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VIII. He had 100 looms constantly employed; the northern hemisphere begins when the sun is is and let out a troop of his men to the battle of the tropic of Capricorn, and in the southern hemiFlodden.

sphere when in the tropic of Cancer ; so that all WINSLOW (James Benignus), M. P., a very places in the same hemisphere have their winter at celebrated Danish anatomist, a nephew of the the same time. famous Steno, born in 1669. He studied under WINTER BERRY. See PRINOS. Du Verney at Paris, became a convert to the Ca Winter Bloom, a species of azalea. tholic faith, and was baptised by Bossuet, bishop WINTER CHERRY. See Physalis. of Meaux. He became a member of the faculty Winter Citron is a species of citrus. of physicians, and of the Reyal Academy of Paris, WINTER Cress, a species of erysimum. and demonstrator in the king's gardens. He wrote,

Winter GREEN. See PYROLA. 1. A Course of Anatomy, in 4to. 2. A Disserta WINTER GREEN CHICKWEED. See TRIENTALIS. tion on the Uncertainty of the Signs of Death, 2 Winter Green, ivy-flowering, is ? species of vols, 12mo. 3. A Treatise on the diseases of the kalmia. Bones; and other works of value. He died in WINTERA, in botany, a genus of plents of the 1760.

class of polyandria, and order of pentagynia ; and WINSTANLEY (William) was originally a in the natural system arranged under the twelfth barber. He wrote, 1. The Lives of the Poets. 2. order, holoraceæ. The calyx is three-lobed; there Select Lives of England's Worthies. 3. Histori are six or twelve petals; there is no style; the cal Rarities. He died in 1690.

fruit is a berry, which is club-shaped as well as the WINSTON (Thomas), M.D., born in 1575, germen. There are two species, viz. :—1. W. and educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge. In 1602 aromatica, is one of the largest forest trees upon he went abroad, and graduated at Padua. On his Terra del Fuego; it often rises to the height of return he settled in London, and was chosen pro- fifty feet. Its outward bark is on the trunk gray fessor of physic in Gresham College, where he and very little wrinkled, on the branches quite died in 1655. He published his Anatomical Lec- smooth and green. The branches do not spread tures in 1650.

horizontally, but are bent upwards and form an WINTER, n. s., v. n., & v. a. Sax. pinten; elegant head of an oval shape. The peduncles, or WIN'TERBEATEN, adj. Danish, Teuton., foot-stalks for the flowers, come out of the axillæ WIN'TERLY, adv.

and Belg. winter. foliorum, near the extremity of the branches; they Win’try, adj.

The cold season are flat, of a pale color, twice or three times of the year: to pass the winter ; feed or manage in shorter than the leaves; now and then they supthe winter : winterbeaten is harassed by the sea- port only one flower, but are oftener near the top son : winterly and wintry, like, or suitable to, win- divided into three short branches, each with one ter.

flower. The bracteæ are oblong, pointed, concave, The fowls shall summer upon them, and all the entire, thick, whitish, and situated one at the basis boasts of the earth shall winter


them. Isaiah. of each peduncle. There is no calyx; but in its Though he were already stept into the winter of his place the flower is surrounded with a spathaceous age, he found himself warm in those desires, which gem of a thick leathery substance, green, but redwere in his son far more excusable.

Sidney. dish on the side which has faced the sun; before He compareth his careful case to the sad season of the this gem bursts, it is of a round form, and its size is year, to the frosty ground, to the frozen trees, and to his own vinterbeaten flock.

that of a small pea. It bursts commonly, so that one

After summer evermore succeeds

side is higher than the other, and the segments are The barren winter with his nipping cold. Shakspeare.

pointed. The corolla consists always of seven If 't be summer news,

petals. 2. W. Granadensis is a native of Granada. Smile to 't before ; if winterly, thou need'st

WINTRINGHAM (Sir Clifton), Bart., M.D., But keep that countenance still.

Id. and F. R. S., an eminent physician, the son of Dr. The cattle generally sold for slaughter within, or ex Clifton Wintringham, physician at York, who gave portation abroad, had never been handled or wintered at him a liberal education, and died in 1748. In hand-meat.

Temple. The two beneath the distant poles complain

1749 he was appointed physician to the duke of Of endless winter and perpetual rain.

Cumberland, and afterwards to the king, who

Dryden. knighted_him. He published, 1. An ExperiHe saw the 'Trojan fleet dispersed, distressed, By stormy winds, and wintry heaven oppressed. Id.

mental Enquiry into some parts of the Animal Young lean cattle may by their growth pay for their Structure, 1740. 2. An Enquiry into the Exility wintering, and so be ready to fat next summer. Mort.

of the vessels of the Human Body, 1743. 3. De He that makes no reflections on what he reads, only Morquibusdam, 2 vols. 1782 and 1791. 4. An loads his mind with a rhapsody of tales, fit in winte. Accurate edition of Dr. Mead's Monita et Præcepta nights for the entertainment of others. Locke. Medica; cum multis notis. He died at London,

Winter is that season of the year wherein the days 10th January, 1794. are shortest.

Watts. WINWOOD (Sir Ralph) was born in 1565, at The storms of wintry Time shall quickly pass, Aynhoe in Northampton, and educated at MagdaAnd one unbounded Spring encircle all. Thomson.

len College, OxfordHe became secretary to Sir Winter, one of the four seasons or quarters of Henry Neville, minister at Paris, in 1589. In the year. See Season, &c. Winter commences 1607 king James knighted him, and sent him on the day when the sun's distance from the zenith ambassador to Holland, and in 1614 made him of the place is greatest, and ends on the day when secretary of state and a privy counsellor. He ils distance is at a mean between the greatest and died in 1617; and his Memoirs of State Affairs jeast. Under the equator, the winter as well as were published soon after in 1 vol. folio. other seasons return twice every year; but all other WIPE, v. a. & n. s. ) Sax. pipaa; Belg: wip places have only one winter in the year; which in Wi'per, n. s. To cleanse by rubbing;



strike gently off; clear away ; efface (taking out); only weighing one ounce, as Dr. Halley informs touch: the act of wiping; a blow; stroke ; trick; us, is usually drawn into a wire two yards of wbicl. an instrument or agent of wiping.

weigh no more than forty-nine grains, and one The next bordering lords commonly encroach one single grain of gold covers the ninety-eight yards; upon another, as one is stronger, or lie still in wait to so that the 10,000th part of a grain is above onewipe them out of their lands.

Spenser. eighth of an inch long.
Such a handkerchiet,

WIRKSWORTH, a market town and parish in I'm sure it was your wife's, did I to-day

the hundred of the same name, Derbyshire, twelve See Cassio wipe his beard with.

Shakspeare. miles N. N. W. of Derby, and 139 north-west by Let me wipe off this honourable dew,

north of London. That silvery doth progress on thy cheeks.

WIRLEY (William), rouge-croix poursuivant The maids and their makes,

of arms, published The True Use of Arms showed At dancing and wakes, Had their napkins and posies,

by History, and plainly proved by Example, 4to. And the wipers for their noses. * Ben Jonson

He died in 1618. Calumniate stoutly; for, though we wipe away with

WIRTEMBERG, a state of South West Gernever so much care the dirt thrown at us, there will be many, which, since 1806, has borne the title of lest some sulliage behind.

Decay of Piety. kingdom. It forms part of the old circle of Suabia, She a gentle tear let fall

having Bavaria on the east, and the long narrow From either eye, and wiped them with her hair. Milton. territory of Baden on the west. It extends from

Take one in whom decrepid old age has blotted out long. 80 74 to 10° 30' E., lat. 45° 36' to 49° 45' N. the memory of his past knowledge, and clearly wiped out Its oblong form, extending from north to south, is the ideas his mind was formerly stored with. Locke.

similar to that of the principality of Wales; and A young man, having suffered many tortures, escaped its area, about 8000 square miles, is not much with life, and told his fellow Christians, that the pain greater; but its soil is far more fertile, and its of them had been rendered tolerable by the presence of population is at present (1822) not under 1,400,000. an angel, who stood by him and wiped off the tears and Its territorial division is into the four circles of


the Jaxt, the Neckar, the Black Forest, and the To statesmen would you give a wipe

Danube. These are farther divided into twelve You print it in Italick type : When letters are in vulgar shapes,

small counties, each of which is subdivided into "Tis ten to one the wit escapes.


bailiwics. The foundation of this state was the Wipe, a town and river of Prussia, in Samland. old duchy of Wirtemberg, augmented, since 1801, WIRE, n. s.

French virer, to draw by various towns of the empire acquired, and WIRE'DRAW, v.a. round.-Skinner. Metal

abbeys, priories, and other ecclesiastical possesWIRE'DRAWER, N.s. I drawn into slender

sions secularised in the present age. The towns of threads : to spin into wire; draw out into length

Wirtemberg are thinly scattered; the principal literally or metaphorically.

are Stutgard, the capital, containing 22,000 in

habitants; Ulm 15,600; Tubingen 5700; Hall Thou shalt be whipt with wire, and stewed in brine, 5500; Ludwigsburg 5500; Biberach 4400; KirchSmarting in lingering pickle.


heim 4100 ; Schorndorf 3500; Calw 3400; CreilHer veil and mantle pluckt they off by force,

sheim 3100. And bound iter tender arms in twisted wire. Fairfax. And the cherubick host, in thousand quires,

The great natural features of this country are Touch their immortal harps of golden wires. Milton.

masses or ranges of mountains; one called the Those who have need of unmixed silver, as gilders Black Forest extending along the western frontier, and wiredrauers, must, beside an equal weight of silver in a line nearly parallel to the course of the Rhine; mixed with other metals, give an overplus to reward the other, less known out of Germany, called the the refiner's skill.

Locke. Alp, or Alb, an insulated range of rocky hills, I have been wrongfully accused, and my sense wire- destitute of wood, and, in some measure, of verdrawn into blasphemy.

Dryden. dure, which begins near the small town of Rotweil, WIRE, a piece of metal drawn successively and traverses the kingdom in a north-east direction. through a number of iron plate holes into a thread, On these lofty tracts the climate is cold and bleak, of a fineness answerable to the last hole it passed but the rest of the country is covered with emithrough. See Gold Wire, and WIRE-DRAWING, nences or hills of moderate elevation, intersected

WIRE, one of the small Orkney Islands, sepa- by pleasant valleys, which enjoy a climate fully as rated from Rousay by a strait one mile broad. mild and steady as similar parallels of latitude in

Wire Drawing.” Wires are frequently drawn the north of France, viz. Champagne, Picardy, and so fine as to be wrought along with other threads Normandy. The two princip rivers are the of silk, wool, fax, &c. The metals most com- Danube and Neckar. The other rivers are the monly drawn into wire are gold, silver, copper, and Enz, the Muhr, the Kocker, the Jaxt, and the Tauiron. Gold wire is made of cylindrical ingots of ber; the lake of Constance borders an angle of the silver covered over with gold, and thus drawn southern extremity of the kingdom. successively through a vast number of holes, each On the whole this is one of the most fertile tracts smaller and smaller, till at last it is brought to a in Germany. In the level districts of the north, fineness exceeding that of a hair. Before it be corn of all kinds succeeds extremely well; but the reduced to this excessive fineness, it is drawn rugged surface of the Black forest is fit only for the through above 140 different holes; and is every pasture of cattle; that of the Alb for sheep. Potime rubbed over with wax, both to facilitate its tatoes, hemp, and flax, are cultivated in various passage, and to prevent the gold from being rub- parts, particularly in the grounds of medium eleva

off. That admirable ductility wl is one of tion. Fruits of various kinds abound throughout the distinguishing characters of gold is no where the country; and complete woods of apple and more conspicuous than in gilt wire. A cylinder of pear trees are to be seen in different places. The forty-eight ounces of silver, with a coat of gold climate has sufficient warmth for the cultivation of

the grape ; and the native vines have been im There be fools alive, I wis, proved by the introduction of shcots from France, Silvered o'er, and so was this.

Shakspeare, the north of Italy, Hungary, and even from islands WISBEACH, a sea-port and market-town in the in the Mediterranean. The best qualities of the Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, situated on the river Wirtemberg wine are known in England under Nen or Nene, over which is a stone bridge, eight the name of Neckar wine. The Black Forest miles north of March, and ninety north by east of produces abundance of pine and fir, of which London. The church is a singularly constructed considerable quantities are exported. The mineral building, having two naves and two aisles. The products of the mountains are iron, silver, cop- different religious denominations have here places per, coal, and porcelain; but the quantity as of worship; and in the town is a free and other yet extracted from the mines is small, except in schools, for the education of youth. Here are also the case of iron. The manufactures consist of a theatre, a ball and assembly rooms, excellent linen and woollen; there are also iron-works, but market cross, and a custom house. The principal on a small scale.

trade of Wisbeach is in coals, corn, timber, and The king of Wirtemberg is a member of the wine; a canal which opens a communication with Germanic confederation, and holds the sixth place Norfolk and Suffolk, and the western counties, has in the diet. The order of succession to the throne, very considerably promoted its prosperity. Sheep the regulations in the event of a minority, and other and oxen are fattened in great numbers in the fundamental provisions, were determined by a neighbourhood, and sent to London. It is governroyal ordinance of January 1st, 1808; but a much ed by ten burgesses, and has six annual fairs. longer time and more animated discussions were Here was formerly a castle, a residence of the necessary to define the relative power of the sove- bishop of Ely; but the whole property and garreign and his nobility. Matters remained in an dens have been lately purchased and converted into unsettled state until 1819, when a mutual compro- streets. mise took place, and a new constitution was agreed WISCHEART (George), D. D., born in 1609 on, essentially free in its principles. The executive and educated at Edinburgh. He entered into power is vested in the monarch, controlled by a re- episcopal orders, and became chaplain to the great presentative body. The titled classes are numer- marquis of Montrose, whom he attended in bris ous, and still possess extensive privileges; those last expedition, was taken prisoner, and narrowly who had formerly local sovereignty retaining a escaped death. In 1660 he was made bishop of share of judicial power, which renders necessary Edinburgh. He wrote a very curious History of here the same system of appeal as in other parts the Wars in Scotland, and of the Marquis of of Germany. The aggregate revenue is £700,000. Montrose, in 1 vol. 8vo. He died at Edinburgh

The dukes of Wirtemberg were Protestant until în 1669. 1772, when the reigning prince became a Catholic; WISE, adj. & n.s. Sax pis. From Wis. giving, however, to his representative body the Wis'dom, n. s. Knowing; sapient; judgmost solemn pledges that no change should be

ing rightly; prudent; skilintroduced into the religious establishment. In Wise'ly, adv. ful: as a noun substantive, the wars of the French revolution, Wirtemberg WISE'NESS, n. S.

manner of action; appearwas repeatedly traversed by the hostile armies; its ance; mode (obsolete) : wisdom is superior practerritory was in 1796 the ground chosen for con tical knowledge; judicious conduct : wiseacre, a flicts in the advance, as well as in the celebrated satirical name for a dunce: the adverb and noun retreat, of Moreau; in 1799 it was the scene of substantive correspond with the adjective. the defeat of the French under Jourdan; iu 1800 Speak unto all that are wise-hearted, whom I have of their renewed success under Moreau. The filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make treaty of Luneville (February 1801) was followed Aaron's garments.

Exod. xxviii. 3. next year by a treaty of indemnity, when it suited On this wise ye shall bless Israel. Numb. vi. 23. the politics of France to secure to the duke of They are wise to do evil, but to do good they have Wirtemberg an acquisition of territory, and the

no knowledge.

Jer. iv. 22. rank of elector in the German empire. A similar

Ere we farther pass, I will devise

Spenser. policy led to a farther extension of his dominions,

passport for us both, in fittest wise.

No less deserveth his wittiness in devising, his pithi. on the peace of Presburg in December 1805; and, on joining the contederation of the Rhine in wiseness.

ness in uttering, his pastoral rudeness, and his moral

Id. 1806, the royal title, with some additional territory, That which moveth God to work is goodness, and was conferred on him. These honors and acquisi- that which ordereth his work is wisdom, and that tions were necessarily followed by an implicit which perfecteth his work is power.

Hooker. obedience to the French governnient; and the As from senses reason's work doth spring, Wirtembergers, like their Bavarian neighbours, So many reasons understanding gain, were doomed to lose the flower of their troops in And many understandings knowledge bring, Russia in 1812. In the following year the re

And by much knowledge wisdom we obtain. Davies. mainder of the forces fought under the French

He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valour

Shakspeare. banners until the evacuation of Germany, when To act in safety.

There was an old fat woman even now with me. the allies, having engaged to serve the king in his _Pray, was 't not the wise woman of Brainford ? Id. various acquisitions, received his support in the

It must be a wise Being that is the cause of those invasion of France.

wise effects.

Wilkins. WIRY. See WIERY.

Heaven is for thee too high ; be lowly wise. Milton. · WIS, v.d. Pret. and part. pass. wist. Germ.

Doubt not but God wissen ; Belg. wysen. To think; imagine. Ob- Hath wiselier armed his vengeful ire

Id. solete.

Wisdom is that which makes men judge what are the When Mammon saw his purpose mist,

best ends, and what the best means to attain them. Him to entrap unwares, another way he wist. Spenser.



All the writings of the ancient Goths were composed Jews, who their whole wealth can lay in verse, which were called runes, or viises, and from In a small basket, on a wisp of hay. Dryden. thence the term of wise came.


WISSING (William), an eminent portrait He sits like discontented Damocles,

painter, born at Amsterdam in 1656. He was a When by the sportive tyrant wisely shown The dangerous pleasure of a flattered throne. Dryden.

disciple of Dodraens, and on coming to Londen

was employed by Sir Peter Lely, whose manner he Why, says a wiseacre that sat by him, were I as the imitated. He painted most of the royal family, king of France, I would scoro to take part with the and rivalled Kneller. He died in 1687. footmen.

Admitting their principles to be true, they act wisely: WIST'FELLY, adic

. } earrest; full of thought of they keep their end, evil asit is, steadily in view. Rogers.

desire: the adverb corresponding. Wisdom usually denotes a higher and more re

With that he fell again to pry fined notion of things immediately presented to Through perspective more wistfully,

Hudibras. the mind, as it were by intuition, without the as

Why, Grubbinel, dost thou so wistful seem ? sistance of ratiocivation. Sometimes the word is There's sorrow in thy look.

Gay. more immediately used in a moral sense, for what

Lifting up one of my sashes, I cast many a wistful we call prudence or discretion, which consists in melancholy look towards the sea.

Swift. the soundness of the judgment, and a conduct

WIT, v. n. & n. s. Sax. rypeiz, from answerable thereto.


pitan, to know; Belg. Wisdom Of Solomon, one of the books of the

WIT'LESS, adj.

wetan ; Mod. Gothic apocrypha. It abounds with Platonic language,

WIT'LING, n. s.

witan. To know; and was probably written after the Caballistic phi


used now only in the losophy was introduced among the Jews.

WIT’TY, adj. Wise (Francis), B. D. and F. S. A., was fellow

phrase "to wit,' i. e. WIT’TILY, udv.

to make known, that of Trinity College, Oxford, and assistant to Dr.

WITTINESS, 1. s. Hudson in the Bodleian library: He becanie rec- faculties; the intellect; the imagination; fancy;

J is to say: the mental tor of Rotherfield Grays in Oxfordshire, keeper of sentiments produced by rapid fancy or lively the archives of the university, and Radcliffe libra- imagination; a man of such fancy: in the plural, rian. He published Annales Elfridi Magni, 4to.; sound mind or understanding : contrivance; straEnquiries concerning the First Inhabitants of Eu- tagem : a witcracker and witling is a retailer of wit: rope, 4to.; and Observations on the fabulous Times, witticism, a smart or witty saying: witty, smart; 4to. He died in 1677.

acute ; fanciful : the adverb and noun substantise WISHI, v.n., v.a., & n. s. Sax. piscian.


correspond. Wish'er, 11. s. have strong desire;

No less deserveth his wittiness in devising, his pithiWISH'FUL, adj.

long; be disposed ncss in uttering, his pastoral rudeness, and his moral WISH'FULLY, adv. or inclined; to long wiseness.

Spenser, for; desire; recommend by desiring; ask; a long Why then should witless man so much misween ing desire; desire expressed ; thing desired: the That nothing is but that which he hath seen? Id. derivatives all correspond.

There is an officer, to wit, the sberiff of the shire, They have more than heart could wish. Ps. lxxiii. 7. whose office is to walk up and down his bailiwick. Id. Wishers and woulders are never good householders.

How can it chuse but bring the simple to their tits' Proverbs. end ? how can it chuse but vex and amaze them?

Hooker. I wish it may not prove some ominous foretoken of misfortune, to have met with such a miser as I am.

Yet are these feet, whose strengthless stay is numb, Sidney.

Unable to support this lump of clay,
With half that wish the wisher's eyes he pressed.

Swift-winged with desire to get a grave ;

As witting I no other comfort have. Shakspeare. From Scotland am I stolen, even of pure love,

The king your father was reputed for To greet mine own land with my wishful sight. Id. A prince most prudent, of an excellent Had I as many sons as I have hairs,

And unmatched uit and judgment.

Id. I would not wish them to a fairer death.

Id. The old hermit, that never saw pen and ink, very Nor could I sec a soile, where e'er I came,

wittily said to a niece of king Gordubuck, that that is, More sweete and wishfull.


I. Chapman. Digby should find the best way to make Antrim

I am not only witty in myself, but the cause tirat xic communicate the affair to him, and to wish his assis- is in other men.


A college of witcrackers cannot flout me out of my What next I bring shall please thee ; be assured,

humour; dost thou think I care for a satire or an epigram ?

Id. Thy likeness, thy fit help, thy other self, Thy wish, exactly to thy heart's desire. Milton.

Will puts in practice what the wit deviseth ; A wish is properly the desire of a man sitting or

Will ever acts, and wit contemplates still ; lying still ; but an act of the will is a man of business

And, as from wit the power of wisdom riseth, vigorously going about his work. South's Sermons.

All other virtues daughters are of will. They are ships prepared by my command,

Will is the prince, and wit the counsellor That shall convey you to the wished-for port. Addison.

Which doth for common good in counsel sit ;

And, wher wit is resolved, will lends her power I admire your whig principles of resistance in the

Davies. spirit of the Barcelonians : I join in your wish for To execute what is advised by wit. them


His works become the trippery of wit. Ben Jonson.

He kept as slaves, by which we fitly prove WISP, n.s.

Swed. and Belg. wisp. A small Thai witless pity breedeth fruitless love. Fairfax. bundle, as of hay or straw.

Hence 'tis a wit, the greatest word of fame, A wisp of straw for a ballad.

Shakspeare. Grows such a common name; A gentleman would fast five days, without meat. And wits by our creation they become, bread, or drink; but the same used to have continually Just so as titular bishops made at Rome. Coreley. a great wisp of herbs that he smelled on. Bacon. No man in his wits can make any doubt whe:her there

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je such things as motion, and sensation, and continuity beginning :- It may be demanded what the thing of bodies.


we speak of is? or what this facetiousness (or wit Sleights from his wit and subtlety proceed. Milton. as he calls it before) doth import? To which

Wickedness is voluntary frenzy, and every sinner does more extravagant things than any man that is crazed question I might reply, as Democritus did to him and out of his wits, only that he knows better what he that asked the definition of a man, Tis that which does.


we all see and know.' Any one becter apprehends The definition of wit is only this, that it is a propriety what it is by acquaintance, than I can inform him of thoughts and words ; or, in other terms, thoughts and by description. It is, indeed, a thing so versatile words elegantly adapted to the subject, Dryden.

and multiform, appearing in so many shapes, so But is there any other beast that lives,

many postures, so many garbs, so variously appreWho his own harm so wittily contrives?

Id. hended by several eyes and judgments, that it We have a libertine fooling even in his last agonies, seemeth no less hard to settle a clear and certain with a witticism between his teeth, without any regard notion thereof, than to make a portrait of Proteus, to sobriety and conscience.

L'Estrange. or to define the figure of the fleeting air. We reIntemperate wits will spare neither friend nor foe, commend the whole passage to the reader. and make themselves the common enemies of mankind.

Satirical wit is thus well described :

Id. Lewd, shallow, hair-brained huffs make atheism, and

• True wit is like the polished stone contempt of religion, the only badge and character of Dug from Golconda's mine,


Which boasts two different powers in one ; Those half-learned witlings, numerous in our isle

To cut as well as shine.' As half-formed insects on the banks of Nile. Pope. Wit (John de), was the son of Jacob de Wit,

He is full of conceptions, points of epigram, and wit- burgomaster of Dort, and was born in 1625. He ticisms, all which are below the dignity of heroic verse. became well skilled in civil law, politics, mathe


matics, and other sciences; and wrote a treatise on No man in his wits can seriously think that his own

the Elements of Curved Lines. Having taken his soul hath existed from all eternity.


degree of LL. D., he travelled into foreign counNought but a genius can a genius fit ; A wit herself, Amelia weds a wit.


tries, where he becaine esteemed for his genius and

prudence. At his return to his native country, in Wit is a quality of certain thoughts and expressions much easier perceived than defined. Ac- lor-pensionary of Holland and West Friesland,

1650, he became pensionary of Dort, then counselcording to Mr. Locke, wit lies in the assemblage of intendant and register of the fiefs, and keeper of ideas, and putting those together with quickness the great seal. He was thus at the head of affairs and variety wherein can be fout any resemblance

in Holland; but his opposition to the re-establishor congruity, thereby to make up pleasant pictures and agreeable visions to the fancy. Mr. Addison ment of the office of stadtholder, which he thought limited this definition considerably, by observing, the republic, cost him his life, when the prince of

a violation of the freedom and independence of that every resemblance of ideas does not consti; Orange's party prevailed. He and his brother tute wit, but those only which produce delight and Cornelius were assassinated by the populace at the surprise. Mr. Pope defined wit to be a quick con

Hague in 1674, aged forty-seven. ception and an easy delivery; while, according to a

WITCH, n. s. & v. a. Saxon picce. An enlate writer, it consists in an assimilation of distant


chantress; a woman given ideas. The word wit originally signified wisdom.


to unlawful arts; a hag: A witte was anciently a wise man. See WITЕNA- to enchant; transport; bewilder: witchcraft and

So late as the reign of Elizabeth, a man of pregnant wit, of great wit

, was a man of vast witchery is the art or practice of witches. judgment. We still say, in his wits, out of his wits, with which weak men thou witchest, to attend. Spens.

Unto thy bounteous baits, and pleasing charms, for in or out of sound mind.

Urania name,

whose force he knew so well, It is evident that wit excites in the mind an

He quickly knew what witchcraft gave the blow. agreeable surprise, and that this is owing entirely

Sidney. to the strange assemblage of related ideas pre

He hath a witchcraft sented to the mind. This end is effected, 1. By Over the king in 's tongue. Shakspeare. Henry VIII. debasing things pompous or seemingly grave; 2. 'Tis now the very witching time of night, By aggrandising things little or frivolous; 3. By When church-yards yawn.

Id. Hamlet. setting ordinary objects in a particular and uncom Another kind of petty witchery, if it be not altogether mon point of view, by means not only remote but deceit, they call charming of beasts and birds. Raleigh. apparently contrary. Of so much consequence

Wise judges have prescribed that men may not rashly are surprise and novelty, that nothing is more

believe the confessions of witches, nor the evidence tasteless, and sometimes disgusting, than a joke against them. For the witches themselves are imaginathat has become stale by frequent repetition. For tive ; and people are credulous, and ready to impute ac

cidents to witchcraft.

Bacon, the same reason, even a pun or happy allusion will

What subtile witchcraft man constrains appear excellent when thrown out extempore in To change his pleasure into pains ? Denham. conversation, which would be deemed execrable in

Great Comus ! print. In like manner, a witty repartee is infinitely Deep skilled in all his mother's witcheries. Milton. more pleasing than a witty attack: for though, in When I consider whether there are such persons as both cases, the thing may be equally new to the witches, my mind is divided : I believe in general that reader or hearer, the effect on him is greatly in- there is such a thing as witchcraft, but can give no

Addison jured when there is access to suppose that it may credit to any particular instance of it. be the slow production of study and premeditation. Witch ELM, Witch Hazel, in botany. See

The most comprehensive and lively account of Ulmus. these entertaining qualities which we have yet met WITCHCRAFT, a supernatural power, which perwith is in Dr. Barrow's Sermons, vol. ii. serm. 14, sons were formerly supposed to obtain the pos


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