropolitan and a tenth, then a fifth, afterwards a third, and lastly, Catholic bishop. Its university, established in when he became a bishop, be dedicated a full hal. 1570, was new modelled by the Russian govern of his revenues to pious and charitable uses. In ment in 1803. Connected with the establishment 1697 he was promoted to the bishopric of the Isle is an observatory and several libraries. There are of Man; a preferment which he held fifty-eight in Wilna also a gymnasium or classical school, a years. This good prelate lived till 1755. His seminary for the education of the Catholic clergy, works have been published in 2 vols. 4to. another for those of the Greek church, and an in Wilson (Thomas), D. D., son of the bishop, stitution for youths of good family. 400 miles was born in 1703, and educated at Christ Church, S.S. W. of Petersburg, and 195 east of Konigsberg. Oxford, where he graduated in 1739. He became

WILSON (Florence), known by the name of rector of St. Stephen Walbrook, a prebend of Florentius Volusenus, was born at Elgin, in the Westminster, and sub-almoner to the king: yet he shire of Murray in Scotland, and educated in the engaged with great keenness in political controuniversity of Aberdeen. Travelling to England, versy, on which he published several tracts. He was he was introduced to Cardinal Wolsey, who ap such an enthusiastic admirer of Mrs. Macaulay, the pointed him tutor to one of his nephews. In that historian, that he set up her statue in the character capacity he went to Paris, and continued there till of liberty, in Walbrook church; which was justly the cardinal's death. During his residence there censured as too high a compliment to a living chahe became acquainted with the learned cardinal racter. He published a pamphlet, entitled DisBellai, archbishop of Paris, who allowed bim a tilled Liquors the Bane of the Nation. He also pub. pension, and meant to have appointed him royal lished his father's works, and died at Bath in 1784.

WILTON, a borough, market-town, and parish, district. These soils, with all their consequent in Branch and Dole hundred Wiltshire, situate on mixtures and variations, may be said to constitute the river Willy, three miles west by north of Salis- the far greater part of this district. The soil of the bury, and eighty-five from London ; containing North District is not so uniform as that of the 390 houses, and 2058 inhabitants, a considerable South District. It may, nevertheless, be reduced number of whom are employed in the carpet and to a few leading particulars. The under stratum clothing manufactures, but the principal trade is of a large portion is a loose irregular mass of flat now in flannel and fancy woollens. It has a mar- broken stones, called in the country corn-grate.' ket on Wednesday,

It runs, without interruption, through the northWilton-house, the seat of the earl of Pembroke, west part of Wiltshire. The upper soil of this is the most magnificent house in the county. The corn-grate is chiefly a kind of reddish calcareous whole of its avenues, staircases, and chambers, are loam, mixed with irregular flat stones, and is usuornamented with most curious statues, vases, and ally called stone-brash. A vein of gravel of a most antiques, collected from all parts of the world, excellent, small, pebbly, shelly sand, and in geneand paintings by the most celebrated English and ral covered with a good depth of rich loam, runs foreign artists. Here Sir Philip Sidney wrote bis in a broken line from Melksham, through ChippenArcadia.

ham to Cricklade; but its greatest extent is from WILTSHIRE, by some early writers, is called Tytherton, through Christian Malford and Dantzey, Severnia, and Provincia Severorum, from Servia, a to Somerford; and the richest part of it perhaps name by which Old Sarum was formerly known. is at or near Dantzey. There are two principal It derives its present name from Wilton, which veins of sand this district, in general red, of a was formerly the most considerable place in the sharp, loose, gravelly texture, and of course not so county. The northern part was in early times in- fertile as the tough close lands of South Wilts. habited by that tribe of the Belgæ distinguished by The greatest part of the residue of the soil of this the name of Cangi. During the heptarchy this dis- district, and particularly from Highworth by trict formed part of the kingdom of the West-Saxons. Wootton Basset to Clack, lies on a hard close rock It is an inland county, bounded on the north and of a rough irregular kind of bastard limestone. The north-west by Gloucestershire, on the west by Somer- soil over this kind of stone is various, but generally setshire, on the south-west by Dorsetshire, on the cold, owing to its own retentive nature, and to the south and east by Hampshire, and on the north- frequent intervention of a vein of clay. Bradon Foeast by Berkshire. It is about fifty-four miles in rest (between Cricklade and Malmsbury) is an length, and thirty-four in the greatest breadth. It exception to the whole: it is a cold iron clay to is divided into two districts, viz. South Wiltshire the very surface; so bad as to be called, by way and North Wiltshire. This division is generally of distinction, Bradon land ;' and, says Mr. Damade by supposing an east and west line to pass vis, whom we have before been quoting, never so through the county, at or near Devizes. This well applied as when in its original state of woodcounty is in the province of Canterbury and the land. diocese of Salisbury, and is comprehended in the The principal rivers of Wiltshire are the Thames, western circuit. It is divided into twenty-nine the Upper and the Lower Avon, the Nadder, the hundreds, containing one city, twenty-five market Willey, the Bourne, and the Kennet. The Thames towns, fifteen boroughs, and 304 parishes. Salis- enters the north part of the county, between Cirenbury is considered as the county town.

cester in Gloucestershire and Tetbury, and runs There being a considerable difference between eastward by Cricklade into Berkshire. The Lower the two great parts of this county, it has been Avon enters this county near Malmsbury, takes a thought proper by Mr. Davis, in his Agricultural southern course by Chippenham, where it becomes Report, to consider the circumstances of each dis- enlarged by the Colne and other rivulets into a trict distinctly. The air on the whole is salubrious wide stream, and winding westward, by Melksham and agreeable: on the Downs it is sharp. and and Bradford, leaves the county, and pursues its clear; and in the valleys mild, even in winter. course towards Bath.

The Upper Avon rises The cold sharp air of the Wiltshire Downs is so among the hills, nearly in the middle of the county, well known as to be almost proverbial. The soil about Devizes; runs southward by the city of of South Wilts, though various, is in a certain de- Salisbury, where it receives the united streams of gree uniform : the hills are chalk, with its usual the Willey and the Nadder; hence it flows into accompaniment of flint; and in general the land on Hampshire, and at Christchurch makes its exit the sides of the hills, from which the flints have into the British Channel. The Nadder, a serpenbeen washed, is a chalky loam, or rather a dis- tine river, rises near Shaftsbury in Dorsetshire, upon solved chalk; the flatter parts are a flinty loam, the western borders of this county, and flowing and the centre of the valleys, through which the ri- north-east falls into the Willey at Wilton. The vulets run, is a bed of broken Aints covered with Willey rises near Warminster, and running southblack earth washed from the hills above. In some east, after receiving the Nadder, falls into the Upof the valleys there are veins of peat formed by the per Avon on the east side of Salisbury. The Kenblack earth without any mixture of flints : hence net rises near the source of the Upper Avon, and the white land prevails most near the sources of runs eastward by Marlborough into Berkshire. the rivulets, where the hills are steepest; and the The smaller rivers of the county are the Colne, the flinty loams near the junction of the rivulets, where Were, and the Deverill. This last dives under the county is flattest. The sides of the hills which ground, like the Guadiana in Spain, and the Mole have been most washed are the thinnest and weak- in Surrey, and pursues its subterraneous course est soils; and the level tops, which have been very upwards of a mile, then rising runs onward tolittle if at all washed, are frequently the deepest wards Warminster. The canals of Wiltshire are and strongest land. There are some instances of the Thames and Severn Canal, which passes strong clays and clayey loams on the skirts of this through only a small part of the extreme boundary

of the county. The Kennet and Avon Canal, from a considerable manufactory of cutlery, and steel the river Kennet at Newbury in Berkshire to the river goods, perhaps, for excellence of workmanship, suAvon at Bath in Somersetshire, passing through perior to any in the kingdom; Wilton, a large the very heart of the county by the town of De- manufactory of carpets and fancy woollens; Devizes and Bradford. The Wilts and Berks Canal, vizes, a considerable manufactory chiefly of fancy which enters the county from Berkshire near South woollens; Bradford, Trowbridge, Warminster, Marston, passes by Swindon and Wootton Basset; Westbury, and all the adjacent towns and villages, and, with branches to Chippenham and Calne, ex- from Chippenhamn to Heytesbury inclusive, carry tends southwards to Melksham, near which town on most extensive woollen manufactories, princiit unites with the Kennet and Avon.--Wiltshire pally of superfine broad-cloths, kerseymeres, and has no peculiarity of natural productions. Great fancy cloths; at Mere and its neighbourhood there numbers of sheep and cattle for the London mar- is a manufactory of linen, chiefly dowlas and bedkets are bred there. Neither are there any particu- ticks; at Albourn, a manufactory of cotton goods, lar mineral productions.

chiefly strong goods, thicksets, &c.; at Swindon Wiltshire sends thirty-four representatives to and its neighbourhood, a considerable manufactory parliament: viz. two for the county, two for the of gloves. There is, indeed, scarcely a town in the city of Salisbury, two for Old Sarum, two for Wilc county that has not a manufactory of some kind or ton, two for Downton, two for Hindon, two for other. Heytesbury, two for Westbury, two for Calne, two WI’LY, adj.

From wile. Cunning; sly; for Devizes, two for Chippenham, two for Malms Wi'lily, adv. full of stratagem ; insidious: bury, two for Cricklade, two for Great Bedwin, WI’LINESS, n. s. the adverb and noun substantwo for Luggershall, two for Wootton Basset, two tive corresponding. for Marlborough.

They did work wilily, and went and made as if they The following are some of the most eminent per- had been ambassadors.

Joshua. sons born there :-The great, the wise, and good The ungodly, for his own lust, doth persecute the Joseph Addison, moralist, poet, dramatic writer, poor : let them be taken in the crafty wiliness that they

Psalm x. 2: critic, and miscellaneous writer, was born at Mil- have imagined. ston, May 1, 1672, and died June 17, 1719.

They are so cautelous and wily headed, especially Christopher Anstey, the ingenious author of the being men of small practice in law matters, that you New Bath Guide (a work more distinguished for would wonder whence they borrow such subtilities and

Spenser. its humor and poetry, than for its decency and

In the wily snake piety), was born, as is supposed, at Harden He- Whatever slights, none would suspicious mark, rish, near Chippenham, in the year 1724.-Died in As from his wit and native subtilty 1805.—Dr. Thomas Bennet, a learned divine and Proceeding.

Milton. controversial writer. Born at Salisbury in 1673. My wily nurse by long experience found, Died in 1728.—Sir John Davis, an ingenious poet, And first discovered to my soul its wound and lord chief justice of the Court of King's 'Tis love, said she.

Dryden. Bench. Born at Chisgrove in 1570. Died about WIMÖBLE, n. s. & adj. Belg, wimpel, from 1626. He married a daughter of lord Audley: she wemelen, to bore. An instrument with which pretended to prophetical powers, and printed seve- holes are bored, by turning: nimble. ral pamphlets of revelation. She died in 1652.

He was so uimble and so wighl, Stephen Duck, an ingenious poet and divine, but From bough to bough he leaped light,

And oft the pumies latched.

Spenser originally a thrasher. - James Harris, a philological and philosophical writer. Born at Salisbury Who ply the wimble, some huge beam to bore ;

As when a shipwright stands his workmen o'er, in 1709. Died in 1780.-Thomas Hobbes, a

Urged on all hands it nimbly spins about, learned but eccentric philosophical and metaphy; The grain deep piercing till it scoops it out. sical writer. Born at Malmsbury in 1588. Died The trepan is like a wimble used by joiners. Sharp. in 1679.—John Hughes, an ingenious poet, dra WIMPINA (Conrad), a learned professor of matic, and miscellaneous writer. Born at Marl- divinity at Frankfort, in the sixteenth century. He borough in 1677. Died February 17, 1720. He wrote against Luther under the name of John had a brother named Jabez, who published a Tetzel. He died in 1529. translation of Claudian's Rape of Proserpine, and WIM'PLE, n. s. & v.a. Fr. guimple. A hood; several other works, and died in 1731, aged forty, a veil. Printed in Spenser, perhaps by mistake, six. Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon and lord wimble. To draw down as a veil. chancellor of England. Born at Dinton in 1608. The Lord will take away the changeable suits of apDied at Rouen in 1670.-George Keate, a poet parel, and the wimples, and the crisping pins. and miscellaneous writer. Born at Trowbridge in

Isaiah ii. 22. 1729. Died in 1797.—Dr. Henry Sacheverell, a

So fair and fresh, as fairest flower in May, notorious political preacher. Born at Marlborough For she had laid ber mournful stole aside, in 1672. "Died in 1724.—Dr. John Scott, author And widow-like sad wimble thrown away. Spenser.

The same did hide of the work entitled, The Christian Life, &c. &c.

Under a veil that wimbled was full low. Born at Chippenham in 1638. Died in 1694.

WIN, v.a. & v. n. Pret. wan and won; part. Thomas Tanner, bishop of St Asaph, a very learned and industrious antiquary. Born at Market-La- Swed. winna. To gain by conquest; obtain; al

Sax. pinna; Belg. winnen; Goth. and vington in 1674. Died 1738.-Şir Christopher lure: to gain the victory; obtain influence or Wren, an ingenious and celebrated architect, was

favor; be conqueror. born at East Knoyle in 1632. Died in 1723. The extent of manufactures in the county of

The town of Gaza, where the enemy lay encamped,

was not so strong but it might be won. Knolles. Wilts is very great; but the woollen manufactory

Thy virtue uon me; with virtue preserve me. Dost is by far the greatest.–Salisbury manufactures great thou love me? Keep me then still worthy to be beloved. quantities of Aannels and fancy woollens, and has




pass. won.

A gamester, having lost all, borroweth of his next WINCHCOMBE, a market-town and parish in fellow-gamester somewhat to maintain play; which he Kiftsgate hundred, Gloucester, situate at the source setting unto him again, shortly winneth all from the of a small brook that falls into the Avon, among winner.


the Cotswold hills, six miles north-east of CheltenGo together,

ham, and ninety-five and a half W.N. W. of LonYou precious winners all; your exultation

don. This is a town of great antiquity, and was Partake to every one.

Shakspeare. Beshrew the winners, for they played me false. Id.

once deemed a county of itself.

WINCHELSEA, a borough and market-town When you see my son, tell him that his sword can never win the honour that he loses.

Id. in Guestling hundred, rape of Hastings, Sussex, She's beautiful, and therefore to be wooed ;

two miles south of Rye, eight north-east of HastShe is a woman, therefore to be won.

Id. ings, and sixty-seven south-west of London. It You express yourself very desirous to win upon the has only one parish church, although it is supposed judgment of your master, and not upon his affections to have had anciently no fewer than eighteen, the only.

Bacon. whole of which were swallowed up by the sea in a He gave him a command in his navy, and under his tempest. That part of Old Winchelsea which was good conduct won many islands.


not swallowed up is now a marsh. About two Nor is it aught but just,

miles to the north-west are the ruins of a castle That he, who in debate of truth hath won, Should win in arms.


called Camber, built by Henry VIII. in 1539. Whether the winner laughs or no, the loser will com

WINCHELSEA (Anne), countess of, was maid of plain ; and, rather than quarrel with his own skill, will honor to the duchess of York, second wife to king do it at the dice.


James II., and was afterwards married to Heneage Thy well-breathed horse

second son of the earl of Winchelsea. One of the Impels the flying car, and wins the course. Dryden. most considerable of the countess of Winchelsea's

He had given a disagreeable vote in parliament, for poems was that on the Spleen. A collection of her which reason not a man would have so much corre

poems was printed at London in 1713, containing spondence with him as to win his money. Addison.

a tragedy never acted, entitled Aristomenes. The Thy words like musick every breast controul, countess died in 1720 without issue. Steal through the air, and win upon the soul. Pope. WINCHESTER, a city, and the county-town of

That flood witnessed his inconstant flame, When thus he swore, and won the yielding dame. Gay. eleven miles N. N. E. of Southampton, and sixty

Hants, situate on the banks of the river Itchin, WINANDERMERE, or WINDERMERE, a pa- two south-west by west of London. Most of the rish in Kendal ward, Westmorland, taking its buildings have the appearance of antiquity, and name from a noted lake of Winandermere. It lies the streets are broad and clean. It is about half a on the western border of the county, at the foot of mile long from east to west, about a mile and a the Furness Fells, and comprehends the three half in compass, and contains eight churches, extownships of Applethwaite, Troubeck, Undermil- clusive of St. Bartholomews at Hyde. beck, and a part of Ambleside. This lake, the

The cathedral was begun in the eleventh century largest in England, is about twelve miles long and by bishop Walkelyn, and was in part rebuilt by one broad, having very winding shores, and being bishop Wickham in 1394. The choir under the from ninety to 222 feet deep. It is distinguished tower was vaulted in the reign of Charles I. The by the variety of beautiful prospects which it exhi- length of this 'magnificent fabric is 545 feet, includbits; and it abounds with excellent fish, but is ing the chapel of our lady, fifty-four feet, and the particularly noted for its delicate char. There are

choir 136. The height of the tower is 138 feet, several little islands in the lake, in the largest of but it appears from the abrupt manner of its terwhich stood an old fabric called Holme's house, mination never to have been finished. The altarnow pulled down, and a curious edifice has been

screen is thought by many to be even superior to built in its place.

that of St. Alban's. The entrance into the choir is WINCANTON, a market-town in Ferris-Norton by a noble flight of steps, the breadth of the middle hundred, Somersetshire, seven miles west of Mere, aisle. On each side of the great arch of the enand 108 west by south of London; containing 390 trance are recesses, wherein are placed the statues houses and 2143 inhabitants, of whom a consider- of king James and Charles I., cast in copper. The able number are employed in the manufacture of cross, from north to south, is divided from the ticking, dowlas, serges, and stockings; it has also choir by wooden partitions, carried up to a vast a good trade in cheese.

height. The stalls in the choir are of fine Gothic WINCE, v. n. Arm. and Welsh gwingo. To workmanship, but the bishop's throne is inferior to kick, as impatient of a rider, or of pain.

the rest. The stone screen, where the high altar is I will sit as quiet as a lamb,

placed, is a neat and delicate piece of Gothic work; I will not stir, nor wince, nor speak a word. Shaksp.

but the niches, formerly ornamented with images, Room, room, for my horse will wince,

have now only urns placed in them. At the west If he came within so many yards of a prince.

end of the church is a painted window, representBen Jonson.

ing the history of the Old Testament, but much WINCH, v. a. The same with wince; or from defaced. At the east end is also a window with Fr. guincher, to twist. To kick with impatience; paintings representing the Virgin Mary, the Sou, shrink from any uneasiness.

and the Father. For many years this church was We who have free souls It touches not : let the galled jade winch,

the place of the coronation of our kings. The east Our withers are unwrung:

end of the church is terminated by three chapels;

Shakspeare. Hamlet. This last allusion galled the panther more ;

that on the south is called bishop Langton's chapel, Yet seemed she not to winch, though shrewdly pained. of curious carved work, containing several elegant

Dryden. iombs. In the centre is the chapel of our Lady, Their consciences are galled; and this makes them in which prayers are read every morning a: six winch and Aing, as if they had some mettle. Tillotson. , o'clock.

The college was founded by William of Wick- ancient castle is supposed to have been built by ham, the warden whereof is appointed by New King Arthur; in it William II., surnamed Rufus, College, Oxford, also erected by the same pious was crowned. During the civil war it was mostly founder. The building consists of two large courts, demolished by the parliamentary forces, except the containing suites of apartments for the warden, ten old hall in which the assizes are still held; in this fellows, seventy scholars, three chaplains, six cho- hall hangs what is denominated Arthur's round risters, masters, &c.; in the centre is an elegant table, with the names of the knights thereon. On chapel; in the second court are the schools, and a the site of the castle a royal palace was begun in long cloister and enclosures for the diversions of 1683, the principal floor of which is a noble range the scholars. In the middle of the cloisters is the of apartments, and contains in all 160 chambers; library, a strong stone building. Over the door of this has often been occupied by prisoners of war the school is a statue of the founder. Contiguous on their parole. Several monasteries and religious to the college, on the west, is a spacious quadran- houses were formerly in the suburbs of this city. gular building, forming a detached school for com- The plague made great devastations here in the moners, or gentlemen not on the foundation, where years 941, 1348, and again in 1668; and at the they live in a collegiate manner under the imme- west end of the town is an obelisk having an indiate care of the head master. The college, chapel, scription commemorative of those calamities. The and school, were completely repaired in 1795. corporation of this city consists of a mayor, reThe mother church of Winchester is St. Lawrence; corder, six aldermen, &c., who, with the free burit consists of one large aisle, with a lofty square gesses, return two members to parliament. Wintower containing five bells. St. Thomas's is an chester has but little trade, though an ancient ancient structure, consisting of two aisles divided wool-combing manufactory still exists, and a silk by round pillars of the Gothic order ; the tower is manufactory has been introduced. All the public a low ordinary building. St. Maurice's was ori- business of the county is transacted in this city. ginally a priory, and consists of two aisles, one of The markets are held on Wednesday and Saturday, which is very spacious; the tower is strong. St. and are well supplied with all kinds of provisions, Michael's is a low and ancient building, tiled, having poultry, fish, &c. two good aisles, and a tower containing five bells. WINCHESTER, a post-town, borough, and capital of St. Šwithin's is erected over a postern called Frederick county, Virginia, thirty miles south-west Kingsgate, and consists of a large neat room, as of Harper's Ferry, seventy W.N.W. of Washingcended to by a stone staircase. St. Peter's Cheese- ton, ninety-five north-east of Staunton, and 150 hill consists of two aisles, of different sizes, both N.N.W. of Richmond. It is pleasantly situated, neat but plain; it has a tower containing three regularly laid out in squares, is a handsome and bells. St. John's at Hill is divided into three flourishing town, and contains a court-house, a aisles by round Gothic pillars; the tower is re- jail, an alms-house, a market-house, containing a markably strong, and finished with a turret con- freemason's hall, two banks, two academies, one taining a clock. St. Martin's Winnall was rebuilt for males and one for females, two printing offices, in 1736, and consists of one aisle, having a small from each of which is issued a weekly newspaper, tower at the west end containing one bell. Besides and six houses of public worship, one for Presbythese churches here are several meeting houses for terians, one for Episcopalians, one for German Dissenters of different denominations. Near the Lutherans, one for Baptists, one for Methodists, cathedral is a college or alms-house, founded by and one for Roman Catholics. The principal street bishop Morley, in 1672, for ten clergymens' widows. is well paved. The town is well built; a large Christ's Hospital, commonly called the Blue Alms, part of the houses are of brick. It is supplied with was founded in 1706; besides which there are a excellent water by an aqueduct. Near the town number of private charities, and three well-endowed there are several medicinal springs; in the vicinity charity-schools. The public infirmary is a hand- there are a number of flour mills. some edifice, erected in 1759, the ascent to which WINCHESTER (Elhanan), the founder of a reliis by a noble flight of steps. In the High Street is gious sect called for a time Winchesterians or a market-cross, having five steps round it; this Universalists, because their distinguishing tenet place serves also for a tish-market. The town-hall, was the ultimate universal salvation of mankind, in the same street, is a handsome building, sup- and also of the devils. Many of them have since ported by Doric pillars; it is ornamented with a become Unitarians. He was a native of the United statue of queen Anne. In 1788 a new spacious States, where he appears to have first broached his county jail was erected on the Howardian plan, in sentiments. He visited this country about 1788, the court of which is a neat chapel ; there is also a and attempted to found a Philadelphian Society, Bridewell for the city and another for the county; and propagated his doctrine by means of a magathe latter erected in 1786. The theatre is a hand- zine and preaching. He contended that as it was some structure, built in 1785. There is an annual certain all are not regenerated in the present life, well-attended music-meeting held here in Septem- there must be room for a farther process of puritber, continuing for three days, which closes with a cation of fallen creatures in a future state; and that ball. Winchester has also its winter assemblies, this would be effected chiefly by the means of concerts, balls, and every other fashionable amuse- punishment in the torments of hell, which, howment. The streets are well paved and lighted, and ever, in some cases might extend to . ages of ages' a new and commodious market-house was erected before the stubborn sinner would be purified. in 1772. Here are two banking-houses.

Besides other literary productions Mr. Winchester Winchester, by the Britons, was called Caer composed an heroic poem on the Process and Gwent, and during the time of the Saxons many Empire of Christ, from his Birth to the Time when of their kings resided here. Athelstan granted it he shall have Delivered up the Kingdom to God the privilege of six mints, and in 660 it was erected even the Father, which he recited from the pulpit into a bishopric, transferred from Dorchester. Its in a chapel in Southwark, and afterwards pub

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