« السابقةمتابعة »
Tibet has been subject to the Chinese, for and guttural sounds. The characters of the almore than 100 years, and the orders of the em- phabet are of two kinds, the one sacred, and the peror are therefore enforced by the raja, naib other employed in common concerns. The manor deputy, an officer who administers the tempo- ner of writing is from left to right. The gylongs ral affairs. He is, like the supreme pontiff, a go through a regular course of education, and mysterious being, and subject to similar trans are the principal instructors of youth. The migrations, and his identity is ascertained in the most celebrated school in Tibet is at Laprang, same manner. He is justly considered the civil and is frequented by students from the adjoining ruler of the state, under the restrictions arising countries. The course of education occupies from the Chinese Tazin, on the one hand, and twelve years, which are passed in the study of the permanent laws and customs of the realm on logic, astronomy, philosophy, medicine, and thethe other. In the discharge of these duties the ology. Captain Turner found them acquainted rajah is assisted by a council consisting of four with the satellites of Jupiter, and Saturn's ring, shubbehs, or viziers, who are always natives. but their astronomy is merely subservient to asWhen a vacancy occurs in this council it is filled trology. Their sacred alphabet is allowed to up by the rajah and the remaining members, have been borrowed from the Sanscrit. Printbut the nomination must first be confirmed by ing has long been known among them ; but it is the Chinese tazin, and ultimately by the empe- chiefly confined to the multiplication of religious ror, with whom the real appointment, therefore, tracts, and is not done by moveable types, but virtually rests. A series of officers fill up the by blocks, or set forms. Though this art has inferior departments of the state.—The laws have been known from a remote period, the prevalong been composed, and have a great analogy to lence of superstition, or the want of invention, those of China,
has prevented any improvement from taking The religion is Buddhism, the lamas or priests place. of which are monks, who profess to renounce The inhabitants are more robust and less the pleasures of the world, and devote them- swarthy than the Hindoos. A late traveller reselves wholly to exercises of religion. They re- presents them of a mild and gentle disposition. ject the distinction of caste, and admit proselytes The men are stout, and the women of brown of any nation into their order. They consider ruddy complexion; both deriving health and themselves as the followers of Sakya Gamba, an vigor from the cool breezes of their native mounincarnation of the deity, who removed from tains. Warm clothing is constantly worn, and Hindostan to Lassa, about eighteen centuries is made of a coarse woollen cloth in summer, ago, and has resided there ever since in the per- and of fox or sheep skins, in winter. The loose son of the dalai lama. There are also several robes and trowsers of the higher classes, in the other lamas in Tibet, who are considered as neighbourhood of Lassa, are in the warm season different incarnations of Buddha, particularly the frequently made of European broad cloth, and teshoo lama who is the spiritual guide of the in winter the upper garments of the affluent are Chinese emperor. The dalai lama is considered lined with sable and other furs. The dress of by his followers as an incarnation of the deity, the religious orders consists of a vest of woollen manifested in a human form, and, when one body cloth, with sleeves of a deep garnet color. They dies, he is supposed, after a certain period, to also wear a large mantle, with a kind of philibeg, enter into another, and manifest himself afresh to and wide boots, made of hides, and lined with his priests. He never appears in public but either fur or cloth. The priests of the two once a year, when he goes to worship in the orders are distinguished by their dress; those great temple. He pays no attention to domestic over whom the Dalai lama presides wearing a concerns, and the Chinese tazin spares him the red cap, while those who beloug to the Teshoo trouble of attending to the temporal affairs of the lama have a yellow one. Mutton is their chief government, further than giving his sanction to food, which they prefer raw. They make great any important measure that may be transacted use of tea ; but are represented as moderate in by the Chinese functionary. His life seems, all their appetites and passions; while humanity therefore, to be passed in a kind of dosing apa- and gentleness are leading characteristics in thy, and, when he dies, his body is exposed to their dispositions. Abdul Russool describes the air till it becomes dry. It is then inshrined them as an industrious, contented, mild race of in a case of highly-wrought silver, and placed in men, sluggish in their intellect, and phlegmatic the temple as an object of worship. Thus the in their amorous propensities. A genuine Tibereligion of Tibet differs in some essential parti- tan begins the day by public worship (every culars from that of the Hindoos. The people village containing a temple), and he then pursues are divided into two distinct classes, the duty of his occupations till the evening, which is spent the one being to transact the business of the in recreation. Although the Tibetans do not exworld, and that of the other to maintain an in- pose themselves to the cruel penances of the tercourse with heaven. The Brahmins acknow- Hindoos, yet, like them, they consider pilgriledge no superior; but at the head of the Tibetan mages to certain places highly meritorious. The system is placed the Lama, immortal and imma same places are also venerated by popular superculate; who is not only the vicegerent of the stition on the heights of Tartary, as on the plains deity, but the centre of the civil authority. A of Bengal. Allahabad, Benares, Durjodum, regular gradation is also maintained through the Saugor island, and Juggernauth, are all resorted whole order of the gylongs, from the highest to to by the natives of Tibet, as well as by the the youngest noviciate.
Hindoos; but the iwo latter places are the most The language of Tibet consists chiefly of nasal frequented. When a pilgrimage cannot be per
formed by an individual, much merit is attached exceedingly acute and lancinating during its atto having it accomplished by proxy: The most tack. The periods of its recurrence were indecelebrated place within their own dominions is finite, and in the intervals of which she was the peak of Chumularee, one of the highest generally in a state of perfect ease. There was points of the Himmaleh chain, and to which the a striking uniformity both in the origin and diBrahminical Hindoos, as well as the Buddhists, rection of the pain : it always began in the ala resort to pay their adorations to its snow-clad nasi and upper lip, and darted upwards towards summit.-Such, indeed, is the strength of super- the orbit; but, when the attack was more comstition among the savage and semi-barbarous monly violent, then indeed it extended to other tribes, that almost every singular object, and parts, and a sensation of a similar kind, though every rare phenomenon of nature, whether it be much less in degree, was frequently perceived a snowy mountain, a hot spring, a curious lake, in the cheek towards the ear; the same sensaor a majestic volcano, is converted into an object tion was also observed on the fleshy and bony of adoration.
palate, on the gums and teeth of the upper jaw, Marriage is not contracted till the female is and sometimes on the fauces. She seemed parof full age, and it is then arranged by the pa- ticularly disposed to this pain in severe or windy rents of the parties, or rather by the young man weather. Yet she was not altogether free from and the parents of the female, who, being selected it in the milder season. It was most frequently by the eldest of a family, becomes equally the excited by the more obvious occasional causes, wife of all the other brothers, without respect such as speaking, coughing, taking food, blowing to age or numbers; and a female is allowed to the nose, &c. Though sometimes it would retransfer her person and property from one man turn from causes less apparent. The duration to another, without incurring any reproach for of each pain seldom exceeded half a minute; making the first advances. Property descends but more frequently it was somewhat less. from father to son, and, when a person dies with- Sometimes she had not more than five or six of out issue, it goes to the eldest brother, or his sons; these pains in the space of a day, at others but, when these fail, to his wife and daughters. nearly twice that number in an hour. They
TIBULA, an ancient town of Sardinia, now varied sensibly in their degree of violence; somecalled Lango.
times so moderate as only to suspend the moveTIBULLUS (Aulus Albius), a Roman knight, ment of the upper lip, but more commonly so and a celebrated Latin poet, was born at Rome, pungent as to extort screams expressive of in43 B.C. He was the friend of Horace, Ovid, tense agony. Besides the suspension of the Macer, and other great men in the reign of Au- motion of the lips, a very opposite effect fregustus. He accompanied Messala Corvinus in quently took place, viz. a tremulous movement, his expedition against Corcyra : but, falling sick, during which it was sometimes drawn a little he quitted the profession of arms, and returned upward. Notwithstanding there were such exto Rome, where he died before the year 17; treme pains, neither swelling nor discoloration wheo Ovid expressed his grief in a fine elegy. could be perceived, except such as were occaTibullus wrote four books of elegies, which are sioned from time to time by external applicastill extant. The best edition of Tibullus is that tions. These were the general symptoms. The Notis Variorum et Vulpii, 4to., Patavii, 1749. patient was in the north of England when she
TIBUR, an ancient town of Latium, pleasantly was first attacked with this complaint; and, situated on the Anio. Here Horace had his having availed herself of such assistance as was villa ; and here Adrian built a villa called Tibur- at hand without relief, she consulted Dr. Haightina, inscribed with the names of the provinces; ton by letter. As the case was drawn up by near which Zenobia had a house. Treb. Pollio. herself, though not without some appearance of Hither Augustus often retreated.-Suet. An- accuracy, yet he did not conceive her statement ciently it was the utmost place of banishment.- of facts sufficiently perspicuous whereon to found Ovid. It had a temple of Hercules; with a an opinion. He therefore desired the case might library.-A. Gell. Now called Tivoli.
be written out by some practitioner; but, imaTIC-DOLOUREUX, a remarkable disease of gining herself as capable of describing her own the nerves. Dr. Haighton gives the following feelings as any other, she sent another account interesting account of it, which is by much the somewhat more correct than the former. best that has hitherto appeared in this country : From this statement Dr. Haighton began to Mrs. H— of Stockwell
, Surrey, aged suspect the complaint to be of the nervous kind; seventy-four, a mother of children, of a spare but at the same time considered it only in the habit, placid disposition, and for her age much vague sense in which we are too apt to use that disposed to activity, was about thirteen years term. That practitioner must have been either ago, for the first time, seized with pain of the very fortunate, or his practice very circumface. This pain at its commencement was very scribed, who has not, in various instances, exmoderate, but in its progress became violent: at perienced the inefficacy of medicine in this class length it acquired a degree of acuteness which of diseases. However, the extreme agony in neither words can describe, nor the imagination the present case made it highly expedient to ateasily conceive. The seat of this extreme pain tempt something for relief; and, despairing to was somewhat limited, being confined to the ala obtain a permanent advantage from the use of nasi and a small portion of the upper lip, on anything which then occurred to him, Dr. the right side. The pain was not of the con- Haighton recommended for the present an attentinued obtuse kind, like that of chronic rheu- tion only to the urgency of symptoms by the matism, but, on the contrary, rather transient, application of the linimentum ammoniæ, of such
a strength and such frequency of repetition as In order, therefore, to reduce (as far as pos. .night produce the ordinary effects of rubifa- sible) to a certainty, what hitherto was only cient medicines, or, on the inefficacy of this, the matter of surmise, he waited for the next exaexhibition of tincture of opium both internally cerbation, which took place in a few minutes, and externally ; likewise electricity in such form and by making, at this time, rather a forcible as the patient could best bear. In case the pressure upon the integuments covering the suabove plan had moderated the violence of the borbitar foramen, the pain instantly abated. He attack, he added in reserve to recommend a free repeated this several times, and uniformly with use of bark and chalybeates, and aided by wine, the same effect. As the conjecture relative to and a more nutritive diet than she had been ac- the seat of this disease seemed to gain considercustomed to, with a view of strengthening the able support from this experiment, it was thought system, and, if possible, to defend it against essential to take a more minute survey of the future attacks; but unfortunately he had to deal symptoms, particularly as being seated in those with a patient somewhat unmanageable in this parts which seemed affected in a secondary or respect, being very averse to good living. Some sympathetic way. It appears, from the history time after this he was informed there had been of this case, that the extreme pain was seated in an evident amendment in a way that seemed to the ala nasi and upper lip, on the right side ; imply a spontaneous termination of the disease, but, when it darted with more than common vio rather than an abatement of symptoms from the lence, it affected other parts, as the ear, by expower of medicine; he was told that the advan- tending itself along the course of the cheek, by tage obtained from the local applications was so means of communicating branches belonging to very equivocal, that the amendment was attri- the portia dura of the seventh pair, which pair buted more to the mild turn the season took at begin to spread on the side of the face as soon that time than to the medical treatment which as it emerges from behind the condyles of the had been adopted. He heard very little more lower jaw. It attacked also the palate, gums, of this case for the space of two years, at the and teeth of the upper jaw, but no part of the expiration of which she came to reside in the lower; sometimes the fauces; but the part which vicinity of London. From her account, it seems seemed affected next in degree to the original that she had several returns of her complaint, seat was immediately behind the dentes incisivi. but none so violent as the first attack. A few From comparing this assemblage of sympmonths after her arrival she had a slight return. toms with the distribution of the second or suShe was placed upon an insulated chair, and perior maxillary portion of the fifth pair of several very strong electrical sparks were drawn nerves, he was struck with the coincidence, and from the part by means of a very powerful ma. at the same time was persuaded, as has been alchine. It produced a redness, together with a ready hinted, that the original disease was in slight vesication, and moderated the pain for those branches of the nerve transmitted by the several days. After that time it was frequently suborbitar foramen, and distributed to the ala restrained by the same means : but at length it nasi and upper lip; and that the darting pains returned with a degree of violence unknown in extending to the teeth, inside of the gums, and any former attack, and upon trying electricity palate, arose from communicating filaments bein the form of sparks, as before, it was so far tween the suborbitar and palatine branches. from procuring a remission of symptoms, that it These communications not only complicated the seemed to aggravate rather than appease. Un- case, but also placed the prospect of a cure at a der such extreme irritation Dr. Haighton ceased great distance, from the various channels by to draw sparks; but, considering that some little which the pain could be conveyed from the part advantage had been gained by electricity on a primarily affected to the sensorium. But, as a former trial, he used it in a milder form, viz. in temporary advantage had been frequently gained what has been called the aura, which differs from by pressure of the suborbitar nerves against the the former mode in being drawn off silently, by bone, the entire division of them seemed elimeans of a pointed conductor, but no visible gible; and it was proposed to the patient as an effect ensued.
ultimate expedient. The proposal, however, carIt was only at this period that he begun to ried with it some difficulties. It was new to form a just idea of the disease. The following her. It could not ensure success, and, in this circumstance gave rise to it:—While she was distraction of circumstances, the mind of the endeavouring to describe her feelings, which she patient might have remained suspended in doubt, attempted in a very inarticulate manner, she had not the insupportable urgency of pain comstopped suddenly, and, upon looking at the pas pelled her to assent. affected, Dr. Haighton perceived a tremulous Having permission to operate, Dr. Haighton motion of the upper lip, by which it was drawn began to consider the circumstances of this upwards precisely at that part where the mus nerve more attentively, and as the intention was culus levator labii superioris proprius is insert- to effect a complete division of its filaments, by ed; and from recollecting a well known fact, an incision of a moderate length, the means conthat a nerve under irritation from stimulating ducive to that end became important subjects causes produces motion in the muscular parts of regard. It was essential therefore to acquire to which it is distributed, it immediately oc a knowledge concerning the precise seat of the curred to him that the suborbitar branches of distribution of this branch of the fifth pair of the fifth pair of nerves, which are known to sup- nerves, the mode of its transition, and exit from ply these parts, must be the seat of the present the suborbitar foramen, together with a clear and disease.
correct idea respecting the seat of the foramen did not vary more than one-eighth of an inch itself. Besides which, it was not altogether ex- and it was found that a line drawn downward, traneous to attend to such contiguous parts as perpendicular to this oblique line, at the dismight, either from necessity or accident, be tance of seven-eighths of an inch from the inwounded in the operation. This nerve is trans- ternal angle of the eye, passed across from the mitted by the suborbitar foramen, in a way very suborbitar foramen. By this rule Dr. Haighton different from that which the common form of was able to form a standard of the situation of expression on this occasion would lead us to this foramen in a living subject. imagine. We usually speak of it as one branch, These preliminary circumstances being setunder the name of suborbitar ; but in reality it tled, the operation becomes exceedingly simple, ought to be considered as a series of branches, and consists in an incision of three-quarters of for it divides before its exit, and is afterwards an inch in length, carried obliquely downwards, distributed in a radiated manner to the circum- the centre of which must correspond with the jacent parts, viz. the levator labii superioris pro- foramen, only one-quarter of an inch below it. prius, the inferior part of the orbicularis palpe- The incision must be made down to the bone, brarum, to the muscles and integuments of the otherwise we cannot be certain of dividing the nose and upper lip. From this radiated distri- nerves, as they are situated very deep. And as bution, it must necessarily happen that the there are some irregularities on the surface of branches of this nerve are spread over an exten- the maxillary bone at this part from muscular sive surface at their termination, though con- attachment, as well as a furrow which is sometracted into a small compass at their exit from times continued from the foramen downwards, a the foramen. It was therefore considered a mat- small pointed knife will be preferable to any ter of importance to fix upon a proper part for other, as it will enable the operator to divide the operation, in order that its branches, hy lying with more certainty such nervous filaments as in a small space, might be more conveniently may be seated in these depressions. The facial divided.
vein frequently passes over the foramen, and In its passage through the suborbitar foramen, conceals it; from which it is liable to be divided it is accompanied by a branch of the internal in the operation. If this really happens, or it maxillary artery, which from its contiguity must any of the suborbitar branches of the internal Decessarily be divided. These are covered by maxillary artery should bleed with freedom, a the levator labii superioris proprius, and the compress may be made with advantage, as they common integuments. As the branches of this are seated near the bone. nerve lie close to each other at the orifice of the The wound, being dressed superficially, will foramen, that part seems the most convenient for probably heal by the first intention. In the their division, because an incision of a moderate manner just described, Dr. Haighton performed length will generally include them all.
the operation, and the event has justly satisfied The next consideration was to determine the its propriety; it immediately put an end to the exact situation of the foramen. This at first pain, and the incision healed in a few days. The seems very easy, but in reality is not so, because patient, who lived many years after the operain different skulls the distance of it from the tion, ever contemplated that event with the orbit differs considerably, and there does not highest satisfaction. appear any mode of determining this more pro It is worthy of remark that the sensation and bably than by attempting to form a standard action of that side of the lip, though evidently from the measurement of a considerable number diminished, were not altogether lost, as might of skulls.
have been predicted. The inconvenience was The space between the inferior edge of the only temporary: we may therefore suppose a orbit and the superior part of the foramen in reunion of the nerves had taken place, but with thirty skulls was therefore measured, and the this fortunate effect, that no disposition to the distance found to be as follows:
return of the disease through the new formed In two skulls, i of an inch.
part has yet appeared.
TICE, v. a. From entice. To draw ; 10 In 16
Lovely enchanting language, sugar-cane,
Honey of roses, whither wilt thou Aly?
Hath some fond lover ticed thee to thy bane? As the distance in sixteen skulls out of thirty And wilt thou leave the church, and love a sty? was one-quarter of an inch, that is considered as
Herbert. the médium distance from the superior part of TICHFIELD, a market-town of England, in the foramen ; and, if we allow one-eighth below Hampshire, seated on a rivulet of the same name, its inferior part, we consider half an inch from that runs into the Southampton water.
In this the lower edge of the orbit a proper place for town was an ancient abbey, founded by Peter de performing the operation.
Rupibus, bishop of Winchester, anno 1230, and Having endeavoured to establish a rule for dedicated to the Virgin. The ecclesiastical foundetermining its distance from the orbit, it may dation was of the order of Premonstatian canons. be proper to ascertain its situation with respect In this abbey it was said the marriage of king to a line drawn from the inferior part of the in- Henry VI. with the princess Margaret of Anjou ternal angular process of the os frontis, obliquely was celebrated. The abbey and lands were given across the orbit, to the centre of the os malæ. by Henry VIII, to Sir Thomas Wriothesley, The measurement of this line in thirty skulls treasurer to that monarch; who, being afterwards
created earl of Southampton, erected on the are found the chamois, white hares, wolves, scite a splendid castellated mansion with lofty and even bears. The exports (chiefly to Italy) towers and a noble gateway; the ruins of which, comprise silk, fruits, cheese, skins, marble, crysnow overgrown with ivy, form a beautiful object tals, timber, and straw hats. in the rich landscape. The ruins of the once noble TICINUM, an ancient name of Pavia. hall are also still worthy of attention. Here it TICINUS, a river of Italy, in Insubria, rising was that the unfortunate Charles lay concealed in mount Adula, traversing the lake Verbanus to (through the loyalty of the earl of Southampton), the south and falling into the Po near Ticinum. after his flight from Hampton Court, 1647. The Between this river and the Po, Hannibal gained site is now in possession of the Delmé family, his first victory over the Romans under P. Scipio. and some years ago a most choice collection of It is now called Terino, which see. paintings, the property of Peter Delmé, esq., at TICK, n s. Contracted from ticket, a tally tracted much notice, and drew many visitors to on which debts are scored. Score; trust. the place. After his decease they were sold by Would the fountain of your mind were clear Mr. Christie in Pall Mall, and realised a large again, that I might water an ass at it! I had rather sum of money; a pair of Poussains being be a tick in a sheep, than such a valiant ignorance. sold for 1600 guineas. The church is a spacious
Shakspeare. Troilus and Cressida. fabric, the workmanship of different ages. The
If thou hast the heart to try it, south side is the most ancient. There is also a I'll lend thee back thyself awhile, charity school here. The town, though small, is And once more for that carcase vile
Fight upon tick. many respectable families. Population about 4000. Market day Saturday. Fairs
When the money is got into hands that have March 5th, May 14th, September 25th, and De- brought all that they have need of, whoever needs cember 3d. The country in the environs is any thing else must go on tick, or barter for it.
Locke. highly variegated with hill and dale, and in a
The money went to the lawyers ; council won't state of the highest cultivation.
Arbuthnot. TICHIUS, the top of mount Eta.—Liv. 36, You would see him in the kitchen weighing the c. 16.
beef and butter, paying ready money, that the maids TICIDA, a poet of the Augustan age, who might not run a lick at the market. wrote epigrams; mentioned by Ovid, Trist. ii.
Id. History of John Bull. 433.
TICKELL (Thomas), an English poet, son of TICINO, or Tessin, a considerable district the rev. Richard Tickels, born in 1686, at Brideand canton in the south of Switzerland, situated kirk in Cumberland. He was fellow of Queen's between the central cantons and the frontier of College, Oxford, and addressed to Mr. Addison Lombardy. It was formerly called the Italian
verses on his opera of Rosomond. Addison, bebailiwics, and inhabited by Italians, governed by ing made secretary of state, appointed him his temporary deputies from the respective cantons under secretary; and Mr. Craggs continued him until 1815, when it was formed into an inde- in his post. In 1724 Mr. Tickell was appointed pendent canton, divided into the eight following secretary to the lords justices in Ireland, which districts :
he held for life. He wrote some poems, which Mendrisio
met with a favorable reception. He died in Lugano
TICKELL (Richard), an English poet and poliLocarno
tical writer. He published two very popular Bellinzona
1. The Project; and, 2. The Riviera
Wreath of Fashion. But his most admired piece Blegno
6,300 was a pamphlet, entitled Anticipation, which Levantina
9,600 came out just two days before the meeting of
parliament, in 1779; and in which he imitated Total 89,000
the style and sentiments of the leading members
of both houses with wonderful precision. He The area of the whole 1130 square miles. also adapted the Gentle Shepherd to the English The soil is fertile, and the climate mild. No stage ; and wrote The Carnival of Venice, a country is better watered, or more remarkable comic opera. He died in 1793. for beautiful scenery.
The inhabitants, how. TICK'ET, n. s. Fr. etiquet. A token of any are said to be indolent, and unacquainted right or debt, upon the delivery of which admiswith manufactures, the men generally emigrat- sion is granted, or a claim acknowledged. ing, like the Savoyards, to large towns in Italy
There should be a paymaster appointed, of special or France, and leaving to the women the care,
trust, which should pay every man according to his not only of the cattle, but of tillage. The moun- captain's ticket, and the account of the clerk of his tains are covered with forests of chestnuts, the band.
Spenser. fruit of which, joined to the maize of the val In a lottery with one prize a single ticket is only leys, forms the chief food of the inhabitants. enriched, and the rest are all blanks. There is here less snow and more rain than in
Collier on Envy. the central cantons of Switzerland. Wine is Let fops or fortune fly which way they will,
Pope. cultivated and exported in small quantities; figs, Disdains all loss of tickets or codille. almonds, and mulberries, all succeed ; and the TICKHILL, a market-town, West Riding of quantity of silk made here is large. The cattle York, five miles south of Doncaster, and 156 are remarkably small. In
nountains north by west of London. The town is large