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session of by entering into compact with the devil. cernible shape, they that watched were taught to be They gave themselves up to him body and soul; ever and anon sweeping the room, and if they saw any and he engaged that they should want for nothing, spiders or flies, to kill them; if they could not kill and that he would avenge them upon all their ene- them, then they might be sure they were imps. If mies. As soon as the bargain was concluded, the witches, under examination or torture, would not devil delivered to the witch an imp, or familiar confess, all their apparel was changed, and every spirit, to be ready at a call, and do whatever it was hair of their body shaven off with a sharp razor, directed. By the assistance of this imp with the lest they should secrete magical charms to prevent devil, the witch, who was almost always an old their confessing. Witches were most apt to confess woman, was enabled to transport herself in the air on Fridays. on a broomstick or a spit to distant places to attend By such trials as these, and by the accusations of the meeting of the witches; at which the devil children, old women, and fools, were thousands of always presided. They were enabled also to trans- unhappy women condemned for witchcraft, and form themselves into various shapes, particularly to burnt at the stake. It would be ridiculous to assume the forms of cats and hares, in which they attempt a serious refutation of the existence of most delighted; to inflict diseases on whomsoever witches; and at present, luckily, the task is unnethey thought proper; and to punish their enemies cessary. In this country, at least, the discouragein a variety of ways.

ment long given to all suspicion of witchcraft, and The belief that certain persons were endowed the appeal of the statutes against that crime, have with supernatural power, and that they were as very much weakened, though perhaps they have sisted by invisible spirits, is very ancient. The not entirely eradicated, the persuasion. On the sagæ of the Romans seem rather to have been sor- continent, too, it is evidently on the decline; and, cerers than witches; indeed the idea of a witch, as notwithstanding the exertions of Dr. De Haen and above described, could not have been prevalent till of the celebrated Lavater, we have little doubt but after the propagation of Christianity, as the hea- that in a short time, posterity will wonder at the thens had no knowledge of the spirit stiled by credulity of their ancestors. Most of the facts Christians the devil. Witchcraft was universally which have been brought forward by the advocates believed in Europe till the sixteenth century, and for witchcraft bear in their front evident marks of even maintained its ground with tolerable firmness trick and imposture. The crime of witchcraft, till the middle of the seventeenth. Vast numbers which was punished capitally by the law of Moses, of reputed witches were convicted and condemned was justly punished under the Jewish theocracy, to be burnt every year. The methods of discover- as an act of rebellion against the divine majesty; ing them were various. One was, to weigh the by attempting to deceive the people, by leading supposed criminal against the church bible, which, them to trust in demons, and other imagicary if she was guilty, would preponderate: another, by beings. making her attempt to say the Lord's Prayer; this WITE, v. a. Sax. pitan. To blame; reproach. 10 witch was able to repeat entirely, but would Scoffing at him that did her justly wite, omit some part or sentence thereof. It is remark- She turned her boat about.

Spenser. able that all witches did not hesitate at the same WITENA-GEMOT, or WITЕNA-MOT, among place; some leaving out one part, and some ano- the Anglo-Saxons, was a term which literally sigther. Teats, through which the imps sucked, were nified the assembly of the wise men; and was apindubitable marks of a witch; these were always plied to the great council of the nation of latter raw, and also insensible; and, if squeezed, some- days called the parliament. times yielded a drop of blood. A witch could not WITH, prep. Sax. pið. By; for; on the side weep more than three tears, and that only out of of; by means of; near; amongst; noting the cause; the left eye! Swimming a witch was another kind means; instrument; opposition or contest ; conof popular ordeal generally practised; for this she nexion; company; appendage; confidence. Johnwas stripped naked, and cross-bound, the right son says “With and by it is not always easy to thumb to the left toe, and the left thumb to the distinguish, nor perhaps in distioction always obright toe. Thus prepared, she was thrown into a served. With seems rather to denote an instrument, pond or river, in which, if guilty, she could not and by a cause: thus, he killed his enemy with a sink; for having, by her compact with the devil, sword, but he died by an arrow. The arrow is renounced the benefit of the water of baptism, that considered rather as a cause, as there is no mention element, in its turn, renounced her, and refused to of an agent. If the agent be more remote, by is receive her into its bosom. Sir Robert Filmer used; as, the vermin which he could not kill with mentions two others by fire : the first, by burning his gun, he killed by poison:' if these two preposithe thatch of the house of the suspected witch; tions be transposed, the sentence, though equally the other, burning any animal supposed to be be- intelligible, will be less agreeable to the common witched by her, as a hog or ox. These, it was held, modes of speech.' would force a witch to confess. The trial by the Fear not, for I am with thee.

Genesis. stool was another method used for the discovery of They adhered to John, their deprived bishop; and witches. It was thus managed : Having taken the could not be charmed with the saintship of any second suspected witch, she was placed in the middle of a bishop during his life.

Lesley. room upon a stool or table, cross legged, or in some

With that she told me, that, though she spake of hor other uneasy posture ; to which, if she submitted father Cremes, she would hide no truth from me.

Sidney. not, she was then bound with cords; there she was

Can blazing carbuncles with her compare ? Sandys. watched, and kept without meat or sleep for the

Truth, tired with iteration, space of twenty-four hours (for, they said, within As true as steel, as plantage to the moon. Shakspeare. that time they should see her imp come and suck). A

I do contest little hole was likewise made in the door for imps 10 As hotly and as nobly with thy love, come in at; and lest it should come in some less dis- As ever 'gainst thy valour.

Id. Coriolanus.

I will buy with you, sell with you, talk with you, WITHERING (William), M. D., a distinguished walk with you, and so following; but I will not eat with physician and writer on botany, was born in 1741, you, drink with you, nor pray with you. Shakspeare. and studied at Edinburgh, where he took his docWith thy powerful blast,

tor's degree in 1766. He then settled at Stafford, Heat apace, and cool as fast.

Carew.

and afterwards at Birmingham, where he was God gave man a soul that should live for ever, although the body be destroyed ; and those who were good speedily raised to eminence. The chief objects of his

Stillingfieet. should be with him.

attention, independent of his duties as a medical He shall lye with any fryar in Spain. Dryden.

practitioner, were chemistry and botany. Being Pity your own, or pity our estate,

subject to pulmonic disease, he thought it desirNor twist our fortunes with your sinking fate. Id. able, in 1793 and 1794, to pass the winter at

Men might know the persons who had a right to re Lisbon : and after his return home did not again gal power, and with it to their obedience. Locke. resume his practice to any extent. He died at the

Hast so much wit, and mirth, and spleen about thee, Larches, near Birmingham, in November, 1799. There is no living with thee, nor without thee. Tatler.

His principal publications are, A Systematic ArSuch arguments had invincible force with those

rangement of British Plants, 2 vols. 8vo., 1776, exPagan philosophers who became Christians. Addison.

tended in the edition of 1787 to three volumes, and Though Jove himself no less content would be,

in that of 1796 to four; An Account of the Scarlet To part his throne, and share his heaven with thee.

Fever and Sore Throat, or Scarletina Anginosa,

Pope. WITHAL', adv. With and all. Along with the of its Medical Uses, with Practical Remarks on

1779, 8vo.; An Account of the Foxglove, and some rest; likewise; at the same time. Yet it must be withal considered that the greatest Chemical Analysis of the Waters at Caldas da

the Dropsy, and other Diseases, 1785, 8vo.; A part of the world are they which be farthest from per- Rainha, Lisbon, 1795, 4to.; beside a translation of fection. The one contains my picture, prince;

Bergman's Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis, and papers If you chuse that, then I am yours withal. Shakspeare. in the Philosophical Transactions relative to mine

God, when he gave me strength, to shew withal ralogy. How slight the gift was, hung it in my hair. Milton. WITHERS, n. s. From withe, a twig, came

We owe to christianity the discovery of the most per- wither, a horse collar; and thus withers is the joining fect rule of life that ever the world was acquainted of the shoulder-bones at the bottom of the neck and withal.

Tillotson.

mane, towards the upper part of the horse's Perish his sire, and perish I withal,

shoulder. And let the house's heir and the hoped kingdom fall.

Let the galled beast wince ;
Dryden.
We are unwrung in the withers.

Shakspeare. WITH’DRAW, v. a. & v. n.

With and draw,

Rather than let your master take long journies, conSax. pið, or piden. To take back; bereave; re

trive that the saddle may pinch the beast in his withers. iire; retreat.

Swift. Impossible it is that God should withdraw his pre

WITHHOLD', v. a. With and hold. Withsence from any thing, because the very substance of

Hooker. God is infinite.

held, or withholden, pret. and part. Spenser has, She from her husband soft withdrew. Milton.

for the sake of rhyme, written withhault. To reDuumvir has passed the noon of life ; but cannot strain; keep back. withdraw from entertainments which are pardonable Soon as Titan 'gan his head exault, only before that stage of our being.

Tatler. And soon again as he his light withhault, WITHE, n. s. Sax, pidde. A willow twig. Their wicked engines they against it bent. Spenser. An Irish rebel put up a petition that he might be

What difficulties there are which as yet withhold our hanged in a with, and not a halter, because it had been assent, till we be further and better satisfied, I hope no so used with former rebels.

Bacon. indifferent amongst them will scorn or refuse to bear. These cords and uythes will hold men's consciences,

Hooker. when force attends and twists them. King Charles.

The prince Birch is of use for ox-yoaks, hoops, screws, wythes Would fain have come with me to meet your grace ; for faggots.

Mortimer's Husbandry. And by his mother was perforce withheld. Shakspeare. WITH'ER, v. n. & v.a. Sax. geride rod, dry, Your talons from the wretched and the bold. Dryden.

Be careful to withhold faded. To fade; grow sapless; dry up: to make to fade or dry away,

Volition is an act of the mind, knowingly exerting

that dominion it takes itself to have over any part of It shall wither in all the leaves of her spring.

Ezekiel xvii. 9.

man, by employing it in, or withholding it from, any particular action.

Locke. The sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but

The word keep back, sheweth that it was a thing it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth.

formerly duc unio God; for we cannot say that any

James i. 11. That which is of God we defend, to the uttermost of thing is kept back, or withholden, that was not due be

fore.

Spelman. ihat ability which he hath given : that which is otherwise, let it wither even in the root from whence it hath WITHIN', prep. & adv. ? Saxon piðinnan. sprung.

} Hooker. WITHINʼSIDE, adv. Look how I am bewitched; behold, mine arm inner part or compass of; inwardly: in the interior Is like a blasted sapling, withered up. Shakspeare. parts. Thy youth, thy strength, thy beauty, which will

Who then shall blame
change
To withered, weak, and grey.

His pestered senses to recoil and start,
Milton.

When all that is within him does condemn
Vain men, how vanishing a bliss we crave,

Shakspeare. Now warm in love, now withering in the grave !

Itself for being there ?
Dryden.

Within these five hours Hastings lived
The soul may sooner leave off to subsist than to

Untainted, unexamined, free at liberty.

Jd. love; and, like the vine, it withers and dies, if it has Next day we saw, within a kenning before us, thick wothing to embrace.

South's Sermons. clouds, which put us in hope of land. Bacon.

Id.

Yet sure, though the skin

sovereign command against withstanders ; force, authoBe closed without, the wound festers within. Carew. rity, and resistance, being the essential parts thereof. When on the brink the foaming boar 1 met,

Raleigh. The desperate savage rushed within my force,

They soon set sail ; nor now the fates withstand; And bore me headlong with him down the rock. Their forces trusted with a foreign hand. Dryden.

Otway. When Elymas withstood Paul and Barnabas, aod Secure of outward force, within himself

when Paul says of Alexander, he hath greatly with The danger lies, yet lies within his power ;

stood our words, do we think the withstanding there was Against his will he can receive no harm. Milton. without speaking ?

Atterbury. Till this be cured by religion, it is as impossible for WITHY. See Salix. a man to be happy, that is, pleased and contented

WIT'NESS, n. s., v.a., v. n., & interj. Saxon within himself, as it is for a sick man to be at ease.

Tillotson.

pitnesse. Testimony; attestation ; one who gives

testimony :' with a witness' is, well testified; effecThese as thy guards from outward harms are sent; Ills from within thy reason must prevent. Dryden.

tually: to witness, to attest, or bear testimony : an Were every action concluded within itself, and drew exclamation calling for testimony or attestation.

God is witness betwixt me and thee. Genesis. no consequences after it, we should undoubtedly never err in our choice of good. Locke. If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true.

John. This, with the green hills and naked rocks within the neighbourhood, makes the most agreeable confu

The sea strave with the winds which should be sion.

Addison. louder, and the shrouds of the ship, with a ghastly The invention of arts necessary or useful to human noise, to them that were in it witnessed that their ruin life, hath been within the knowledge of men. Burnet. was the wager of the others contention. Sidney. Bounding desires within the line which birth and

The devil can cite scripture for his purpose : fortune have marked out, is an indispensable duty.

An evil soul producing holy witness
Atterbury.

Is like a villain with a smiling cheek,
The forceps for extracting the stone is represented a A goodly apple rotten at the heart. Shakspeare

There ran a rumour little open, that the teeth may be better seen withinside.

Sharp. Of many worthy fellows that were out, Be informed how much your husband's revenue

Which was to my belief witnessed the rather,

Id. amounts to, and be so good' a computer as to keep For that I saw the tyrant's power a-foot. within it.

Swifi.

The king's attorney WITHOUT', prep. & conj. Sax. piðutan. With or diverse witnesses.

Urged on examinations, proofs, confessions and out. Not with; denoting exclusion and abuse:

A fat benefice became a crime, and witness to unless; if not.

against its incumbent.

Decay of Piety. You will never live to my age, without you keep Nor was long his witness unconfirmed. Milton. yourselves in breath with exercise, and in heart with

For want of words or lack of breatb, joyfulness.

Sidney. Witness, when I was worried with thy peals. Id. The virtuous bezoar is taken from the beast that

Though by the father he were hired io this, feedeth upon the mountains ; and that without virtue, He ne'er could witness any touch or kiss. Dome from those that feed in the vallies.

Васот.

Nor need I speak my deeds, for these you see ; Forming trees and shrubs into sundry shapes, done the sun and day are witnesses for me. Dryden. by moulding them within, and cutting them without.

Witness, ye heavens, I live not by my fault,
Id.

I strove to have deserved the death I sought. Id. The reception of light into the body of the building

Our senses bear witness to the truth of each other's was very prompt from without and from within.

report, concerning the existence of sensible things. Wotton.

Locke. Infallibility and inerrableness are assumed and in

The Americans do acknowledge and speak of the declosed by the Romish church, without any inerrable luge in their continent, as Acosta witnesseth, and Laet, ground to hold it on.

Hammond.
in the histories of them.

Burnet. These were from without the growing miseries.

Milton.

A WITNESS, in law, is a person who gives eviTheir doors are barred against a bitter flout;

dence in any cause, and is sworn to speak the truth, Snarl, if you please, but you shall snarl without. the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

Druden. WITNESSES, TRIAL BY, a species of trial without Happiness under this view every one constantly pur the intervention of a jury. This is the only me

Other things, acknowledged to be good, he can thod of trial known to the civil law in which the look upon without desire, pass by, and be content uith- judge is left to form in his own breast his sentence

Locke.

upon the credit of the witnesses examined; but it Having gone as far as they could without, they began is very rarely used in the English law, which preto observe them within.

Grew,

fers the trial jury before it in almost every inWhen the weather hinders me from taking my diversions without doors, I frequently make a little party with select friends.

Addison.

WITNEY, a market town and parish in Bamp

ton hundred, Oxon, situate on the river Windrush, WITHSTAND', v.a.) With and stand. To eleven miles and a half W.N. W. of Oxford, seren

WITHSTAND'ER, n. s. I gainstand; gainsay; op- and a quarter from Burford, and sixty-nine W. N.W. pose ; resist: the noun substantive corresponding. of London. The town consists of two streets : at

The violence of sorrow is not at the first to be striven the upper end of the principal one stands the withal ; being, like a mighty beast, sooner tamed with church, a handsome and spacious structure, built following, than overthrown by withstanding. Sidney.

The wonderful zeal and fervour wherewith ye have in a rich style of Gothic architectnre, with a fine withstood the received orders of this church, was the spire. Witney has been noted for its manufacture first thing which caused me to enter into consideration, of blankets, which employs many hands. Here is whether every christian man, fearing God, stand bound a market on Thursday, to join with you.

Hooker. WITSIUS (Hermán), was born at Enckhuysen War may be defined the exercise of violence under in 1626. He was professor of divinity successively

sues.

out.

stance

at Franeker, Utrecht, and Leyden. Flis capital Patience, good lady; wiszards know their times. works are, i. Hierosolymitana; 2. Ægyptiaca et

Shakspeare. Decaphyllon, cum diatriba de Legione l'ulmina The prophecies of wizards old

Waller. trice Christianorum ; 3. Economy of the Covenants Increased her terror, and her fall foretold. between God and Men. He died in 1708.

The wily wizard must be caught,
WITT (Emmanuel de), an eminent painter, born For, unconstrained, he nothing tells for nought.

Dryden. at Alcmaer in 1607. He excelled in buildings. He

WO, or

Sax. pa; Isl., Swed., ana died in 1692.

Woe, n. s. Belg., we. Grief; sorrow; WITTENBERG, a city of Prussian Saxony, in

WoʻBEGON E, adj. misery; calamity : often the government of Merseberg, on the Elbe, is

WoʻFUL,

used in denunciation and situated on a level sandy spot, and is of an oblong

Wo'FULLY, adv. lamentation, when it someform, consisting of one street, with suburbs widely spread, defended by a dyke. Its works, formerly tive; at others an adjective: wobegone is lost in

WoʻFULNESS, n. s. ) times becomes a substanconsiderable, were allowed to fall gradually to decay, until reinstated by the French in 1813. It woe: woful, sorrowful; calamitous: the adverb

and noun substantive corresponding. has some linen manufactories, and is a place of

Wo is me for my hurt, my wound is grievous. Jer. some antiquity. Luther having been appointed

Howl ye, wo worth the day,

Ezekiel. professor of philosophy in 1508, and having here,

Wo be to the shepherds of Israel that do feed themfrom his academical chair, first exposed the corrup- selves.

Jd. tions of the Catholic church, he and his associate, All is but lip wisdom which wants experience : Melancthon, are buried in the university church. I now, wo is me! do try what love can do. Sidney. So lately as October 1821 a monumental colossal . The woful Gynecia, to whom rest was no ease, had statue of Luther was erected in Wittenberg, with left her lothed lodging, and gotten herself into the so

la. great solemnity. After it ceased to be the residence litary places those desarts were full of. of a court, it was found inadequate to the support Woe are we, Sir! you may not live to wear

All true followers out.

your of the university, and the latter was annexed to

Shakspeare. that of Halle; and its place supplied by a gymna. The knowledge of themselves.

Woes, by wrong imaginations, lose

Id. sium or classical school. Since 1815 this town has been ceded to Prussia. Population 5000. Sixty- Lie drowned and soaked in mercenary blood.

Many of our princes, woe the while !

Id. nine miles N. N. W. of Dresden, and forty N. N. E.

He took and laid it by, and wept for wo. Chapman. of Leipsic.

Tancred he saw his life's joy set at nought, WITTINGLY, adv. From witting, knowing: So anebegone was he with pains of love. Fairfar. Sax. pitan. Knowingly; not ignorantly; with

Eve plucked, she eat : knowledge; by design.

Earth felt the wound ; and nature from her seat Whatsoever we work as men, the same we do wit- Sighing through all her works, gave signs of woe tingly work and freely; neither are we, according to the That all was lost.

Milton. manner of natural agents, any way so tied, but that it In a tower, and never to be loosed, is in our power to leave things we do undone. Hooker. The woful captive kinsmen are inclosed. Dryden. Withhold revenge, 'tis not my fault,

Woe to the vanquished, woe !

Id. Nor wittingly have I infringed my vow. Shakspeare. He who would pass such a judgment upon his con

He knowingly and witlingly brought evil into the dition as shall be confirmed at that great tribunal, from world.

More. which there lies no appeal, will find himself wofully deWITTOL, n. s. Sax. pittol, from pitan, to ceived if he judges of his spiritual estate by any of these know. A man who knows the falsehood of his

South. wife, and seems contented; a tame cuckold.

O'er dreary wastes they weep each other's wo. Pope O Mars, for what doth serve thy armed ax ?

WOAD, n. s. Sax. pad; Dan. and Teut. wuid; To let that witold beast consume in flames

Belg. weed. A plant. Thy Venus child.

Sidney. In times of old, when British nymphs were known Amaimon sounds well ; Lucifer well; yet they are To love no foreign fashions like their own; the names of fiends ; but cuckold, wittol, the devil When dress was monstrous, and fig-leaves the mode, himself hath not such a name.

Shakspeare. And quality put on no paint but woad. Garth. The jealous wittolly knave hath masses of money. WoAD, in botany. See Isatis. The preparation

Id.

of woad for dyeing, as practised in France, is miWIVE, v. n. & v.a. 1 From wife. To marry; nutely described by Astruc, in his Memoirs for a

Wive’ly, adv. Š to take a wife; to match to Natural History of Languedoc. The plant puts a wife : wively is belonging to a wife.

forth at first five or six upright leaves, about a foot Basilius could not abstain from praising Parthenia, long, and six inches broad: when these hang downas the perfect picture of a womanly virtue, and wively wards, and turn yellow, they are fit for gathering: faithfulness.

Sidney.

five crops are gathered in one year. The leaves A man of his learning should not so lightly have been carried away with old wives' tales, from approve oil or tan mills, and ground into a smooth paste.

are carried directly to a mill, much resembling the ance of his own reason.

Spenser.
Were she as rough

If this process was deferred for some time, they As are the swelling Adriatick seas,

would putrefy, and send forth an insupportable 1 come to wive it wealthily in Padua. Shakspeare.

stench. The paste is laid in heaps, pressed close She dying gave it me;

and smooth, and the blackish crust, which forms on And bid me, when my fate would have me wived, the outside, reunited if it happens to crack; if this To give it her.

Id. was neglected, little worms would be produced in Design or chance makes others wive,

the cracks, and the woad would lose a part of its But nature did this match contrive.

Waller.

strength. After lying for fifteen days, the heaps WIVLESCOMB. See WIVELSCOMB.

are opened, the crust rubbed and mixed with the WIZARD, n. s. From wise. A conjurer ; en- inside, and the matter formed into oval balls, which chanter ; a he witch.

are pressed close and solid in wooden moulds. Vol. XXII.

measures.

2 U

These are dried upon hurdles : in the sun, they WODAN, or WODEN. See Ouix, MYTHOLOCT. turn b.ack on the outside; in a close place, yellow- and POLYTHEISM. ish, especially if the weather be rainy. The dealers WODEVILE (Anthony), earl of Rivers, broin this commodity prefer the first; though it is said ther to the queen of Edward IV., was born in the the workmen find no considerable difference betwixt end of 1442, or beginning of 1443. He was one the two. The good balls are distinguished by their of the most accomplished men of his age. He was being weighty, of an agreeable smell, and, when early and constantly employed either in the turubbed, of a violet color within. For the use of mults of those turbulent times, or in discharging the dyer, these balls require a farther preparation : the duties of some of the highest offices of the they are beaten with wooden mallets, on a brick or state, with which he was invested. Yet he found stone floor, into a gross powder, which is heaped leisure to cultivate letters, and to be the author of up in the middle of the room to the height of four works which, though of little value now, made feet, a space being left for passing round the sides. some noise in that age. These consisted chiefly op The powder, moistened with water, ferments, grows translations from the French; and his lordstip, hot, and throws out a thick fetid fume. It is sho- with his printer Caxton, were the first English auvelled backwards and forwards, and moistened every thor and printer who had the pleasure to see their day for twelve days; after which it is stirred less works printed. He was treacherously imprisoned frequently, without watering, and at length made by Richard III. in Pomfret Castle, where, during into a heap for the dyer.

his confinement, he composed a short poem, which WOAHOO, or 0 Anoo, one of the Sandwich has been preserved. He was beheaded on the 23d Islands; and perhaps the finest island of the whole of June, 1483, in the forty-first year of his age. group. Nothing can exceed the verdure of the WOFFINGTON, a celebrated actress, born at hills, the variety of wood and lawn, and rich cul- Dublin, in 1718. She first appeared at Corent tivated valleys, which the whole face of the country Garden, in 1733, in the character of Sir Harry displayed. The road is formed by the north and Wildair, with great applause. She died in 1760. west extremities. It is supposed to contain 60,000 WOIDE (Charles Godfrey), LL. D., an emiinhabitants. Long. of the anchoring place 202° 9' nent oriental scholar, born either in Poland or the E., lat. 21° 43' N.

United Provinces. Having taken up his abode in WOBURN, a neat town of Bedfordshire, forty- this country, about 1765, he obtained the appointtwo miles N. N. W. of London, long. 0° 32' W., lat. ment of preacher to the German chapel in the 52° 2' N., standing on the high road to Manchester. Savoy, and also to that adjoining Marlborough It has twice been burnt down, in 1595 and 1724, is house. In 1782 he was elected by the trustees of now regularly built, and has a market house of the the British Museum one of the assistant librarians, Doric order, with a lofty cupola. The church is a situation for which his deep erudition, especially a pretty building, its steeple stands detached, near in Egyptian antiquities, eminently qualified him. the north aisle, and had on its summit a very Four years after he was presented with the honorcurious wooden lantern nearly 300 years old, but ary degree of LL. D., by the university of Oxford, this from neglect fell in ruins, and has been re for superintending the publication of La Croze's moved. This church was rebuilt by the last Egyptian Lexicon, and Scholtz's Grammar of the abbot, and the family of Staunton, who had language, which issued from the Clarendon press estates in this parish, and left some benefactions to in 1778. He also published a fac-simile of the the poor; one of them was standard bearer to Alexandrian manuscript of the New Testament, Henry VII.; it is now kept in repair by the duke now in the British Museum. His death took place of Bedford, out of the produce of some charity in the spring of 1790. lands vested in them. The chancel was beautified WOLCOT (John), M. D., better known as about 100 years ago, under the direction of Sir Peter Pindar, a satirist, was born at Dodbrook in William Chambers ; the body was also thoroughly Devonshire, in 1738. He was educated first at repaired by the late duke, and the present has given Kingsbridge, in his native county, and nest at an altar piece, communion plate, and barrel organ; Bodmin in Cornwall, after which he was brought there are some monuments. The parish contains up under his uncle, an apothecary at Fowey. In 1700 inhabitants ; about one mile and a half from 1767 he obtained a doctor's degree in Scotland, the town in the parish of Wavendon are pits of and the same year went with Sir William TreFuller's earth of some antiquity.

lawney to Jamaica, but on the death of his patron Woburn abbey of the Cistercian order was returned to England and settled as a physician in founded from Fountain's abbey in Yorkshire, in Cornwall, where he became the instructor of Opie 1145, by Hugh de Bolebec, and was dissolved the painter, with whom he visited London in 1780. in 1537, when the revenues amounted to £391 per He now began, under the name of Peter Pindar, annum; this with a variety of church property in some severe attacks on the royal academicians, in a different parts of the kingdom, forming at present series of odes. After this he took higher aim, and a magnificent income was bestowed on lord Russell, published a satyrical poem called The Lousiad, in ancestor of the duke of Bedford, whose seat occu• which he ridiculed king George III., with more wit pies the site of the abbey, about one mile from the than truth or manners. After this he brought out town of Woburn. It is a modern quadrangular a number of ludicrous pieces, which went through building, handsome, but heavy; the west front has numerous editions. The author became blind some four Ionic columns, and the east four fluted Doric years before his death, which happened in Somersones, the interior contains a large gallery of por- towu, January 14th, 1819. traits, and a collection of Italian and Dutch paint Wold, WELD, or Dyer's WEED. See REings; and in the pleasure ground is a sculpture SEDA. gallery formed by the present duke, which contains WOLF, n. s.

Sax. palp; Teut, and Belg. a group of the graces by Canova, which cost £3000.

Wolf'DOG,

wolf. A well known beast of The park is twelve miles in circuit, and contains a Wolf'ish, adj. prey; any thing ravenous or de; large herd of door.

Wolv'ish. structive: a wolfdog is a dog of

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