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the sea grass wrack. 2. Z. oceanica, grass wrack ZUECCA. See GIUDUCCA. of the ocean. They are both foreign plants.

ZUEELA. See Zawila. ZOSTERIA, a surname of Minerva.

ZUG,' the smallest of the Swiss cantons, is ZOTHRAUSTES, an ancient legislator of the situated in the interior and surrounded by the canArimaspi.

tons of Zurich, Schweitz, Lucerne, and Aargau. ZOUCH (Richard), a civilian, born at Ansley in Its area is only 120 square miles; its population Wilts, and educated at Winchester and Oxford. 15,000. Except a small plain, to the north of the He became an advocate, chancellor of Oxford, and town of Zug, this canton is covered with mountains judge of the admiralty. His chief work is, A Vin- and hills, of which the highest, however, is not dication of the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty more than 5000 feet above the level of the sea, and against Coke, 8vo. He wrote other tracts on law, the others much lower. Its manufactures are and died in 1660.

trifling; but its corn, its vines, and other fruits, Zovcu (Thomas), D. D., a learned divine, born are by no means inconsiderable. Its lakes are in 1737, at Sandal, near Wakefield, in Yorkshire, those of Zug and Egeri. was removed in 1757 from the school of the latter Zvo, the capital of the preceding canton, stands place, to Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1763 he on the lake of Zug, twenty-nine miles south of was chosen fellow of the college, which in 1770 Zurich. Population 1600. presented him to the rectory of Wycliffe, in the ZUINGLIUS (Ulricus), an able and zealous North Riding.' Here he continued diligently per- reformer, who laid the foundation of a separation forming his duty of a parish priest, and augmenting from Rome in Switzerland, at the same time that his knowledge of natural history, until 1793, when Luther did the like in Saxony, was born at Wildehe was appointed chaplain to the Master of the hausen in 1487. While he officiated as preacher Rolls, and rector of Scrayingham. By the death at Zurich, a Franciscan sent by Leo X. came to of his elder brother, the rev. Henry Zouch, in publish indulgencies there ; against which Zuin1795, he succeeded to an estate at Sandal on glius, after the example of Luther, declaimed which he resided to his death. In 1805 Mr. Pitt powerfully. In the course of this opposition he presented him with a prebend in the church of started a new doctrine, which he called EvangeliDurham, and in the same year he took the degree cal Truth; and, from the beginning of 1519 to 1523, of D.D. He was offered the bishopric of Carlisle he preached not only against indulgencies, but in 1808, but declined it on account of advanced against other articles of the Romish church. But, age. He died in 1806. His works are The Cru- though Zuinglius made no less progress than Lucitizion, a Seaton Prize Poem; An Enquiry into ther, he yet conducted himself with more moderathe prophetic characier of the Romans, as described tion and prudence; and, wishing to have the in Daniel; The good Schoolmaster, as exemplified concurrence of the civil powers, procured two asin the Character of the Rev. John Clark; Me- semblies to be called at Zurich ; by the first he moirs of Sir Philip Sidney, 4to.; Memoirs of John was authorised to proceed as he had begun; and Sudbury, Dean of Durham; an edition of Isaac by the second the outward worship and ceremonies Walton's Love and truth; another of the lives of of the church of Rome were abolished. During Donne, Wotton, Hooker, and Herbert, by the same these transactions Zuinglius published several author, with notes, and his life; and a Memoir of books in defence of his doctrines; but, treating of Sir George Wheeler; printed after the author's the eucharist, and prescribing a form of celebrating death.

the Lord's Supper different from Luther, he was ZOUNDS, a contraction of 'his wounds! A involved in violent disputes with the rest of his profane oath now happily become obsolete, but reforming brethren. Interpreting the words hoc frequent in the works of dramatic writers in the est corpus meum by hoc significat corpus meum, reign of Charles II.

he maintained that the body and blood of Christ ZOUST (Gerard), a German painter, who are not really present in the eucharist; and that painted men better than ladies. He came over to the bread and wine are nothing more than external London, where he had Riley for his pupil. He signs or symbols, designed to excite in the minds died in 1681.

of Christians the remembrance of the sufferings ZOUTMAN (John Arnold), a brave Dutch of the divine Saviour, and of the benefits which seaman, who was lieutenant-admiral of Holland arise from them. This opinion, which was afterand West Friesland, and commanded the Dutch wards so plausibly supported by the celebrated fleet in the action with the British fleet under Sir Hoadley (see SUPPER OF Tue Lord), gave offence Hyde Parker, on the Dogger Bank, August 5th, to Calvin as well as to Luther; but the doctrines 1781. He died at the Hague on the 9th of May, of Zuinglius, which were most obnoxious to that 1793.

eminent reformer, were those which deny election ZUCCHERO (Thaddæus), an eminent painter, and reprobation, and make the church a society born at Urbino in 1529. He studied anatomy wholly dependent on the state. Respecting the along with Raphael's works, whereby he came to divine decrees, the opinion of Zuinglius and his excel in painting human figures. He died in 1569. followers differed very little from that of the Pela

Zucchero (Frederick), brother to Thaddæus, gians; for he maintained that heaven is open to all also became an eminent painter, but was obliged to who live according to the dictates of right reason; leave Rome, for having painted several officers of and he seems to have denied the doctrine of orithe papal court with ass's ears. He then went to ginal sin. Instead of declaring with Calvin that Spain, France, and England, and was employed the church is a separate independent body, vested by people of the first, rank. The pope recalled with the right of legislation for itself, Zuinglius him, erected an academy for him at Rome, and ascribed to the civil magistrate an absolute and gave him the title of prince. He died in 1606. unbounded power in religious matters, allowing at ZUCHE. See Zouch.

the same time a certain subordination among the ZUDAKARA, or Zudaku. See LESGUIS. ministers of the church. This was abundantly 1 agreeable to the magistrates of Zurich; but, the the lake of Zurich, in a narrow valley. It is forti. rest of the Swiss cantons disallowing of their pro- fied with a wall and ditch, and is tolerably neat ceedings, other assemblies were called; and, things and clean, though most of the houses are old tending to tumult, both sides had recourse to arms; fashioned. The population, 11,000, are almost all when Zuinglius, who began as a preacher, died in Calvinists. arms as a soldier in 1531. His works amount to 4 ZURICH, a lake of Switzerland, extending in the vols. folio.

form of a crescent, chiefly through the canton of ZULPHA, a town of Persia, built by the Arme Zurich, but partly also between those of Schweitz nians, seated on the Sanderou, which separates it and St. Gall. It is divided into the Upper and from Ispahan.

Lower by the strait at Rapperschwyl, which, the ZUMBO (Gaston John), an eminent sculptor, breadth being little more than a quarter of a mile, born at Syracuse in 1656. He lived at Florence, is crossed by a long wooden bridge. In other and was employed by the grand duke of Tuscany. places the breadth varies to the extent of nearly He died at Paris in 1701. According to some, he five miles. The length is about thirty. This lake, was a private gentleman; others say he was a se- without rivalling those of Geneva or Lucerne in cular priest; but both statements may be correct, awful sublimity of scenery, is still one of the finest referring to different periods of his life. He dis- in Europe, being surrounded by a populous and played great skill in the art of modelling; and a well cultivated country, and the prospects on its profound study of anatomy and the antique enabled banks being richly varied. It abounds in fish. him to execute works at Bologna, Florence, Gene- ZURLAUBEN (B. Fid. Antoine Jean Domiva, and Marseilles, which have excited much ad- nique, baron de la Tour Chatillon), an historian, miration. Millin observes, that his very accurate who held the rank of lieutenant-general in the serrepresentation of the degrees of putrefaction in the vice of France. He was a native of Zug in Swithuman body particularly attracted the notice of zerland, and died in 1799. His works are Histoire connoisseurs. These preparations were for a long Militaire des Suisses au service de la France, 8 time in the gallery of Florence, till the grand duke vols. 12mo;

Mémoires et Lettres de Henri Duc Leopold gave them to his physician Lagusi. de Rohan ; Tableaux topographiques pittoresques,

ZUMSTEEG (John Rodolph), an eminent mu- physiques, historiques, moraux, politiques et littésical composer, and violin performer, belonged to raires de la Suisse, 4 vols. folio; besides other the chapel of the duke of Wurtemburg. He was publications. born about 1760, at Gansingen, in the country of

ZURLITE, a mineral occurring in rectangular Lauffenbourg. His education commenced at the prisms, and in botroidal masses, of an asparagus academy of Wurtemburg, under the chapel-master green color. It yields to the knife, but emits Poli, who, conceiving a friendship for him, took a sparks with steel. Specific gravity 3.274. Melts particular interest in his improvement: he after- with borax into a black glass. It is found on wards studied the works of Mattheson, Marpurg, mount Vesuvius with calcareous spar. and D'Alembert. He died at Stutgard, January

ZUTH. See DeLUGE. 27th, 1802, having composed both for the violoncello ZUYDER-ZEE, an inland sea or gulf of the and for the voice. His works consist of operas, German Ocean, surrounded chiefly by the Dutch songs, and a mass; besides pieces for instruments. provinces of Holland, Overyssel, and Friesland.

ZUNDERERZ. Tinder ore. An ore of silver. Its length from north to south is about eighty miles;

ZUNGAR, an ancient town of Tunis, wherein its breadth varies from fifteen to thirty. It is said are the ruins of a temple, and of an aqueduct for to have been in remote ages a lake, until the barrier carrying water to Carthage, forty-eight miles south- on the north-west, separating it from the German west of Tunis.

Ocean, was swallowed up by some tremendous ZUPALIUM, in medicine and pharmacy, a inundation. This opinion is confirmed by the jalap.

position of the islands Texe!, Vlieland, &c., which, ZURICH, a canton in the north of Switzerland, with intervening shoals and sand banks, still form having that of Thurgau to the east, that of Aargau a kind of defence against the ocean. The trade of to the west. Its area, 950 square miles, is some- Amsterdam is carried on along the Zuyder-Zee, what smaller than the average size of an English the entrance to which is at' the Texel. The comcounty; but its population, 183,000, is such as to munication with the lake of Haerlem is by the rank it among the best peopled tracts of the conti- south, the inlet on the banks of which Amsterdam nent. The hills, which do not rise above 3200 is built. feet, are separated by beautiful valleys and lakes. ZUZ, Heb. I', an ancient Jewish coin, of which Rich pastures and extensive orchards meet the four made a shekel, worth 7{d sterling.. eye of the traveller in every direction. The cattle ZUZIMS. See ZAMZUMMIMS. are in general of a good breed. Wine also is cul- ZWARTLAND, a considerable division of the tivated; the quality, in certain tracts of favorable Cape Territory, about sixty miles north of Cape. exposure, is good; but in general it is thin and Town, considered the granary of the colony sharp. The manufactures are mostly carried on by Besides common grains there are some swampy weavers in their own houses, to which are attached grounds that produce abundance of rice. patches of land. The fabrics are chiefly cotton and ZWELLENDAN, a district of the Cape of Tight silk stuffs, linen, woollen, and leather. Corn Good Hope, extending eastward from Cape Town, is imported, the produce being inadequate to the and bounded north by the Zwarte Berg, or Black consumption. The revenue of the canton is about Mountains. The length is about 380 miles, and £50,000; its contingent 10 the military force of its breadth sixty. The produce is corn, wine, Switzerland 3858. The inhabitants are almost and cattle, but few sheep. The drosdy, or village, all Calvinists.

is 140 miles from Cape Town, at the foot of a chain Zurich, the capital of the above canton, stands of mountains. on the river Limmat, at the northern extremity of ZWINGER (Theodore), M.D., a learned Swiss


physician, born at Basil in 1534. He compiled suture that joins them together is denominated the The Theatre of Human Life, 8 vols. folio, Lyons, zygomatic suture. 1556. He died in 1588, aged fifty-four. His ZYGOMALIS, or Zygomaticus, in anatomy,

a muscle of the head, arising from the os zygoma, ZWINGER (N.) was also a man of abilities, and whence its name, and terminating at the angle of published several learned works.

the lips. See ANATOMY. ZWOLI, or Zwolle, a town of the Netherlands, ZYGOPHYLLUM, bean caper, in botany, a the chief place of the province of Overyssel, is on genus of plants of the class decandria and the river Aa, here called the Zwarte-water. It is order monogynia, and in the natural system arintersected by two canals, and fortified by a wall ranged under the fourteenth order, gruinales

. and ditch, eleven large bastions, &c. The interior There are eleven species, partly shrubby and partly is well built; it contains eight churches and a herbaceous plants, all natives of warra climates, workhouse; but the only remarkable structure is though some of them are hardy enough 10 endure the church of St. Michael. Outside of the walls the open air in this country. are three suburbs; and there are very fine walks ZYGOSTATES, Greek (vyosatns. A clerk of on the neighbouring eminence. It has a pretty a market who had the oversight of weights. active trade, enjoying the advantage of a direct ZYMOSIMETER from Souwois, fermentation, water carriage to Amsterdam, Enkuhysen, Haer- and perpov, an instrument proposed by Swammerlem, and some other towns. The principal manu- dam, in his book de Respiratione, wherewith to facture is sugar refining. It was formerly one of measure the degree of fermentation occasioned by the Hanse towns; and the celebrated Thomas a the mixture of different matters, and the degree of Kempis was a monk in an Augustinian priory in heat which those matters acquire in fermenting, as this town. Population 12,800. Forty-eight miles also the heat or temperament of the blood of animals. east by north of Amsterdam.

ZYPÆUS, or Zyp VANDER (Francis), a learned ZYGIA, from Levyvumi, to join. A surname of writer, born at Malines, in 1580. The bishop of Juno, because she presided over marriage.—Pindar Antwerp appointed him canon and archdeacon of Pollux, 3 c. 3.

his church. He wrote, 1. Analytica enarratio juris ZYGII, a savage nation who dwelt on the north Pontificii novii. 2. Consultationes Canonicæ. 3 of Colchis, in Zygopolis.—Strabo 11.

Nottiæ Juris Belgici. 4. De Jurisdictione FccleZYGOMA, in anatomy, a bone of the head, or siastica et civili. He died in 1655, aged seventyrather a union or assemblage of two processes or five. eminences of bones; the one from the os temporis, ZZ were anciently used as a contraction or chathe other from the os malæ; these processes are racter for myrhh ; but now they are only used to hence termed the zygomatic processes, and the express zinziber, ginger.


J. Haddon, Printer, Finsbury.

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