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Gen. 2. Lophotes of Giorna.--Head surmounted Gen. 3. Elestris. Ventral fins distinct; eyes by a light bony crest, to the summit of which is arti- crossing ; branchial membrane with six rays. culated a long and sturdy ray, bordered behind Gen. 6. Sillago of Cuvier. Mouth protractile, furwith a membrane.
nished with fleshy lips; opercula armed with a L. Lacepede of Giorna. Found rarely in the small spine; preopercula slightly toothed. Mediterranean. Gen. 3. Regalecus of Ascan.-Noanal nor caudal
S. domina of Cuvier. } Indian Sea. fius; and the ventral are reduced to long filaments. CALLIONYMI.-Branchial aperture reduced to a Gymnetrus remisses of Schn.
small orifice. Ventral fins under the throat, larger G. russelii of Snaw.
than the pectoral. Gen. 4. Gymnetrus of Blum.-A single fin upon Gen. 1. Trichonotus of Schn.-Body very much the back, and co-extended with it
elongated ; first two rays of the dorsal lengthened G. cepidianus of Risso.
into bristles. Gen. 5. Tachypterus of Gouan.--Dorsal very long C. avacunculus. and supported by round rays, of which the anieriors Gen. 2. Comephorus of Lacepede.-Saout oblong, are toothed like a saw.
broad, and depressed. T. tænia of Schn.; cepola tachyptera of Gmelin. C. Baicalensis. Gen. 6. Gymnogaster.-Destitute of ventral as
Family 3. LABROIDES. well as of anal fins.
Body oblong, scaly ; one dorsal, supported by G. arcticus. Second division.-Snout pointed and the gape nous lappet! lips fleshy; intestinal canal without
strong spines, furnished oftentimes with a membra deeply riven.
or with two very small cæcal appendages; the Gen. 1. Trichiurus.- Teeth long and barbed ; tail
swimming bladder strong. terminating in a slender filament; stomach long and thick; cæcal appendages numerous ; intestine
Gen. 1. Labrus. straight; swimming bladder large and simple.
L. vetule. T. lepturus.
Gen. 2. Sulis. Gen. 2. Lepidotus.-Differ from the trichiurus in
L. sulis. having a caudal fin of the ordinary shape. Trichiurus caudatus of Vandellius; lustianicus labrus in having the preopercula denticulated.
Gen. 3. Crenclutrus. -Distinguished from the of Shaw; ziphetheca tetradens of Montague.
Gen. 4. Coricus of Cuvier. Mouth very protractile. Gen. 3. Stylephorus of Shaw.–Upon the end of the tail, which is extended into a filament longer scaly head.
Gen. 5. Cheilinus of Lacepede.-Labrus with a than the body, there is a fin distinct from the first dorsal which is nearly co-extended with the body. forming a tube.
Gen. 6. Epibulus of Cuvier.—Mouth suddenly S. chordatus of Shaw.
Gen. 7. Elops.—Head quite smooth; mouth asDorsal spines slender and flexible; intestinal suming the form of a tube by the prolongation of the canal ample, equal, and without cæcal appendages; surrounding parts. swimming bladder none.
Gen. 8. Novacula of Cuvier.—Similar to the labri Blenni. Ventral fins placed before the pectoral in the form of the body, but the forehead descends and composed of two rays only; stomach thin, and suddenly in an almost vertical line. without cul-de-sac.
Gen. 9. Chromis.—Lips and internaxillaries proGen. 1. Blennius.—Tentacula under each eye. tractile; vertical fins filamentous. brow.
Sparus chromis of Linné. B. ocellaris of Blumenbach
Gen. 10. Scarus of Linné. Gen. 2. Membranous prominence upon the vertus. Gen. 11. Labrar of Pall.- Very long; furnished Gen.3. Pholis. Without either crest or tentaculum. with ciliated scales, Gen. 4. Clinus.-Snout more obtuse than any of
Family 4. PERCE. See PERCA. the others.
Series 1. SPAROIDES. Gen. 5. First rays of the dorsal distinct; small bundles about the eye-brows.
A dorsal fin running the greater part of the length
of the back. Gen. 6. First rays of the dorsal extended upon
Gen. 1. Smaris.-Jaws extensible into a sort of and forming a rayed crest upon the ventral. Gen. 7. Centronotus of Schn.-Ventral fins scarce
tube by means of the long pedicles of their intermaxilly perceptible.
lary bones; body nearly in the form of a herring;
jaws furnished with a row of fine teeth, with some Gen. 8. Opithognathus of Cuvier.-Maxillary
rows behinds it. bones very large, and extended behind into a sort of long flat whiskers.
Sparus mæna of Linné,
S. smaris of Linné. O. sonneratii of Cuvier.
Gen. 2. Boops of Cuvier.- Jaws scarcely extensiGen. 9. Anarrhichas of Linné.
ble; a simple row of teeth in each jaw.
Gen. 3. Sparus of Cuvier. - Jaws scarcely extensiGen. 1. Gobius.
ble; molar teeth round. G. niger of Linné.
Gen. 4. Sargus of Cuvier.-Incisors like those of Gen. 2. Gobioides of Lacep.—Dorsal fins united. man. Gen. 3. Tænioides of Lacep.-— Eyes obliterated. Sparus sargus of Linnć. Gen. 4. Periophthalmus of Sch.-Eyes furnished Gen. 5. Four or six conical teeth in each row; with eye-lashes.
the rest paved.
Gen. 6. Pagrus of Cuvier.-A great number of Gen. 3. Paralepis of Cuvier-Second dorsal so small teeth forming a brosse before.
frail and small that it might almost be taken for an Sparus erythrinus.
Gen. 4. Mullus.
scales large and caducous.
Gen. 6. Mugil.
Perca Propriæ of Linné.
Gen. 1. Perca.
Gen. 11. Bodianus.--Preoperculum without den- ance of chætodons.
Gen. 4. Prochilus of Cuvier.
Gen. 6. Terapon of Cuvier.-An impressure be-
Gen. 7. Apogon of Lacep.--Differ from the sur-
Gen. 2. Umbrina of Cuvier; sciæna cirrhosa of
Gen. 4. Sciana.
filaments under the lower jaw.
Gen. 7. Ancylodons of Cuvier.--Head bare of
Gen. 8. 'Percis of Schn.-Head depressed ;
Head plated; suborbital region distinguished by
Gen. Uranoscopus of Linné.
Trigla. each preoperculum; operculum with one or two
Gen. 1. Trigla.
T. hirundo of Linné.
Gen. 2. Peristedion of Lacet.--Body furnished
with bony plates.
Gen. 3. Dactylopterus.-Trigla voliterus of Linné.
Gen. 4. Cephalacanthus.-Gasterosteus spinarella
Monocentris of Schn. A
intermediate beS. scrofa of Linné.
tween the sciænæ and the Triglæ.
Gen. 1. Cottus.
C. gobio of Linné.
Gen. 2. Aspidopherus of Lacepede.-Body cover-
Cottus cataphractus of Bl.
Series 2. PERCÆ.
Gen. 4. Batrachus of Schn.-Head flattened,
cloven; lips generally furnished with filaments.
Series 4. LOPhil.
Skin without scales; pectoral fins supported
upon the disk.
as it were by two arms; skeleton cartilaginous ;
Third series of genera. stomach wide; intestine short.
One dorsal fin; belt carded. Gen. 1. Lophius.
Zer. Body oval ; jaws protractile.
Gen. 1. Zeus.
Gen. 2. Equula of Cuvier.-Row of species on widened and flattened, principally by the putting each side of the anal and caudal. out of the suboperculum.
Gen. 3. Mene.-Shoulders and spines developed Family 5. SCOMBEROIDES.
into a prominence. Scales small; ofttimes imperceptible except to
Gen. 4. Atropus of Cuvier.–Lower jaw longer wards the termination of the lateral line, where than the snout. they form a rising ridge; sometimes this ridge is
Brama atropus of Schn. formed by the skin itself, and is then supported by
Gen. 5. Trachicthys.—Dorsal fin short, tall and the transverse apophyses of oue or two vertebræ. pointed. Intestines ample ; stomach a cul-de-sac; cæcal ap
Zeus linna. pendages generally numerous.
XIPHIÆ of Linné.
Gen. 1. Xiphias.
Gen. 2. Istiophorus.-Anterior dorsal forming a S. scombrus.
kind of sail. S. colias
CORYPHÆNÆ. Gen. 2. Thynnus.-- First dorsal prolonged nearly Gen. 1. Centrolophus.--A spiry protuberance be as far as the second
fore the dorsal, sensible to the touch. Scomber thynnus.
Gen. 2. Oligopodes of Risso.—Dorsal and anal S. sarda.
united to the caudal. S. pelamys.
Gen. 3. Coryphæna. S. Mediterranea.
Coryphæna hippurus. Gen. 3. Orcynus of Cuvier.- Pectoral fins nearly Gen. 4. Pterachus of Gronov.—Remarkable for as far as the anus.
the extraordinary height of the dorsal and anal. Gen. 4. Caranr of Lacepede. Each of the im
Fourth series of genera. bricated scales, forming a lateral line, is armed into a ridge.
One dorsal; teeth cutting placed in a single row. C. trachurus.
Amphacanthus of Schn.- A short spine at each Gen. 5. Citula.—Differ from the caranx in hav. edge of the ventral fin. ing their dorsal and anal fins elongated.
ACANTHURI. A strong sheathing spine at eash Gen. 6. Seriola of Cuvier.--Scales of the lateral side of the tail. Our old acquaintances at Oahu. line scarcely forming a ridge.
Gen. 1. Apisurus. Gen. 7. Nomeus of Cuvier.—Ventral fins very
Gen. 2. Proinurus. large and wide, and attached to the belly by their
Gen. 3. Nascus.-Commeos. Differ from the internal edge.
rest in having the teeth conical. VOMERES of Cuvier. Transverse diameter or
Family 6. SQUAMIPENNÆ. width exceeding the length; scales scarcely visible
A considerable portion of the fins upon the back except upon the lateral line.
and anus covered with scales, which consequently Gen. 1. Selena of Lec.-Anterior dorsal short.
are in a manner confounded with the rest of the Gen. 2. Gallus.—Ventral fins long
body. Intestines long; cæcal appendages numerGen. 3. Argyreiosis.- Dorsal and anal elongated. ous. Gen. 4. Vomer.-All the fins short.
First series of genera. TETRAGON URUS. Body elongated; two promi
Gen. 1. Chelmons of Curier.
Gen. 2. Platar.
Gen. 3. Heniochus. Distinct spines in the room of the first dorsal.
Gen. 4. Ephippus. RHYNCOBELELLE of Schn. Body elongated and deprived of ventral fins.
Gen. 5. Chadodopterus of Latham.
Gen. 6. Holacanthus. Gen. 1. Macronathus of Lacepede.
Gen. 7. Pomacanthus. Gen. 2. Mastacembelus of Gron.
Psettus of Commerson. Each ventral replaced GASTEROSTEI.
by a small spine. Gen. 1. Gasterosteus of Cuvier.
Osphronemi of Commerson. Branchiostegous, G. aculeatus.
membrane scaly. Gen. 2. Spinachia of Cuvier.
Gen. 1. Osphronemus of Commerson.—Ventral Gasterosteus spinachia of Linné.
and dorsal with many spines. Gen. 3. Centronotus.
Osphronemus olfare. Gasterosteus ductoro of Linné.
Gen. 2. Trichogaster of Schn.--No spines upon Gen. 4. Lichia of Cuvier.-Lateral line with keel the ventral fins. or armature.
Toxites. Labrus jaculator of Shaw. Gen. 5. Trachinotes.-Points of their dorsal and KURTUS. B. Scales sometimes very fine. anal fins prolonged.
Kurtus indicus. Gen. 6. Blepharis.-Body nearly in the form of a ANABAS. No preoperculum, which distinguishes perfect rhombus; anal fin with long filaments. it at first sight.
Perca scandens of Daldoref.
The molluscous animals are destitute of a bony
skeleton, and of a vertebral canal ; their nervous
system is not united into a spinal marrow, and Teeth in a single row and very regular, and only exists in the form of medullary masses, which nothing akin to horse hair.
arc dispersed in different parts of the body: of
these the principal is called the brain, and is seated STROMATEI.
across the esophagus, which it surrounds like a Gen. 1. Stromateus of Linné.
nervous collar. The circulation of the molluscæ is Gen. 2. Frutola of Cuvier.-Scales of the body always double, that is to say, their pulmonary and fins so thin that they cannot be seen but when circulation always makes a semi and complete cirthe skin is dried.
culation. This function is always assisted at least Stromateus fratola of Linné.
by a fleshy ventricle, placed, not as in the fish beGen. 3. Seserinus.—First spine of the dorsal tween the veins of the body and the arteries of and anal bent forwards.
the lungs, but, on the contrary, between the veins PIMELEPTERI. Both of the equal teeth promi- of the lungs and the arteries of the body. This nent towards the mouth, that the membranous lips assemblage is divided by Cuvier into six classes, may cover them; scales soft, which cover the fins.
with reference to the general form of the body,
the internal organisation.
The body is in the form of a sac opened before,
processes that are long and fleshy, by means of
Group 1. Octopi of Lam.
This group has only two small grains of a horny
substance on the sides of their dorsal thickness,
and the sac, being without fins, represents an oval
Sepia octopoda of Linné.
upon the length of each foot.
Group. 2. Loligones.
sac has two fins towards its point, &c.
Gen. 1. Loligo.—Sepia loligo of Linné.
Sepia, media of Linné.
S. sepiola of Linné.
Gen. 2. Sepia.—A fleshy fin, running the whole
Group 3. Nautili.
Ger. 1. Spirula. Nautilus spirula.
Gen. 2. Nautilus. N. pompilius of Linné.—Em-
position of the syphon.
Group 4. Blemnites.
Group 5. Hippurites.
The cornucopiæ of Thoms.
Group 6. Ammonites.
Group 7. Nummulites.
Group 8. Argonauta.
Body without an opening; the head is destitute
of appendages, or at least has them very small;
the principal organs of movement are two wings
Sect. II.-AQUATIC. or membranous fins, sea:ed upon the sides of the Gen. 1. Onchidium. neck, over which the branchial tissue is often Gen. 2. Planorbis. spread.
Gen. 3. Lymnaus. Clio.
Gen. 4. Physa. CLEODORUS.
Gen. 5. Auricula. Cymbulia
Gen. 6. Conovula of Lam. Limacina.
Gen. 7. Tornatella of Lam. Pneumodermon of Cuvier.
Gen. 8. Pyramidella of Lam. Hyclea of Lam.
ORDER V.-Branchis PECTEN REFERENTIBUS. Class III.-GASTEROPODA.
Branchiæ composed of numerous leaflets or Creep upon the fleshy disk of their belly, which laciniæ ranged in a parallel direction like the is sometimes though rarely compressed into a fin; teeth of a comb. This order embraces almost all they have almost always a distinct head before. the spiral univalve, and many simply conical.
Family 1. TROCOIDES.
Family 2. BUCCINOIDES.
Family 3. Des SIGNETS. ferent forms upon some part of their back. They ORDER VI.-BRANchus Scutum REFERENTIBUS. are all hermaphrodites, and reciprocally unite in the act of generation.
Form and position of the branchiæ and the Doris of Cuvier.
general shape of the body like the last, but the Polycera of Cuvier.
sexes are united, and they fecundate themselves. Distinguished from the Doris, in having mem Halyotis, &c. branous plates, which cover them in the moments
ORDER VII.-ANDROGINA. of danger.
Branchiæ in the shape of small leaves or pyraTritonia of Cuvier.
mids attached to a cord more or less completely at Tethys of Linné.
the edges of the mouth; they resemble the second Scyllaa.
order, but are distinguished from them by being Glaucus of Forster.
hermaphrodite. Ealidia of Cuvier.
Class IV.-ACEPHALA. Branchiæ in two long series of leaves upon the sides of the body, beneath the edge of the advanced in the bottom or within the folds of the mantle.
Sine capite. No apparent head; mouth concealed mantle. Plyllidia.
ORDER I.-ACEPHALA TESTACEA. Diplyllidia.
Branchiis cum foliis quatuor.
Family 1. OstrEÆ.
Family 2, MYTILACFA.
Family 3. BenetiERS. back, in the shape of leaflets more or less divided;
Family 4. CARDIACEA. the mantles generally cover' them; almost always
Family 5. LES ENFERMES. contain in their substance a small shell.
ORDER II.-ACEPHALA SINE TESTA.
Branchiæ, though they assume different shapes, Dolabella.
are differently divided into four leaflets. Notarchus.
Family 1. THALIA, SALPA, Dagysa, Ascidia. Acera.
Family 2. BOTRYLLUS, PYROSOMA, POLYCHIUM. Bullæa.
Mantle with two lobes; branchiæ consisting only The animals of this order respire air through of small leaflets ranged round about each lobe the medium of a lateral aperture, which can be upon the inner surface; in the room of feet they opened and shut at the pleasure of the animal. have two fleshy arms, furnished with numerous filaSECT. I.-TERRESTRIAL.
Mouth with lateral jaws; the longitude of the Gen. 1. Helir.
belly furnished with threads called cirrhi, disposed Gen. 2. Vitrina.
in hairs composed of a multitude of minute artiFamily 3. BULIMI.
culations, which represent a kind of feet or fins like Gen. 1. Bulimus.
those under the tails of many of the crustacea; Gen. 2. Pupa.
head seated in their dorsal region, and their branchiæ Gen. 3. Scarabus.
are upon the sides. Gen. Chondrus.
Gen. 2. Anatifa.
Gen. 2. Balanus,