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The sapa

Group 2. Papiones of Erxleben.

Gen. 4. Mandrils.-Simiæ ore in longitudinem Simiæ nasu in signiores caudâ quam corpore bre- porrecto. They have the nose longer than the rest viore. They have the abagones or cheek-pouches of this order ; facial angle being about 30°. Their and gluteal callosities like the guenons, but their tail is very short. They are very wild and fierce. mouth is more prominent, and their last grinder Only one species known. below has a tubercle more unequal. They vary Gen. 5. Pongos.-Simiæ frunte in longitudinem in the length of the tail and muzzle. The prin- porrecto. They have the long arms of the orangscipal part of them are more or less savage; and and are like them deprived of a tail, with the cheek they all have a sac that communicates with the pouches of the baboons and guenons. The head larynx above the thyroid cartilage, which is filled is of a very peculiar form; the forehead is very rewith air when they cry.

ceding; the cranium is small and compressed; the Gen. 1. Magotus.-Cauda jam nascente: Have face of a pyramidal form on account of the asthe muzzle thick and moderately long, a small tu- cending branches of the lower jaw, which indibercle in place of a tail.

cate in the organs of voice some analogous dispoThe Magot. Simia sylvanus of Linné, pithecus sition to that which has been observed in the of Gmelin, musco of Schroeber. Covered with alouatte. They possess the membranous pouch hair of a clear gray-brown color. An animal which adhering to the larynx like the baboons. best endures our climate. It is a native of Bom- acquainted with only one species. Color brown, bay, whence it is often brought to Europe, breeds face and hands black. Borneo. sometimes with us, and is naturalised in the most

Sect. II. MONKEYS OF THE New CONTINENT. inaccessible parts of the rock of Gibraltar.

Gen. 2. Macacus.-Cauda, naribus resupinis. Simiæ molarium numero abundantes. Are distinguished from the magots by a tail jous. Cebus of Erxleben. They have four grinders more or less long, and from the cynocephali by more than the rest, there being thirty-six teeth in their nostrils being oblique at the upper surface of all. Tail long; without cheek-pouches, nates the muzzle.

clothed and without callosities. Nostrils lateral Ooandrou of Buffon, simia silenus of Linné, or on the side of the nose. All the large quadrulenina of Gmelin. Black; the mane ash-colored; mana of the New Continent belong to this division. beard and round its head, wbitish. It appears that Their large intestines are less tinged, and the there are some individuals which are fawn colored cæcum is longer and thinner than in those of the either wholly or in part, and others of different preceding section. Tail prehensile. tints of brown and fawo color. From Ceylon. Gen. 1. Myotes of Iliger.- Simiæ capite ar

Bonnet. Simia sinica. Fawn color above, white guto. The alouatte. Distinguished by a pyramidal beneath, the face of a flesh color. The hairs upon head. Upper jaw descends down much lower than the crown of the head dispersed like rays, and form- the cranium, since the lower has its branches asing a kind of hat.

cending very high, in order to lodge a bony drum Aigrette of Buffon. Simia aygula of Linné. Olive- formed by a vesicular swelling of the os hyoides, gray above, fawn color beneath. A tuft of hair which communicates with the larynx, and gives an upon the top of the head.

enormous volume and a frightful sound to their voice. The macaque of Buffon, simia cynomolgus. Common alouatte. Simia seniculus. Of a lively Green above, yellowish or whitish beneath. Gui- red brown; about the size of a fox. From the nea, and the interior of Africa.

woods of Guiana. Live in troops. The maimon. Simia nemestrina of Linné. Pla. Ouarino; simia beelzebub. Common in Brasil tipygos of Schroeber. Deep brown above; a and Paraguay. The male is black above and red black band commencing upon the head, and grow- beneath ; female brown. Common sapajous have ing weaker and weaker the whole length of the the head very flat. The muzzle rather prominent. back; yellowish about the head and the extremities; Facial angle 60°. a thin tail hanging only half way down the thighs. Gen. 2. Ateles of Geoffroy.-Simiæ pollice manca.

The rhesus. Grayish; a stain of pale brown Thumbs concealed under the skin. Tail naked upon the head and the rump, sometimes upon the underneath. whole of the back.

The chamek; ateles pentadactylus of Geoffroy. Gen. 3. Cynocephalus of Cuvier.—Simiæ ore Differs from the rest in having a thumb with one canuin. They have a muzzle which is elon- of the phalangial bones, but destitute of a nail. gated and as it were truncated at the end, where The coaita; simia paniscus of Linné. Comit is perforated by the nostrils; this is what pletely covered with black hair; not even the rųmakes it resemble that of a dog more than of the diments of a thumb. rest of the monkeys. Tail of various lengths. White-faced coaita; ateles marginatus of Geof

Papion of Buffon, simia sphynx of Linné. froy. Black; a border of white hairs round about With a yellow greenness, approaching

more or less the face. to a brown; face black, tail long. They appear White-bellied coaita; simia beelzebub of Bristo differ in size according to their age. The full Black; white beneath ; a flesh-colored circle grown animal is frightful by its ferocity and brutish round the eyes. propensity.

Yellow coaita ; ateles arachnoides of Geoffroy. Papion noir. Simia porcaria of Bodd. Ursina All these animals come from Guiana and Brasil

. of Pennant. Of a black color; glace, with yellow Their arms are very thin. Progression very slow. of green upon the whole forehead. Cape of Good Gen. 3. Cebus of Geoffroy-Simiæ quæ ope Hope.

caudæ conscendunt, pollice gaudentes: Tartarin of Belon. Simia hamadryas of Linné. The sajou; simia apella of Linné. Black round Baboon with a short tail. Simia leucophea of the face. All the shades of the body vary between Cuvier. Gray-yellow; face black, tail very short the black, brown, and the fawn color, even someand thin.

times white.


The vajou ; simia capucina of Linné. Distin- rough with points; the short muzzle of a masguished from the preceding by a small crest of tiff; body slender; without tail. These animals hairs on each side of the forehead.

feed upon insects, and some of the small birds and The sajou; simia fatuellus of Gmelin.

quadrupeds. Approximating to the sloths in harGen. 4. Callitriche of Geoffroy.-Simiæ quarum ing the extreme branches of their arteries divided oauda minus apta ad prehendum est. Tail ceasing in the same manner. to be prehensile.

Loris. Sloths of Bengal; lemur tardigradus. The saimiri; simia sciurea. About the size of Gray fawn, a brown line running along the back. a squirrel; of a gray yellow; fore-arms, the legs Slender loris; lemur gracilis. Of the same and the four hands yellowish fawn color.

color as the last, without the dorsal line. Nose Gen. 5. Pithecia of Desmerest and Iliger.- raised by an elevation of the intermaxillary bone. Simiæ vulpium caudâ. Pennant. The sakis. Tail Gen. 4. Otaclinus of Iliger.—Simiæ auribus e not prehensile, tufted with hair; whence they are membranâ efformatis. The galago of Geoffroy. called fore-tailed monkeys.

They have the teeth, nails, and the insectivorons reYake; simia pithecia of Linné. Blackish; gimen of the former; elongated tarsi which give around the face white.

to the hind feet a disproportioned length; tail Saki Humb.; simia satanas of Hoffmansegger. long and tufted; ears large and membranous; Quite black.

eyes large. To this tribe Cuvier would assign the Red bellied saki; pithecia rufi ventuis of Geof- lemur potto of Gmelin. froy. From Guiana and Brasil.

Gen. 5. Tarsius of Cuvier.-The tarsiers. The Family 2.—UNGUIBUS COMPRESSIS. long tarsi, and all the detail of the preceding; but

the interval between the incisors and the inolar Simiæ pollice vix libero. Gen. Hupale of Iliger; arctopithecus of Geof- teeth, is replenished with numerous small canise

teeth. Incisores four above, only two below froy.--The Ouistiti. Head round, face flat, nostrils lateral , nates clothed, destitute of cheek pouches. Nocturnal animals. Food consisting of insects


Inhabit the Moluccas. Tail not prehensile; grinders in number twenty, like

Lemur spectrum. the monkeys of the old continent. All the nails compressed and pointed, except those of the hind Series ORDINUM PLERUMQUE CARNITORA. thunibs. The fore thumbs possess so little freedom of independent motion, that the tittle of quad amussim cardinis motu gaudentibus. This series

Feræ of Linné. Compagines maxillarum, ad rumanous is bestowed upon them with some hesi- of mammiferous animals have three sorts of teeth tation.

like man. Common ouistiti ; simia jacchus of Linné. Body

They subsist upon animal food, by black ; two lufts of hair before the ears.

so far more exclusively as their grinders are Tamarin; simia midas of Lindé. Pinche; simia their grinders in whole or in part tuberculous

better calculated for tearing. Those which hare ædipus of Linné. Black ; four hands yellow; gray feed more with long white hairs upon the head, hanging down Others which have them rongh with conical points

or less upon vegetable substances. behind the ears. Guiana.

feed upon insects. The articulation of the lower Midas ursula of Geoffroy. Black striated ape. Lion monkey. Marakin; simia rosalia. White jaw is directed crosswise, and confined like a hinge

, head surrounded with a fawn colored mane; tail so as not to allow any degree of horizontal mo

tion. That is to say, they can only open and brown at the tip. Surinam. The mico; simia argentata of Linné. Gray other animals do, by a lateral movement of the

shut the mouth, and not grind the morsel, as many silvery black; sometimes white; tail brown,

under jaw, in masticating their food. Their crafrom the banks of the Amazons.

nium is narrower, and the zygomatic arches wide Family 3.- INCISORIBUS à Prescripto

and elevated, in order to give room for the muscles AVERSIS.

of the jaws. Their foramen possesses a capability The makis, lemur of Linné, according to of being moved circularly, but with less facility Linné comprehend all those quadrumana which than that of the quadrumana. Olfactory bones vaeither in the upper or under jaw have more inci- riously ramified and lamellated, in order to ansors than four, or at least they are otherwise di- plify the extent of pituitary membrane, which rected than in the monkeys.

renders the sense of smelling so wakeful to the inGen. 1. Lemur.–Caudâ longa. Makis proper pression made upon it by odorous particles. Six lower insisors compressed and leaning outwards; four above straight; intermediate pair cross

Order III.-CHEIROPTERA. ing; canine teeth long. Molar those of monkeys. Cute pedum in alas extensâ. They exhibit Tail long, nail of the index pointed, all the rest flat. some affinities with the quadrumana, in haring Madagascar.

the male organ of generation pendant, and in the The moccoco; lemur catta of Linné. Ash gray, nipples being placed upon the breast. Their distail tinged with black and white.

tinctive character consists in having the integuVenei; lemur macaco of Linné. Variegated ments of the legs and feet expanded, by the elonwith large black and white spots.

gation of some of the phalanges into broad men The mongoas ; lemur mongos of Linné. All branous wings. This disposition of structure brown, face and hands black.

requires strong clavicles and large scapula, in order Gen. 2. Lichanotus of Iliger.—Simiæ hujus fa- that the shoulder may possess a commensurate milia caudâ nudatæ The indri Teeth like those of firmness and solidity ; whilst the rotation of the the preceding, except that they have but four below. fore arm is prevented, as it would be incompatible Madagascar.

with the active force necessary for soaring in the Gen. 3. Sterops of Iliger.—Simiæ molaribus air. All these animals have four large canine teeth, paulo horrentibus candâ nudatec. The loris ; sloth except in one species found by the writer in the monkeys. Teeth and nails of the makis; grinders Bonin Islands; but the number of their incisors

varies. They were long ago divided into two ge- drying. Interfemoral web, or under prolon nera, vespertilio and galeopithecus, with reference gation of the meninges, which invest the leg to the extent of their organs of flight.

and thigh of the hind quarters, about half an inch

in width, and partly clothed with hair. Claws Family 1.-VESPERTILIONES. Bats.

trenchant; the large one upon the medial phaOssibus digitorum in longum deductis. They langial bone, often used in dressing the hair have the arm, forearm, and the fingers ex- of the head. Teeth; primores, four above and tremely elongated, and form true wings by the four beneath ; but they are various, the canine membrane, which fills up the intervals. Bats often supplying the place of the incisors, and vice fly very high, and with great celerity. Their versâ. Canine, small. Tongue proportionabiy pectoral muscles have a thickness proportioned to large, with a fleshy pavement. Form of the nasal the motions they are obliged to perform, and the apertures an incipient volute. Stomach, a loose sternum has in its middle a ridge to afford them a membranous bag, which, when opened, was found line of attachment, like that of birds. The thumb to contain a small portion of acid pulp.' Intestinal is short, and armed with a crooked nail; which canal long; diameter equal, without cæcal appenserves them for the double purpose of climbing dages. It sucks the juices of the fruit of the and suspension. Their hind feet are weak, divided sapota and pandanus, rejecting the fibrous part; into five equal toes, and are all furnished with but since, in feeding, a certain portion musi nenails. The intestines are without a cæcum. Their cessarily enter the mouth, it is rolled up in the eyes are excessively small; their ears are often nollow of the palate ; when the juices are thus abvery large, and form with the wings an enormous stracted, it is removed by an oblique application of extent of membranous surface almost naked, and the tongue, to make room for the next juicy morsel generally endued with sensation to enable the bats, of parenchyma. Whilst most other animals repose in making their way among the turns and windings by reclining the head towards the earth, the Bonin of their labyrinths, to direct themselves by their va- bat turns its head towards the heavens, and, to obrious impressions which the air makes them, when viate the inconvenience of direct light falling upon darkness has rendered eye-sight useless.

the optic nerve, it enjoys the faculty of shutting Bevy 1. Vespertiliones ungue de medio digito. the ordinary passage of light through the crys

Gen. 1. Pteropus of Brissius. The rosetta ; fru- talline lens; and of consequence, the pupil disapgivorous bats. They have four sharp incisors in pearing, nothing save the brown iris is seen to pereach jaw; their grinders have a flat crown. They vade the eye-ball. In this blind condition it derive their nourishment chiefly from fruits: they climbs trees, groping its way up to the topmost can however pursue the small birds and quadru- branches, where, after extending its ciaws to learn peds. The membrane is deeply notched between whether there be another sprig within reach still their legs, and they are nearly or wholly deprived higher than its present situation, it quietly drops its of a tail. Their index, and the shorter half of the weight upon the hind claws, and composes itself to medius, has the third phalangial bone, which is rest, apparently with as much inward felicity as a wanted in the other bats. Ears small; tongue beset traveller feels, when, after descending some pewith the recurved points. This genus may be di- rilous height, he has safely reached a smooth level. vided into two sub-genera:

It would seem that they make but little use of their a. Sine cauda. Rosettes without tail.

eye-sight in the day-time except when on the wing, Black rosette; pteropus edulis of Geoffroy. trusting in the search of their food a good deal to Black brown, deepened above: nearly four feet in the sense of smell, which they enjoy in perfection : extent. Found in Sunda and the Moluccas. Its for they often sneeze when captured, which is a sign flesh is very delicate food.

of the great irritability of the pituitary membrane. Rosette of Edwards; pteropus Edwardsii of A cluster of the ripe fruit of the pandanus odoraGeoffroy. Fawn color, back of a deep brown. tissimus, carried by some boys, drew many of these Madagascar.

aniniais to the spot. One that had been caught Rosette of Buffon, pteropus vulgaris of Geoffroy. and tied by the leg, though blindly striving to get Brown; face and sides of the back brown and fawn free with unavailing diligence, forgot its fears and color.

embarrassment, when a piece of that fruit was heid Collared rosette. Pteropus rubricollio. Gray, at the distance of a yard or two from it, and prown; neck red. Found in the same islands; eagerly pawed after the odorous morsel ; which lives in hollow trees.

being obtained, and finding its gyves loosened, it The moping rosette; pteropus pselaphon of Lay. began forthwith to hasten away, holding the booty Brownish black; back sprinkled wirh hoary hairs. firmly in its mouth. One of them, being thrown The following account of this new species of by the sailors into the sea, labored some time to pteropus was written by us while at Bonin, a keep its head above water and reach the shore; small cluster of islands lately made known to the hut, finding all attempts vain, it quietly resumed its English, where we had, during the short stay of four wonted position of rest, and resigned itself to a days, several opportunities of noting its habits and watery death. When cast upon a raft by the same propensities. We entertained some doubts at first unfeeling hands, it made some attempts to susof the difference of its species, and were inclined pend itself from a projection, without dipping its to esteein it as a variety of the edulis, with which head into the water; but perceiving its efforts to be it agrees in its fructivorous habit; but the uniformity useless, it abandoned the float, and swam pertinaof color, and the comparative smallness of the ca- ciously after the boat, deeming that it saw some nine teeth, induceus, with the concurrence of seve- object at a distance which would afford a comral other naturalists, to consider it as a distinct fortable resting-place. When taken on board, and species. Alar web, or the membranous expansion confined, they did not betray any signs of fear, of the integuments which cover the toes of the and ate without repining the fruit that was given fore-feet, black; assuming a brownish hue in them; but, being set at liberty, they climbed to the Vol. XXII.

3 B


highest parts of the rigging, and there found a B. Caudá implicita.- Vespertilio hastalus. Naconvenient situation for repose. When thirsty it sal leaf in the shape of a spear; margin entire. descends a tree on the margin of the rills, and, after


Cauda libera.-Phyllostoma crenulatum. sipping a little refreshment, reascends the trunk, Group 2. Vespertiliones digitis omnibus imperand takes its departure from the branches. p. Cauda instructi.-Rosettes with a tail; four This


have the index with but one phalanincisors in each jaw. All the species of this di- gial bone, while the other fingers have two. vision are described by Geoffroy. Some of them Gen. 1. Megaderma of Geoffroy:-V'espertilio are woolly and gray.

auribus superne junctis. Which have the bose Pteropus Ægyptiacus.

more compressed than that of the phyllostoma; Pteropus amplexicaudus. Lives in subter- the earlet large and very often forked; the auricle raneous places, is of a reddish color, and has the of the ears, which are connected to one another ou tail longer, and partly connected with the interse- the crown of the head, very wide. The lips and moral membrane. Indian Archipelago.

tongue are smooth. Interfemoral membrane entire. Gen. 2. Cephalotes of Geoffroy.-- Vespertiliones No tail. They have four incisors above : more membranæ ex indice ungue mancæ alæ inter se have been found below; and it appears that the junctæ. They have the same number of grinders, intermaxillary bone remains a cartilage. but the index is destitute of a nail, though pro Megaderma frons of Geoffroy. Nasal leaf oral, vided with three phalangial bones. The alar and almost as large as the head of the Africa. membranes instead of joining the flanks are coupled Vespertilio spasma of Linné. Senegal and the over the back to which they adhere by vertical par- Indian Archipelago. tition. They often have but two incisors.

Gen. 2. Rhinolphus of Geoffroy and Cuvier.Cephalotes pteronii of Geoffroy. Brown or red- Vespertilio in ore simulatione ungulæ. They have dish. From Timor.

the nose furnished with various complications and Bevy 2. Vespertiliones inolaribus horrentibus, of a horse-shoe. The tail is long, and is placed in

crests bent over the face so as to present the figure medio digito plerumque sine ungue.

the interfemoral membrane. Four incisors above Their membrane is always extended between and three small ones below. their legs; we may divide them into two groups. Vespertilio ferrem equinum, L. R.; bifer of GeofGroup 1. Vespertiliones medio digito assibus per- feet, shrouded by their wings.

froy. Inhabit quarries; suspend themselves by the fecto.

Gen. 3. Nyctoris of Cuvier and Geoffroy.-Ves Gen. 1. Molossus of Geoffroy.—Vespertilio au- pertilio fossa in ore auribus liberis. Face bollowed; ribus super ore inter se junctis. Muzzle simple; a foss marked also upon the cranium ; nostrils ears long and short, rising near the corner of the surrounded by a circle of jutting planes ; four idmouth and uniting over the snout. The earlet cisors above without intervals, and six below. Their short and not enclosed within the auricle. Six in- ears are large and not united ; tail confined in the cisors in each jaw. The tail occupies the whole interfemoral membrane. length of the interfemoral membrane, and often Vespertilio hispida of Linné. extends beyond it. All the species of this genus Gen. 4. Rhinopoma of Geoffroy.-Vespertilio are found in America.

fossa in ore, auribus interse junctis. They have a Gen. 2. Myctonome of Geoffroy.-Vespertilio foss less marked, nostrils at the tip of the muzzle, labio superiore in sinum sese scindente. Four and a small plate above; the ears are united; the incisors below, the upper lip high and very deeply tail prolonged beyond the membrane.

Egypt, , notched ; in other respects they resemble those of among the pyramids. the preceding genus.

Gen. 5. Thaphozous of Geoffroy. Vespertilio fossa Gen. 3. Noctilio.--Vespertilio nasu sulcis atque in ore. Have the foss in the face, but the nostrils verrucis. Muzzle short, inflected, cloven, and fur- are without varied plates. We do not find more nished with warts and fanciful sulcations. Ears sepa- than two incisors above and four below; their ears rated. They have four incisors above and below. are pointed ; tail fixed above the interfemoral Tail short and free above from the subfemoral membrane. Geoffroy describes them as found membrane.

among the pyramids of Egypt. Vespertilio leporinus of Gmelin. Pale fawn color. Gen. 6. Vespertilio.—Nasu nudo, which has Gen. 4. Phyllostoma of Cuvier and Geoffroy. the nose without leaves or any other distinguishing Vespertilio nasu, folio alto. Regular nunber of marks. Ears separated; four incisors above, of incisors in each jaw, but a part of those below which the middle one is diverging, and six below, often fall out, displaced by the encroachment of the sharp and somewhat hooked. The tail is impucanine teeth. They are further distinguished by a cated in the membrane. membrane in form of a leaf raised across the tip V. murinus of Linné. Gray; ears as long 23 of the muzzle. The tragus generally resembles a the head. small leaf more or less toothed. The tongue, which V. noctua of Linné. Brown; ears shorter is capable of very great elongation, is covered than the head; earlet round. with papillæ apparently calculated for sucking. A V. serotinus of Linné. Fawn-colored; wings number of tubercles are arranged symmetrically and ears black; auricle triangular; shorter than upon the lips. These animals can run upon the the head ; earlet small. earth better than the rest of the bats. Under this V. pipistrellus of Gmelin ; smallest of France. genus are included three subgenera:

Brown; has the ears and earlets triangular. Longa. Sine caudá.-Phyllostomas without tails. The eared bats. vampyre. Vespertilio spectrum. Nasal leaf oval Gen. 7. Plecotis of Geoffroy - l'espertilio auand furled like a fan. Color red-brown. About the ribus capite majoribus. Ears larger than the head. size of a magpie.

Vespertilio auritus. Common in this country,

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