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ZOPISSA (507100a, Gr.), a fine sort of pitch, sonages. Some have thought that the first among anciently prepared with wax and salt.

men to whom this title was applied was Ham; ZORILLE, in zoology, a species of viverra, or others have taken him for Chus, for Mizraim, and weasel, having the back and sides marked with for Nimrod, and Huetius for Moses : but' Mr. short stripes of black and white, the last tinged Bryant, after examining the primitive characters with yellow; the tail long and bushy, partly white given of him by different writers, supposes that and partly black; the legs and belly black. This they concur only in Noah, who was the first deified animal inhabits Peru, and other parts of South mortal and the prototype in the Magian worship. America : its pestilential vapor overcomes even This writer supposes that, as the object of the Perthe panther of America, and stupifies that formida- sic and Chaldaic worship was the sun, and most of ble enemy:

their titles were derived thence, Zoroaster denoted ZOROASTER, Zoroastres, or ZERDUSHT, a Sol Asterius ; Zor being the sun, and Aster signifycelebrated ancient philosopher, said to have been ing star. The abbé Fouche, in a series of methe reformer or the founder of the religion of the moirs, inserted in the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 30th, magi. It is wholly uncertain to how many emi- and 31st vols. of the Histoire de l'Academie Royale nent men the name of Zoroaster belonged. Some des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, &c., Paris, has have maintained that there was but one Zoroaster, given an ample account of the religion of the Perand that he was a Persian; others have said that sians. This author maintains, on the authority of there were six eminent founders of philosophy of Pliny, that the most celebrated Zoroaster was an this name. Ham the son of Noah, Moses, Osiris, ancient sage, who lived under Cyaxares, king of Mithras, and others, both gods and men, have by the Medes, restored the worship of fire, and was different writers been asserted to have been the revered by the Persians as a celestial prophet. same with Zoroaster. Many different opinions have ZOROBABEL. See ZERUBBABEL. been advanced concerning the time in which he ZOSIMUS, a Roman historian, who lived in the flourished. Aristotle and Pliny fix his date at so fourth and fifth centuries. Six books of his History remote a period as 6000 years before the death of are extant; in the first he runs over the Roman Plato. According to Laertius he flourished 600 affairs very succinctly from Augustus to Dioclesian; years before the Trojan war: according to Suidas the other five are more diffuse. Zosimus was a 500. If, in the midst of so much uncertainty, any zealous Pagan; whence he often inveighs bitterly thing can be advanced with the appearance of pro- against the Christian princes, Constantine the bability, it seems to be this :- that there was a Zo- Great, and Theodosius l. His History was pubroaster, a Perso-Median, who flourished about the lished with the Latin version of Leunclavius at time of Darius Hystaspes ; and that besides him Frankfort, 1590, with the other minor historians of there was another Zoroaster, who lived in a much Rome, in folio ; and at Oxford in 8vo. 1679. more remote period among the Babylonians, and ZOSIMUS (Pope) was a native of Greece, and taught them astronomy. The Greek and Arabian elevated to the pontificial throne in March 417, as writers are agreed concerning the existence of the successor to Innocent I. Cælestius, the chief disPersian Zoroaster; and the ancients unanimously ciple of Pelagius, presented his confession of faith ascribe to a philosopher, whom they call Zoroaster, to this pope, who approved it, and admitted him the origin of the Chaldean astronomy, which is cer to communion. That of Pelagius was likewise aplainly of much earlier date than the time of Hy- proved. The African bishops, however, who were staspes; it seems therefore necessary to suppose a hostile to the Pelagian doctrine, interested the emChaldean Zoroaster distinct from the Persian. Con- peror Honorius in their favor, and obtained from cerning this Zoroaster, however, nothing more is the pope an anathema of the doctrine of Pelagius known than that he flourished towards the begin- and Cælestius, with a sentence of excommunicaning of the Babylonish empire, and was the father tion if they refused to abjure their tenets. A counof the Chaldean astrology and magic. All the cil was assembled, in which other bishops, who writings that have been ascribed to Zoroaster are concurred in the Pelagian creed, were degraded. spurious. See MYSTERIES, MYTHOLOGY, and Po- The fluctuations and inconsistencies of Zosimus's LYTHEISM.

conduct much depreciated his character and office, Dr. Hyde and Dr. Prideaux think that Zoroaster and furnished abundant reason for questioning his was the same with the Zerdusht of the Persians, infallibility. This pope died in December 418, who was a great patriarch of the Magians, and that leaving the character of an able, but hasty, tenahe lived between the beginning of the reign of cious, and imperious, man of business. His thirCyrus and the latter end of that of Darius Hys- teen epistles, that are extant, are written with eletaspes. Warburton (Divine Legation, vol. ii. part gance. He was canonised, as Bower says, by a i. p. 8) censures these writers for making an early mistake of cardinal Baronius, who supposed him Bactrian law-giver a late Persian false prophet, and to be a saint Zosimus in the martyrology of Bede. says the whole story of him is mere fable, contra ZOSITERPUM, in ancient geography, a town dicting all learned antiquity, and supported only of Thrace, in the province of Rhodope.-Procopius. by the romantic relations of later Persian writers ZOSINE, the wife of Tigranes, king of Armeunder the caliphs. Baumgarten likewise (see the nia, who was led in triumph by Pompey.—Plut. Ancient Universal History, Supplement, vol. ii. p. ZOSTER, a town, harbour, and promontory, of 365, &c.) represents it as doubtful whether the Attica.—Cic. ad Atticum. Persian Zoroaster ever existed, calls in question the ZOSTERA, grass wrack, in botany, a genus of credibility of the oriental writers who gave bis his- plants in the class gynandria, order polyandria, tory, and makes the whole to be a forgery in later and in the natural system arranged under the second times by the fire-worshippers of Persia.

order, piperitæ. The spadix is linear, and fertile The title Zoroaster, according to Mr. Bryant, only on one side; there is no calyx nor corolla ; originally belonged to the sun, and was metapho- the stamina are alternate; the seeds solitary and rically bestowed on sacred and enlightened per- alternate. There are two species, viz. 1. 2. marina, Vol. XXII.

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