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according to the wants of the animal; the other stance of this timber or wood, when it has acquired ruminantia have nothing similar. The camel is its full development, becomes a very dense and Tetromingent, as the male organ of generation compact substance, without either pores or sinuses; is directed behind, which renders coition difficult, its figure varies according to the species, and but it is somewhat assisted by the recumbent posi- always according to the age of the animal. tion of the other sex. In rutting season a humor Cervus axis. is secreted from the head. The particular character C. alces. for immediate discrimination consists in having two C. elephas. toes united underneath almost by a common seam, C. tarandus. and the feet charged with warts.

C. Canadensis, or strongyloceros. Gen. 2. Auchenia of Iliger.—Digitis solutis, C. virginalis. nullis verrucis. The lamas have the two toes se Gen. 2. Camelopardalis.—The giraffes have for parate, and are destitute of the warts.

their chief characteristic the horns quite covered Guanaco; camelus llama of Linné. An indi- by the incasing of skin in both sexes, which never vidual of this species may now be seen in the fails, though these creatures are more remarkable gardens of the Zoological Society.

by the disproportioned length of their neck and fore Paca, or vigugna; camelus vicunna of Linné. legs, and large tubercles upon the chanfrein. Gen. 3. Moschus of Linne.-Dentibus caninis

Division III.-Cum CORNIBUS Cavis. exertis. The musk deer are by far less anomalous than the camels, and do not differ from the other

The ruminantia with hollow horns' are more ruminants, save in the want of horns, and in the numerous than the rest, and we have been obliged long canine teeth in the upper jaw, which spring to divide them into genera by characters of less from the mouth of the male, and ultimately become importance derived from the form of their horns, very long; in the skeleton we find a fibula, which and from the proportions of their different parts. does not exist in the camels.

M. Geoffroy has pointed out with success the Moschus moschiferus.

importance of ever attending to the substance or

shell of these frontal prominences. Division II.-Cum CORNIBUS SOLIDIS.

Sect. I.-ANTHOLOPHI. All the rest of the ruminantia have, at least

Cornibus concavis sursum versis. We have venin the males, two horns, that is to say, two tured to restore this word to its original purity; prominences, more or less long, emanating from for it must be deemed the excess of modesty to the frontal bones, which does not take place suffer a term of such barbarous construction as in any of the other families. In some of them antelope to deform our nomenclature. The anthothese prominences are covered with an encasing of an elastic substance, composed of agglutinated lophi liave the substance of the bony shell solid and hairs, which continue to increase during the whole of the deer. They resemble the deer in other re

pores or sinuses, as in the timbered horns life of the animal; to this we give the name of horn (a word of very ancient extraction, and which their scale, and the fileetness of their course. This

spects by their lachrymatories, by the lightness of has a very numerous kindred—17p, repas, cornu, Fr. is a numerous group, and may be divided into gecorne, Spanish cuerno, Italian corno, German corn,

nera after the form of their horns. Horns ringed, Hindostanee qurn), and it is sometimes called a

of a double curvature, pointed before, and directed hollow horn; of this kind are the horns of oxen, upwards. sheep, goats, and antelopes. In others these pro

La Corinna, A. corinna. minences have a clothing of skin, which is conti Kevel, A. kuella of Gmelin. nuous with that of the head, and which is never

Gazelle, A. doras. destroyed; lastly, in the genus cervus, the promi

Sect. II.--PECORA. nences are covered during some time with skin like the rest of the head, and have at the base a ring Animals of this subdivision have the shell of of bony tubercles, which, upon enlarging, com- their horns bony, occupied in a great measure by press and close the nourishing vessels of the cells which communicate with the frontal sinuses skin. It becomes dry, and is raised; the bony Divided into families according to the direction of prominence is laid bare and separated from it at the horns. the end of a certain interval of time, from the cra CAPRÆ.—Cornibus compressis, scabris. The goats nium to which it was held; it falls, and the animal have horns directed upwards and backwards, and remains a time without horns; but they are forthwith generally a beard upon the chin; chanfrein concave. replaced by the rudiments of new ones, which, in an Oves.-Cornibus retrorsum versis, rugosis. The ascending series, surpass in size and development sheep have the horns directed backwards, and retheir predecessors, and are destined to undergo the turning more or less in a spiral direction; chanfrein same revolutions. Horns completely bony, and generally convex; no beard upon the chin. The subject to these periodical changes, are called simple bearing and direction of the horns may wooden or timbered horns by the French; and with perhaps seem too slight a inark for generic division ; great propriety, for there is a wonderful analogy but yet the natural habitudes of these two families between their mode of growth and reproduction and demand that we should select external notes to that of the vegetable part of creation, particularly assist the eye in associating certain peculiarities of in the expansion, falling off, and reappearance of the form with certain peculiarities of disposition. foliage in trees: indeed this may be considered as Boves.-Cornibus concavis, antrorsum versis, luthe point of contact where the cycles of animal and vatis, lævipus. ' The ox has his horns directed sidevegetable demonstrations mutually touch.

ways and returning upwards and forwards in a Gen. 1. Cervus.—The deer stands in front of crossing position; generally a broad muzzle; thick those ruminantia which have timbered horns, but and firm built stature, and sturdy legs. we except one species, the rein-deer. The females Gen. 1. Taurus.-Cornibus teretibus, extrorare always deprived of this peculiarity. The sub sum curvatis ; horns tapering, curved outwards.

Gen. 2. Zebu.— A large protuberance upon the Gen. 1. Manatus.-Cuvier. Dentibus incisiris shoulders.

ocyus excidentibus. Body long, terminating in a Gen. 3. Arnee.-Cornibus erectis lunatis supra fin of an oval elongated form; grinders seven, inplaniusculis rugosis; horns upright, flattish, and side above and below, square, crowned, and wrinkled above.

marked with two transverse risings ; no incisive or Gen. 4. Bubalus.-Cornibus resupinis intortis an- oanine teeth in the full grown animal, but in the tice planis; horns lying backwards, turning up- young one we meet with a pair of very small wards, flat on the forepart.

pointed teeth in the intermaxillary bone, which Gen. 5. Moschatus.-Cornibus (maris) approxi- soon disappear. We can discern the vestiges matis, basi latissimis; horns of the male approxi- of small nails upon the margins of their fins, mated at the base.

which assist them in creeping, and help them to Gen. 6. Yak.-Caudâ undique jubata; tail vil- carry their little ones: this has occasioned these lose, and like that of a horse.

organs to be compared to hands; whence the name

of manatus, handed, which by corruption has beOrder XV.-Cetacea.

come lamantin. Their stomach is divided into The cetacea are mammiferous, with feet behind, branches ; colon inflated : all of them characters

long pouches ; cæcum also parted into three and a trunk prolonged into a tail

, thick and termi- belonging to herbivorous animals. nating in a horizontal tail of cartilaginous consist

Trichecus mapatus of Linné. Sea-calf. ence; the head is joined to the trunk by a neck, but so

Gen. 2. Halicore of Iliger.— They have each short and straight that we cannot perceive any di- of the grinders composed of two cones placed side minution; it is composed of cervical vertebræ, very by side'; the teeth, which are implanted in the inthin, and partly cemented together. The anterior termaxillary bone, are permanent, increase, and extremities have the bones concurrent, flattened, become defensive weapons, hut are in a great and unfolded into a tendinous membrane or web, measure covered by the lips, which are fleshy, and which is reduced to the nature of true tins. The clothed with mustachios ; body elongated ; tail cetacea possess almost all the generalities of exter terminating in a fin in shape like a cross

. nal form which the rest of the firny tribe present,

Gen. 3. Rytina of Iliger; putin (ultimately except the vertical tail. They respire air by means from puw), to be curled into waves or wrinkles like of lungs, though destined to spend their life in the running water.—This genus appears to have on water, and are therefore obliged from time to time each side but a single grinder, which is fiat and rough, to ascend to the surface to inhale the principle of with plates of enamel; the fins have not the small oxygenation; their blood is warm; ears open out- nails which are observed in the lamantins. Acwards, though by small orifices ; but the residue of cording to Iliger, who first described this fish, the their anatomical detail corresponds to that of other

stomach is small. fishes. The brain is large, and has its hemispheres well developed ; the sensorium, and that part of the cra

Family 2. CETACEA CARNIVORA. nium which contains the internal ear, are separated

This family is distinguished from the last by 2 from the rest of the head, and adhere to it only singular apparatus, which has gained for them the by means of some ligaments. There is no exter

name of blowers. Since, in swallowing their prey, nal ear, nor any hair upon the body. The horizontal a large volume of water inust necessanly enter the position of their tail obliges them in swimming to

narrow throat, some means for parting with it beurge themselves along by the reaction of an im

comes indispensable, which is accordingly effected pulse given in a vertical direction, that is, by by the mediation of a particular disposition of the moving that instrument of progression upwards palate, and the water is amassed in a sac placed at and downwards. In this we discern an obvious the orifice of the cavity of the nose, whence it is and important difference between this order of driven with great violence by the compression of very mammalia and the class of fishes which swim by, powerful muscles, through a very narrow opening moving the tail right and left, or in the plane of in the summit of the head, and produces a jet of their course. In this disposition of the tail nature water, the noise of which in a calm night resembles seems to have consulted their wants by giving them the hissing ignition of a sky-rocket, and may be a form adapted for rising out of the water with ease, heard at a great distance by the sailors. The noswhich the frequent occasion of breathing renders trils, being without intermission crossed by the necessary. Among the cetacea we shall insert those

waves of sea-water, could not be very subtile in animals which have long been confounded with the the discernment of odors were the pituitary memwalrus.

brane very delicate; but they have none of the Family 1. CETACEA HERBIVORA. prominent parts so conspicuous in other animals,

and the olfactory nerves are very small, and thereThe teeth of this family are crowned with plates, fore, if they do enjoy the sense of smell at all, it which determines their kind of life. Their mode must be very imperfectly. of living engages them to come ashore oftimes to

Their larynx is in form of a pyramid, and comfeed upon the seaweed and other vegetable reject- municates posteriorly with the nostrils to receive amenta of the sea. They have the paps seated the air, and communicate it to the lungs; without upon the breast, and some hairs for whiskers : two this contrivance the animal would be obliged to lift circumstances which, at a distance, when they rise its head and throat out of the water every time it vertically out of the water, give them a certain re- had occasion to respire; hence we see that these semblance to a female of our own species, and was fistulæ, as they have been called, answer chiefly the probably the first origin of the imagination of mer purpose of respiration, whereas in other animals of maids, and other sea-monsters of human configura- this class the corresponding organs are destined by tion.

their formation to fulfil the special office of smelling,


and only conduct the breath as a sort of accessory

Subdivision 2. Capite ingente. to the mouth; we do amiss, therefore, to call these Head so large that it equals one-third or even oneapertures after another name, since analogy reclaims half of the length of the body; but the skull and against it, and the student of natural history is led the brain do not participate in this vast disproporto suppose that the organs are of a different kind, tion, which has the appearance of being occasioned and not of the same kind with a different organisa- by an enormous development of the face. tion. Besides this is contrary to the more recent Gen. 1. Physeter.-Dentibus infra. Very volupractice, which chooses to consider the absence of minous, and excessively turgid before; upper jaw any part as occasioned by its coalescence with a nearly or quite destitute of teeth, and without carneighbouring portion, and the presence of a super- tilaginous lappets; lower jaw narrow and lengthnumerary part as the extraordinary development ened, fitting a furrow in the upper one, and is furof some other, so that in the same class the totality nished on each side with a row of cylindrical of members may be preserved as much as possible. teeth, which terminate in a conical point, and enter The animals of this family are destitute of those into corresponding cavities in the upper jaw when prominent plates in the glottis which the creatures the mouth is shut. The upper jaw of this enormous endowed with a voice possess : any audible utter- head consists almost entirely of large cavities, ance produced from the throat must be merely curved and separated by cartilages, filled with oi!! groans. There is no vestige of hair, and the whole which hardens upon being cooled, and is known in body is covered with a smooth skin, under which commerce by the chimerical name of spermaceti · lies a thick layer of fat, very abundant in oil. Teats the body is not so abundantly furnished with fat. near the anus; fins incapable of laying hold of any These cavities are very different from a true thing. Their stomach has five and sometimes nearly cranium, which is placed under the hind part, and seven distinct pouches, and instead of a single contains the brain as usual. It appears that these spleen they have many small globular ones. Those cavities are filled with this adepocire, which is diswhich are possessed of teeth have them all conical, tributed over many parts of the body, and commuand similar to one another: they do not chew the nicate with the cavities, which make up the mass food, but swallow it greedily. Two small bones of the head, and are also interwoven with the fat suspended in the flesh near the anus are the only which lies under the skin. The odorous substance vestiges of posterior extremities that remain. Some known by the name of ambergris appears to be a of them have upon their backs a vertical fin of a concretion found in the intestines of the cachalot, tendinous structure, but it is unsupported by which in certain states of disease, it would seem, bones ; their eyes are flat before; sclerotica thick, is found in the cæcum. Physeter is derived from and solid ; tongue has only thin and soft liga puw, which once without doubt signified to breathe,

giving rise to quoaw by an epenthesis of the syllable

oa, meaning to blow. Cachalot, with a dorsal fin. Subdivision 1. Capite concinno.

We distinguish among them two species, merops Delphini of Linné. Head of ordinary propor- and tursio, according to the nature of their teeth tions. Teeth in both jaws are simple, and almost straightened or bent, snarp or obtuse. always conical ; disposition most carnivorous in Gen. 2. Balæna, formed from Bałw, obsolete of the ratio that it is provided with weapons.

Ballw, in allusion to the jetting of the water from Gen. 1. Delphis of Cuvier. Delphini cum ros-. their nostrils.- Equal to the cachalots in point of tro producto. "Mouth so much thicker than the dimensions, and in the proportionate magnitude of rest that the head assumes the appearance of a sort the head, though they are not so embulked before, of beak or rostrum.

but they are destitute of teeth. Upper jaw in shape D. delphis of Linné.

of a keel or roof inverted; on both sides it is furD. rostratus.

nished with numerous plates, fine and thick set, called D. tursio homnaterre of Le Souffler.

by the French fanons or dewlaps, composed of a Gen. 2. Phocana of Cuvier.—Delphini rostro kind of fibrous bone, hackled at the end, which haud insignes. Without the rostrum, the mouth serves for retaining the small animals upon which being of a uniform enlargement.

the enormous creature feeds; lower jaw supported D. phocæna.

by bony branches, arched within and above, withD. orca or gladiator grampus.

out any broad fleshy tongue, very thick, and enGen. 3. Delphimaptera of Lacepide.—Delphini velopes, when the mouth is shut, all the inside of pinnam super dorso non habentes. Differ from the the upper jaw, and the bony palate by which it is last solely in the want of a dorsal fin.

embraced. This kind of organisation does not D. leucas of Gmelin. Albicanus Fabricius. allow the whales to nourish themselves with animals

Gen. 4. Hyperoodons.—Delphini in maxilla in- so large as their size might seem to demand. They feriore duo aut nullis dentibus. The hyperoodontes live upon small fish, frequently upon worms, upon have the snout and body conformable to the del- zoophytes, and it is said by the whale fishermen phines; but they have only two small teeth in their that they catch the smallest worms by intercepting lower jaw, which do not always appear. Palate them in the filaments of the palatial developments. rough, with small tubercles.

B. mysticetus.
H. edentulus. Two-toothed dolphin of Hunter, B. glacialis of Klein.

Gen. 5. Monodon.-Delphini pro dentibus en Gen. 3. Balenoptera.—Ventri lunato. One dorsal cisivis cornu porrecto. The monodon has no teeth fin upon the back, and a crescent-shaped belly. properly so called, but have the want of cutting B. physalis. teeth supplied by a long, straight end, pointed, im Gen. 4. Balænoptera.-Cute juguli pectorisque planted in the intermaxillary bone, and parallel to in plicas lecta. Skin of the throat and chest folde. the direction of the body. The shape of the body into longitudinal very deep ridges or plaits, ana in other respects resembles the phocænæ.

capable of great dilatation. Monodon monoceros.

B. boops.
Vol. XXII.


Class II.-AVES.

A summary of the chief characters af the second

class of vertebral animals. This class comprises Though the three classes of vertebral ovipa- vertebral oviparous animals with a donble respirous animals differ greatly among themselves in ration and double circulation, and an organisation the quantity of respiration, and in circumstances fitted for soaring aloft in the air. Their lungs are relating to it; namely, in the vigor of their move- divided, fixed to the sides, and are enveloped in a ments, and in the energy of their senses, yet they membrane perforated with many holes; which exhibit some common characters, when we survey permit the air to pass into numerous cavities in the them in counterview with some of the vertebral breast, the lower belly, the arm pits, and also into viviparous animals, as will better appear when we the bones ; so that the outward fluid not only bathes come to consider the nature and arrangement the pulmonary vessels, but also an infinitude of of such creatures as the frog, the lizard, &c. vessels in every part of the body. Thus birds reTheir brain has the hemispheres very thin and spire in some measure by the branches of the aorta, not united by means of a callous body; the nates as well as by the pulmonary artery; for by respiassume a very considerable development, and are ration we understand the commingling of the air hollowed by one ventricle, and are not covered by and the blood, when the latter is in a state of cirthe hemispheres, but are visible underneath; or at culation. Thence we observe that, since the energy the sides of the brain; the crura of the cerebellum of irritability is proportioned to the quantity of do not form that protuberance called pons varolii; respiration, the whole of their body is disposed to the nostrils less complicated; the ear nearly with draw a part of it. out bones in some birds, and entirely without in The abdominal basin is very much extended others; the helix when it does exist is much more backwards in length, in order to furnish attachsimple. The lower jaw is always composed of ment for the muscles, which support the trunk very numerous pieces, and is attached to the upper upon the thighs ; there is also a set of muscles by a single concave facet upon a prominent por- rising from the pelvis, and passing over the knee tion, which belongs to the temporal bone. The and heel; so that the simple foot of the bird binds bones of the cranium are more subdivided, and the toes: this is what renders them able to sleep remain a longer time before they coalesce; although perched upon the foot. The ischia and the pelvis they occupy the same places and fulfil the same are prolonged and separated, so as to leave room offices; the frontal bone is of five or six pieces. for the passage of the eggs. The orbits are separated from one another only by The sternum, which affords to the muscles that a long plate of the sphenoid, or by a membrane. depress the wing and bring it down in smart strokes When ihese creatures have the anterior extremities upon the air an attachment of very great extent, slender, the clavicles are united, and the shoulder which is farther augmented by a prominent plate in blade is fastened to the sternum by the coracoid the medium line, is composed of five pieces, the apophysis, and very much prolonged and dilated. mean of which is a rising plate, two lateral anterior They have no epiglottis upon the very simple for attaching the sides, and two posterior : the larynx; the lungs are not separated from the ab- greater or less degree of firmness in these parts de domen by a complete diaphragm. But, in order to notes the greater or less degree ofvigor in the have a full comprehension of their several rela- bird. tions, we must enter more minutely into their ana The fork produced by the union of two clavitomical details, which would be incompatible with cles, and the two strong arches formed by the carathe prescribed length of this article; but let it suffice coid process, separate the shoulders; the wing to remark that the analogy of oviparous vertebral is supported by the humerus. forearm, and the hand, animals between their genera is constructed upon a which is elongated, and presents one finger and wider plan than that which obtains among the the vestiges of two others. Tail bony and very mammalia.

short, but it bears a rank of strong feathers, which Oviparous generation essentially consists in the in spreading contribute to support the bird; the circumstance that the young one is not fastened number is commonly twelve, sometimes fourteen, by means of a placenta to the sides of the uterus and in the gallinaceous fowls they are increased to or oviduct; but remains some time separated from sixteen. it by an external covering. Its nourishment, The legs possess a femur, a tibia, and a fibula which is called the vitellus, is prepared before which is fastened to the femur by a particular artihand, and is contained in a sac derived from the culation, so that intension is maintained withintestinal canal, and to which the embryo is for out effort of the part; the tarsus and metatarsus some time as a kind of appendage almost imper- consist of a single bone, which is terminated below ceptible at first, but is afterwards augmented by by three pulleys. They have generally three toes absorbing the liquor of the yolk. Those oviparous

ous before, and the great toe behind, but the latter is animals which respire by lungs have for the most sometimes wanting; it is directed before in the part in the egg a membrane, very richly charged martinets. In the climbers, on the contrary, the with blood vessels, which appears to minister in outer toe and the thumb are directed behind. The respiration, and is connected with the bladder, number of articulations increases at each toe, comand represents the allantoid in mammiferous mencing at the thumb, which has two phalangial animals. This has not been discovered in fish bones, and the last two five. nor in frogs, which in their first stage of separate The eye of birds is disposed in such a manner existence respire by means of gills. Many of the as to be able to distinguish distant and near oboviparous among cold blooded animals do not jects with equal precision ; a membrane vascular pari with their young immediately after the latter and folded, which is sent from the bottom of the are disunited from the investing shell or mem. globe at the further part of the crystalline lens, brane, which parted them from their mother : contributes probably towards the shifting of the these have been termed false viviparous.

lens. The anterior face of the globe is in other

respects sunk in a circle of long pieces; and, be- force; their tarsi are seldom elongated; all of their sides the two ordinary eye-lashes, there is always a have four toes; the nail of the great toe, and that third placed at the corner of the eye, which by of the inner toe, are very strong. They compose means of a muscular apparatus of remarkable con two divisions, the diurni and the nocturni. trivance is drawn before the eye-ball, like a curtain. The cornea is convex, but the crystalline is flat, and

Division 1.—DIURNI.- Acie in obliquum. the vitreous humor small. The ear of birds is nothing save a meatus between the tympanum direction; a membrane called a cere covers the base

The diurni have the line of vision in a lateral and the fenestra ovalis; the helix is a cone somewhat arched, but the semicircular canals are very

of the bill, in which the nostrils are bored ; three large and lodged in airy cavities, which commu

toes before, one behind, without feathers, the two nicate with the shoulder: the birds of night have external almost always united at their base by a a large external ear as in quadrupeds; this opening feathers strong; the flight softy and towering; their

small membrane; the plumage compact; the is generally covered with feathers of finer texture than the rest.

stomach almost entirely membranous; their intesThe organ of smell, concealed in the base of the tines of very little extension; their cæcum very beak, is commonly of cartilaginous horns without short; sternum broad and completely ossified in any complication, and is very sensible. There are

order to give the muscles of the wing a plane of not the hollow sinuses in the thick part of the cra

attachment of greater amplitude; their forked nium; the size of the nostrils determines the size bone (fourchette) is wide, the better to afford reof the bill.

sistance to the violent beatings of the humerus The tongue is somewhat of a muscular sub. wnich a rapid flight requires. stance, and is supported by a production of the os Family 1. VULTURES.—Capite sive collo nudo. hyoides, and is rather delicate in a great many birds.

The vultures have the eyes even with the head; The brain of birds has the same general cha- the tarsi reticulated, that is to say, invested with racter which is possessed by the vertebral ovipa- small scales; the beak lengthened ; recurved only at rous animals, but is distinguished by proportional the tip; and a part more or less considerable of the size and consideration, which sometimes surpasses head and neck bare of feathers. the same organ in mammiferous animals; it is Gen. 1. Vultur.- Capite nudo. priucipally of tubercles, conformable to the canals Gen. 2. Grypaëtus of Storr.-Phene. Savigny on which depends its volume, not on the hemis- capite plumis obducto. Beak very strong, straighi, pheres which are very thin and without circumvo- hooked at the tip, swelled upon the hook; the Lutions; the cerebellum is very large, and nearly nostrils are covered with stiff hairs, directed forwithout lateral lobes, and almost completely formed wards; there is a pencil of similar hairs under the by vermiform appendages. The trachea of birds beak; their tarsi are very strong and feathered to has its rings entire, and its glottis is in form of a the toes, and are obviously distinguished from the bifurcation, very often provided with muscles, vultures proper by having the head covered with and may be called an inferior larynx: it is this feathers. which forms the voice of birds. The enormous Vultur barbatus and faico barbatus of Gmelin. quantity of air which is contained in aëriał sacs

Family 2. FALCONES.—Oculis cavis. contributes to the force of this voice.

Of all the classes of animals that of birds is the The birds of this numerous genus have the head best distinguished, and that of which the species covered with feathers; their eyebrows form a rising bear the greatest similitude to one another, and or prominence which makes the eye appear sunken, which is separated from the rest of the animal and gives to their physiognomy a character quité creation by the broadest line of demarcation ; this different from that of the vultures. is what renders their subdivision so extremely dif Gen. 1. Falco of Bechstein.--Bill curved from the ficult, and liable to so many variations according base, and having a sharp tocth on each side of the to different aspects under which they are viewed. point; the second feather of the wings longer Their distribution is founded, as among the than the rest. mammiferous class, upon the relative structure of

F. communis. the organs of manducation, or the bill, and upon

F. subbuteo. the instruments of prehension or the feet, or sum F. rufipes. marily in distributing them we consider the nature F. cesalon. of the bill and feet. As this subject has already F. tinnunculus. been contemplated, in the article ORNITHOLOGY,

Gen. Hierofalco of Cuvier.—This genus exwe shall for bear to expatiate upon particulars hibits all the disposition of the noble falcon as well already considered ; and, for the purpose of ex as the nature of the wing feathers, but their bill hibiting the relative bearings of this department, we has but one feston, like that of the ignoble; their shall pursue the tenor of our arrangement through tail is long and graduated, and greatly surpasses the series of orders, delaying the tide of our discus- the wings in length, though they be very long; sion wherever the exigencies of this work may seem

tarsi short and reticulated. to require it.

Falco candicans, F. cinereus, and F. sacer, of

Gmelin. In forming three specics out of one, ORDER 1,--ACCIPITRES.

Gmelin and others were misled by deriving their This order is analogous to that of the carnivora descriptions at different stages of growth; many among the mammalia, that is, it bears the same ratio examples of this kind will occur in the course of to the other orders of birds that the carnivorous this part of our article; when, to avoid a repetition, orders of quadrupeds bear to the rest. The mus- the several synonyms will appear in an immedicles of their legs and thighs indicate their compact ately consecutive order.

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