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THURROCK-GRAYS, a market-town in These long fellows, as sightly as they are, should Clifford hundred, Essex, near the Thames, at the find their jackets well thwacked.

Id. bottom of St. Clement's Reach, twenty-one miles THWART, adj., o. a., & v. n. Sax. Spyn; Belg. east of London. It consists chiefly of one irre- dwars. Transverse; cross to something else : gular street, in which is the market-house, over the verbs corresponding. which is the room where the petty sessions are Some sixteen months and longer might have staid, held; the church is an ancient building, in the If crooked fortune had not thwarted me. Shaksyears. form of a cross. Market on Thursday, well sup

Lesser had been plied with corn, which is sold by samples. Fair The thwarters of your dispositions, if 23d of May.

You had not showed how you were disposea THUS, adv. Sax. dus. In this manner; in Ere they lack power to cross you. Id. Coriolanus. this wise; to this degree or quantity.

This else to several spheres thou must ascribe,

Moved contrary with thwart obliquities. Milton. I have sinned against the Lord, and thus and thus

Swift as a shooting star bave I done.

Joshua vii. 23.

In autumn thwarts the night. Id. Paradise Lost It cannot be that they who speak thus should thus The rays both good and bad, of equal power, judge.

Hooker.

Each thwarting other made a mingled hour. The knight him calling, asked who he was ?

Dryden. Who lifting up his head him answered thus. Spenser. It is easy to be imagined what reception any propoTo be thus is nothing;

sition shall find, that shall at all thwart with these But to be safely thus. Shakspeare. Macbeth.

internal oracles.

Locke. A counsellor of state in Spain said to his master,

The understanding and will then never disagreed ; I will tell your majesty thus much for your comfort, for the proposals of the one never thwarted the inyour majesty hath but two enemies ; whereof the ono

clinations of the other.

South, is all the world, and the other your own ministers. In vain did I the godlike youth deplore :

Bacon.

The more I begged, they thwarted me the more. The Romans used a like wise endeavour, and

Addison. whiles in a higher, in a wiser strain, making concord

Neptune atoned, his wrath shall now refrain, a deity; thus seeking peace, not by an oath, but by Or thwart the synod of the gods in vain. prayer. Holyday.

Pope's Odyssey. That the principle that sets on work these organs Yon stream of light, a thousand ways is nothing else but the modification of matter, thus or Upward and downward thwarting and convolved. thus posited, is false. Judge Hale.

Thomson. He said, Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds.

By thwarting passions tost, by cares opprest, Milton.

He found the tempest pictured in his breast. No man reasonably pretends to know thus much,

Young. but he must pretend to know all things. Tillotson.

THY, pron.). Sax. din. Of thee; belongBeware, I warn thee yet, to tell thy griefs

THYSELF. Sing to thee; relating to thee; In terms becoming majesty to hear ; I warn thee thus, because I know thy temper

the possessive of Thou, which see. Thyself is Is insolent. Dryden's Don Sebastian.

the reciprocal pronoun. Thus much concerning the first earth, and

its pro- Thyself and office deftly show.

Come high or low, duction and form. This you must do to inherit life; and if you have

Shakspeare. Macbeth. come up thus far, firmly persevere in it. Wake.

It must and shall be so ; content thyself.

Shakspeare. Thus, frankincense, a solid brittle resin, Whatever God did say, brought to us in little globes or masses, of a Is all thy clear and smooth uninterrupted way. brownish or yellowish color on the outside, in

Cowley. ternally whitish or variegated with whitish specks. These are thy works, parent of good! Milton. It is supposed to be the produce of the pine that These goods thyself can on thyself bestow. yields the common turpentine, and to concrete

Dryden. upon the surface of the terebinthinate juice soon THYA, a town of Phocis near Delphi. after it has issued from the tree. See INCENSE.

Thya, a name of Cybele. See Ops. THUSCIA, an ancient name of Etruria, THYADES, a name of the Bacchanals. whence Tuscany, one of its modern names, is THYAMIS, a river of Epirus. Paus. i. c. 11. derived.

THYATIRA, an ancient city of Asia Minor THWACK, v. a. & n. s. Sax. faccian. To in Lydia; originally called Pelopia, formerly strike with something blunt and heavy; to very flourishing (Liv. 37, c. 8. and 44), and fathresh; to bang; to belabor: a heavy hard blow. mous in the apostolic age for its early reception A ludicrous word.

of Christianity. Rev. ii. 18, 19. He shall not stay ;

THY BARNI, an ancient nation of Asia, near We'll thwack him hence with distaffs. Shakspeare. Sardis. Diod. 17. But Talgol first with a hard thwack

THYESTES, the son of Pelops and brother Twice bruised his head, and twice his back.

of Atreus, whose wife he debauched; which was Hudibras.

followed by a series of horrid crimes. See They place several pots of rice, with cudgels in ÆgistuUS, ATREUS, CLYTEMNESTRA, Peloscend from the trees, take up the’arms, and belabour PEIA, &c. one another with a storm of thuacks.

THYMBRA, an ancient town of Lydia near Addison's Freeholder. Sardis, famous for a battle fought between Cyrus Nick fell foul upon John Bull, to snatch the king of Persia and Cræsus king of Lydia, in cudgel he had in his hand, that he right thwack which the latter was defeated See CROESUS Lewis with it.

Arbuthnot. and CYRUS.

Thembra, in botany, mountain hyssop, a ge- extend horizontally, whilst the upper ones are nus of plants of the class didynamia and order shorter and mount vertically. Lilac and buttergymnospermia; and in the natural method rank- bur furnish examples. ing in the order of verticillatæ.

Thyrsus, in geography, a river of Sardinia, THYMBRA, a district of Troas where there was now called Oristagni. a temple of Apollo; whence

THYSIUS (Anthony), a celebrated philologist, THYMBRÆUS, a surname of Apollo. born at Harderwick, in Holland, in 1603. He THYMBRIS, a nymph, the mother of Pan. became professor of poetry and rhetoric, and li

THYMBRIUS, a river of Troas running into brarian io the university of Leyden. He pubthe Scamander through Thymbra.

lished 1. Compendium Historiæ Batavicæ; 2. THYME, n. s. Fr. thym; Lat. thymus. A Exercitationes Miscellaneæ; and several accurate plant. See TuYMUS

editions of the classics cum notis variorum. No more, my goats, shall I behold you climb THYSSOS, an ancient town of Macedon, The steepy cliffs, or crop the flowery thyme.

near mount Athos.

Dryden. THYUS, a satrap of Paphlagonia, who revolted THYMIATHIS, a river of Epirus. Strab. 7. from Artaxerxes II., and was seized by Datames.

THYMOCHARES, an Athenian general who –Corn. Nep. in Dat. was defeated by the Spartans.

TI'AR, n. s.

Fr. tiure; Lat. tiara. А THYMETES, a Trojan prince, the son of TA RA. S dress for the head; a diadem, Laomedon king of Troy, whose wife and son having been killed by order of king Priam, he, of beaming sunny rays a golden tiar

His back was turned, but not his brightness hid ; in revenge, advised the Trojans to admit the Circled his head.

Milton's Paradise Lost. wooden horse of the Greeks, by which Troy was This royal robe and this tiaru wore destroyed. Virg. Æn. ii. 32.

Old Priam, and this golden sceptre bore TuYMETES, another Trojan prince, son of In full assemblies.

Dryden's Æneid Hicetaon and grandson of Laomedon, who ac Fairer she seemed, distinguished from the rest, companied Æneas into Italy, where he was And better mien disclosed, as better drest; killed by Turnus. En. X. 123.

A bright tiara round her forehead tied, ThymeTES, king of Attica, the son of Oxyn- To juster bounds confined its rising pride. Prior thus, the last king of the family of Theseus. He

Å tiar wreathed her bead with many a fold,

Her waist was circled with a zone of gold. Pope. was deposed because he refused to fight Xanthus king of Bæotia about A. A. C. 1128.

Tiara is the name of the pope's triple crown. THYMUS, in anatomy. See Anatomy, In- The tiara and keys are the badges of the papal dex.

dignity; the tiara of his civil rank, and the keys of Thymus, thyme, in botany; a genus of plants his jurisdiction; for as soon as the pope is dead belonging to the class of didynamia and order of his arms are represented with the tiara alone, gymnospermia; and in the natural system rang- without the keys. The ancient tiara was a round ing under the forty-second order verticillatæ. high cap. John XXIII. first encompassed it The calyx is bilabiate, and its throat closed with with a crown. Boniface VIII. added a second soft hairs. There are eleven species, of which crown; and Benedict XII. a third. two only are natives of Britain; viz. 1. T. acinas, TIARELLA, in botany, a genus of the digywild basil, has flowers growing in whirls on sin- nia order and decandria class of plants; natural gle footstalks; the stalks are erect and branched; order thirteenth, succulentæ : cal. quinqueparthe leaves acute and serrated. 2. T. serpyllum, tite; cor. pentapetalous, and inserted into the or mother of thyme, has pale red flowers growing calyx; the petals are entire : Caps. unilocular on round heads, terminal; the stalks are pro- and bivalve, the one valve being less than the cumbent, and the leaves plane, obtuse, and ci- other. There are two species, viz., 1. T. cordiliated at the base. 3. T. vulgaris, common folia, with heart-shaped leaves; and 2. T. trifo-, garden thyme, is a native of France, Spain, and lia, the three-leaved tiarella. Italy.

TLARINI (Alexander), a celebrated painter, THYNI, or Bihyni, an ancient people of Bi- born at Bologna, in 1577 : he painted historical thynia.

pieces and portraits in a fine style. He died in. THYODAMAS, or THEODAMAS, a king of 1668. Mysia killed by Hercules.

TIASA, a river of Laconia ; so named from THYRE, a town of Messenia famous for a a nymph, the daughter of Eurotus.- Paus. iv battle fought between the Argives and Spartans.

c. 18. THYREA, an island on the coast of Pelopon TIBBOO, a semi-barbarous people of Central nesus near Hermione.-Herod. vi. 76.

Africa, whose country is on the south of Fezzan, THYRSAGETÆ, an ancient nation of Sarma- and north of Borneo. The people of Fezzan do tia, who lived chiefly by hunting.–Plin. iv., c. 12. not in general consider it safe to travel the desert

THYRSUS, in antiquity, the sceptre of Bac- along with them; and the Rock Tibbo, in partichus, and wherewith they furnished the menades cular, who inhabit a mountainous district, situin their Bacchanalia. The Thyrsi were spears ated to the south-east of Fezzan, are rude and made wholly of wood, entwined with leaves and ferocious. twigs of the vine and ivy.

TIBER, a river of Italy, celebrated in the Tuyrsus, in botany, a mode of Aowering re annals of the “ Eternal Empire, rises from the sembling the cone of a pine. It is, says Linnæus, Apennines near the eastern confines of Tuscany, a panicle contracted into an oval or egg-shaped and flows from north to south, till it passes form. The lower foot stalks, which are longer, Rome, and enters the sea below that city. As

RETH.

it traverses the imperial city, a late traveller ob- the Teesta, the Burrampooter, ana others. East serves—though choaked and shallowed by the . of this it penetrates into an unexplored region, debris of its banks, and the crumbling edifices and is supposed to terminate on the shores of the of successive centuries, broad, deep, and unruf Chinese Sea. While it forms the great bulwark Hled by the ruins which it conceals, it is still the of the table-land, its elevation is enormous, but yellow muddy Tiber of the Augustan age, finely it declines in altitude towards the east. On the corresponding in tore and color with the dusky northern side, the descent to the plains of Tibet ruins that nod on its shores.' It receives the is small in comparison with the altitude of the Chiano from the west, with the Nera and the vast southern ramparts that overlook Gangetic Velino from the east and south-east.

Hindostan. See HIMALAYA. TIBERIADES, in Roman mythology, the Captain Turner crossed a part of this chain in nymphs of the Tiber.

1783, when sent from the supreme government TIBERIAS, in ancient geography, the last of India on an embassy to the Teshoo Lama. town of Galilee, situated on the south side of This officer traversed one of the passes above the lake Tiberias; built by Herod the Tetrarch, Bootan, and 700 or 800 miles east of the place named in honor of the emperor Tiberius; where the chain is intersected by the Sutledge. thirty stadia from Hippus. Jerome says its an- His mission also required him to cross a great cient name was Chennereth. It is now called part of the Plateau of Southern Tartary, to TABARIA, wbich see.

which, in this eastern region, as well as in the TIBERIAS, LAKE, or SEA OF. See GENNESA- more western parts, the descent is inconsiderable

compared with that on the opposite side. All TIBERINUS, a king of Alba, who was drown- the passes are either in the beds, or on the banks ed in the Albula; on which its name was changed of the rivers that wind through the ravines and to Tiber. See Rome.

chasms of the chain. These statements apply TIBERIUS I (Claudius Nero), the third em- particularly to the southern side of the great peror of Rome, and one of the greatest monsters range. Little is known respecting the interior, that ever reigned in it. He was the step-son, beyond its being a region of mountains and colleague, and successor of Augustus. See Rome. deserts, intersected by fertile valleys, and watered

TIBERIUS II. was Thracian by birth, and by the germs of those noble streams that ultirose by his merit to the highest offices in the mately roll their spacious floods into the southern state; and at last Justin II, associated him as his and eastern ocean. The political division of the colleague in the eastern empire, A. D. 574. On country is of course involved in equal mystery; the death of Justin, in 578, he became sole em and though the following provinces are known peror; and reigned with great justice and mo- (the two former towards the east, and the latter deration. He defeated the Persians, and died in in the south-west), they are separated by large 582.

intervening and unexplored regions. These terTIBERIUS (Claudius), was also the name of the ritorial divisions are, 1. Lassa; 2. Teshoo Loomemperors Claudius and Nero.

boo; 3. District of Undes ; 4. Lahdack. TIBESIS, a river of ancient Scythia, rising North of the great frontier chain another rises, from mount Hæmus, and falling into the Ister.- scarcely of inferior height. The space between Herod. iv. 49.

these is distinctly marked for about 200 miles by TIBET, Tıbbet, or Thibet, a part of Inde- the course of the Sutledge, and, though varied pendent Tartary, extending from the source of by smaller ridges, is in general between thirty the Indus to the borders of China, and from and forty miles in width. Behind the inner Hindostan to the deserts of Cobi. Its length, range the Tartaric plain inclines towards the from east to west, is about 1500 miles; the north, as the rivers begin to flow in that direcbreadth unequal, and in many parts unknown. tion. In the north-west part of the Calais The native name is Pue, or Puekachim; Pue mountains is an elevated summit covered with signifying northern, and Koachimi snow; an ap- perpetual snow; and represented by Hindoo pellation given on account of the coldness of the superstition as the principal throne of their climate.

divinity, Siva, who, they must think, delights in The distinguishing feature of this country is the perfection of cold, to have chosen such an its great and general elevation. It includes the abode. great range of Himmaleh, or Himalaya moun Several lakes of Tibet are much venerated tains (the abode of snow), the height of whose by the Hindoos, and are objects of frequent pillofty summits has never been correctly deter- grimages, particularly two near the source of the mined; but Mr. Colebrooke considers the evi- Sutledge. They think them holy, but a more dence sufficient to warrant his asserting (1816) rational observer is at a loss to account for this that the peaks of the Himmaleh chain greatly supposed sanctity, unless from the sterility of exceeded those of the Andes. The part west of the soil, the severity of the climate, and the diffthe Indus is denominated Hindoo Coosh, but culty of access; for whatever smooths the way the most elevated points are east of that river. to an object of veneration, lessens its purity in From the north-east of Cashmere the chain the view of superstition. The most celebrated is bends to the south, and is still more stupendous. the Manasarovara, which is principally surIt crosses the sources of nearly all the rivers rounded by steep rocks. It is of an oblong that water the south and south-east parts of shape, about fifteen miles long, and nearly Asia; but, on the north-east of Hindostan, it twelve broad. The waters are clear and of a becomes less continuous, and is traversed by greenish hue; but, as the heat of the sun while several rivers, among which are the Gunduck, near the meridian, and the cold constantly ema

nating from the vast masses of snow that clothe The air is then extremely dry, and produces the the adjacent summits, maintain a perpetual con same effect as the scorching winds of Hindostan. fict in this elevated region, they are almost con- Every thing appears parched. Vegetation is tinually agitated. When Mr. Moorcroft saw it dried even to britileness, and crumbles into dust. in August, the mountain torrents by which it is This severity obliges the scanty, population to fed were most of them dry, and the water was seek refuge in the valleys, which, in favorable supposed to be at the lowest; but there was no situations, and particularly near the banks of the appearance of its ever rising more than a few rivers, are cultivated, and yield slight crops of feet above that level, which would still be far barley, pease, and wheat; but the last is so within its banks, as they rose in many places to scarce as seldom to be used by the lower classes. nearly 300 feet almost perpendicularly. On the Many parts, however, afford pasturage for nuledges of these steep acclivities, several huts merous flocks and herds. In most other places inade of loose stones were placed. They were the country is a mere desert, composed of naked only accessible by ladders, and apparenily in- hills of clay, strewed with the shivered fragments habited by religious devotees. Numerous tiocks of rocks split by the intensity of the frost, or of aquatic birds resort to this lake at certain covered with deep beds of fine sand, from which seasons, when its surface is almost covered with every particle of moisture is exhausted by the them, and thousands are bred in its vicinity. dryness of the atmosphere. The Manasarovara is not merely looked upon as Contrasted with Bootan, and other districts sacred by the Hindoos, but by the Undes and on the south of the great chain, the number of Chinese Tartars, who consider it as a religious quadrupeds here is astonishing. Flocks, droves, duty to carry the ashes of their relations and and herds, are numerous. Beasts of prey, game, mingle them with its waters. Another of these and wild fowls, are every where met with. sacred lakes is Rawan's Hrad, about ten or Among the most remarkable of the domestic twelve miles west of Manasarovara ; but it is animals is the grunting ox, or yak, of Tartary, thought to be less holy, and has consequently frequently called the bushy-tailed bull. . It is been less frequented. It is formed of two covered with a thick coat of long wooly hair, branches, the one stretching east, and the other which gives it a bulky appearance, though it is south, enclosing a projecting part of the moun- not larger than many of the English cattle. The tain between them. It is much larger than the ox is noted for its tail of fine bushy hair, so Manasarovara, and its waters at a distance ap- much valued in Hindostan, where they are unipear of an indigo blue. Great part of its shores versally used as chowries for driving away flies, is covered with long grass, and the river Sutledge as well as for ornamental purposes. They are issues from its western extremity.

fed on the short herbage that grows on the Other lakes are found among the mountains of mountains and the bleak plains; but are never Tibet, and, though often much larger than those employed in agriculture, though sometimes used already described, are held less sacred. One of as beasts of burden. Tents are also covered with the most singular is Lake Palté, near the northern felt made of their hair. The other cattle are of base of the Himmaleh chain. It is an extensive the same kind as those of Hindostan. The moat, about two leagues broad, surrounding an musk-deer is also a peculiar animal belonging to island nearly forty leagues in circumference. this elevated region, and appears to delight in Lake Terkiri is situated beyond a chain of moun- its intense cold. It is about as large as a middletains that stretches from east to west in lat. 31° sized hog, which it resembles in shape; and is or 32°. It is the largest known lake in Tibet, covered with a thick coat of hair. The musk is and is about eighty English miles long, and froin secreted in a small pouch under its belly, and is thirty to forty broad. Lake Pouca also extends only found in the male. Nature has supplied through a space of forty or fifty miles at a short most of the animals of southern Tartary with an distance north-west of Terkiri, but is narrow in abundant covering to shield them from the seproportion.

verity and changes of the atmosphere incident In the temperature and return of the seasons to those high regions. The sheep has a heavy a singular uniformity prevails. The spring is fleece of fine wool, and the common goat a from March to May; but in this season, which covering of downy fur under its long shaggy is extremely dry on the south side of the Him- hair. The cow is also clothed in the same manmaleh mountains, thunder storms and showers ner; and the shawl-goat is of a peculiar species, occasionally occur in Tibet. From June to Sep- frequently of a light fawn color. It is about the tember more heavy and continued rain falls, size of a small sheep; and the substance of which while the rivers are swelled, and the mountain the shawls are made is the soft downy covering streams become torrents, From October to next the skin, the delicacy of which is preserved March the sky is seldom obscured by a cloud; by an outer coat of shaggy hair. Numerous and for three months the cold is extremely in- flocks of sheep are bred in Tibet, and their flesh tense, particularly in the southern parts, where forms a great part of the animal food of its inthe temperature is most influenced by the habitants. They are also used as beasts of bursnowy mountains, which rise, like a screen of den, and whole flocks are sometimes seen in perpetual congelation, between them and the motion, loaded with grain or salt, each carrying heated atmosphere of the Gangetic plains. In from twelve to twenty pounds. The skins of the middle of September, 1783, the thermometer the lambs are highly valued in many parts for at Tuena fell below the freezing point. Near lining vests and making turbans. The hare of these mountains fish and meat are frozen in the Tibet is also distinguished for the quantity and autumn, and thus preserved through the winter. fineness of its fur ; and the bharal which par

takes of the nature both of the deer and the with it in dry ground, or high situations, but it is sheep, has a coating of fine fur under its outward found in the shallowest depths, and on the borcovering of brittle hair, common to the deer ders of the lakes ; which, deepening gradually species. The horses are larger than those of from the edges towards the centre, contain too Bootan; but the mule is much used in the com much water to admit of searching for the tincal merce of the country. Both these animals, to- conveniently; but from the deepest parts they gether with asses, are found wild. The dog bring rock-salt, which is not to be found in sbalresembles the Nepaul mastiff, and is stout and lows or near the bank.' ferocious. Other wild animals also abound in The modern capital of Tibet is Lassa : the the unfrequented parts of the country,

residence of the Dalai Lama. It is about fortyMajor Latter commanding in the Sikkim ter- five days' journey from Pekin, and 220 English ritories, on the borders of the great Himmaleh miles from the north-east borders of Bengal. He range, lately procured a curious Tibetan manu- is supposed to be an incarnation of the deity. script, containing the names of different animals; Here also resides the Chinese tazin, or viceroy, and, in the class of those whose hoofs are di- whose authority extends about 650 miles further vided, there was an animal called the one-horned to the west. tso'po. Upon enquiring what kind of an ani Teshoo Loomboo, the residence of the Teshoo mal it was,' says major L., “to our astonishment, Lama, is situated south-east of Lassa, and about the person who brought me the manuscript, de 180 miles from the northern extremity of Benscribed exactly the unicorn of the ancients; gal. This place is properly a large monastery, saying that it was a native of the interior of Tic comprising 300 or 400 houses, inhabited by Gy. bei, about the size of a tatoo (a horse from longs, or monks, besides the palace of the sovetwelve to thirteen bands high), herce, and ex- reign pontiff, with numerous temples and mausotremely wild, seldom if ever caught alive, but lea. The buildings are of stone, and two or frequently shot; and that the flesh was used for three stories high, with fiat roofs and parapet food. The person who gave me the information walls. When Teshoo Loomboo was visited by has repeatedly seen these animals, and eaten the captain Turner, the establishment of the monasflesh of them. They go together in large herds, tery included 3700 monks, who were engaged in like our wild buffaloes, and are very frequently the daily services of the Goomba, or temple. to be met with on the borders of the great desert, Their stated times of devotion are sun-rise, noon, about a month's journey from Lassa, in that part and sun-set; and their religious ceremonies are of the country inhabited by the wandering Tar- superintended by four lamas or high-priests, tars.'-Fraser's Tour.

chosen from among their own body. From TeGold is found in several places; but is only shoo Loomboo roads diverge to Bootan, Bengal, worked on a small scale for the Chinese govern- Cashmere, China, and other quarters. Most of the ment, or by such persons as enter into a contract other places in Tibet are either forts or villages. with it for that privilege. These contracts are Much of the trade of Tibet is carried on with limited to the number of workmen that will an- China. Caravans, consisting of 500 or 600 men, nually produce the government about 400lbs. of travel between the two countries. They transthe refined metal. Silver and iron seem not to port their goods chiefly on cattle and mules, but be procured, and the scarcity of fuel is an insur- a few horses are sometimes employed. The Chimountable obstacle to mining of all kinds. Cin- nese merchants carry tea, various kinds of nabar, containing a large quantity of quicksilver, wrought silks, a little European broad-cloth, is found, and might be worked with great advan- silver, China-ware, pearls, and coral, besides tage if fuel were attainable. Nitre is sponta- European cutlery, and a few other articles. From neously produced in great abundance in many Lassa they return with the coarse cloth made in parts, and marbles, with other valuable fossils, the country (its sole manufacture), gold, and vaare hidden in the bosoms of the mountains. rious other commodities imported from Bengal. Tincal is likewise one of the peculiar minerals A commercial intercourse is also maintained with of this upper region of the globe; and Mr. Assam. The merchants meet on the confines of Saunders, who accompanied captain Turner on the two countries, and chiefly exchange silver his embassy, observes, The lake whence tincal and salt, on the one part, for rice, silks, cloth, and rock-salt are collected is about fifteen days' and iron, on the other. The principal exports journey from Theshoo-Loomboo, and to the from Tibet to Hindostan, by way of Nepaul, are northward of it. It is encompassed on all sides musk, cow-tails, and sable-skins, which are the by rocky hills, without any brooks or rivulets produce of the country, with tea and other near at hand; but its waters are supplied by things previously received from China. Gold is springs, which, being saltish to the taste, are not also sent from Tibet, but, as there is always much used by the natives. The tincal is deposited or secrecy observed in dealing in that metal in the formed in the bed of the lake, and those who go east, the amount cannot be ascertained. Tincal io collect it, dig it up in large masses, which they is likewise exported to Hindostan. In addition afterwards break into small pieces for the conve- to the produce and manufactures of India, sevenience of carriage, and expose it to the air to ral European goods, with otter-skins, pearls, dry. Although tincal has been collected from coral, and some other things, are sent across the this lake for a great length of time, the quantity mountains. A commercial intercourse is likeis not perceptibly diminished, and as the cavities wise maintained between Tibet and Cashmere ; made by digging it soon wear out, or fill up, it whence the Tibetans receive shawls, saffron, and is an opinion with the people that the formation of dried fruits, in exchange for silver, tea, and fresh tincal is going on They never have yet met shawl wool.

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