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prevent the lodgment of dust and dirt, and here we see the artist has preserved the primitive idea.

We find now that flat and slightly and highly coped stones are equally common. The plain highly coped stones of William Rufus, and of Juga Bayard, Plate xxxvii., both belong to the very beginning of the twelfth century, the interesting stone from Coningsborough, Plate XXXVII., covered with sculptures, is probably of the beginning of this century. Another shape of the coped stone is shewn in that of Bishop Ralph, A.D. 1123, Plate XXXVIII. ; somewhat similar in the general form of the stone, though far more elaborate and beautiful in design, is that of Maurice de Londres, c. A.D. 1150, Plate xxxix. Probably all the examples from Plate xxxvi. to Plate xli., belong to this century; a simple inspection of them will be sufficient to shew the great variety of designs which were in use during this period.

In the thirteenth century, as also in the succeeding centuries, we still find all shapes of the raised cross slab, both flat and coped; the stones of Abbat Alan, A.D. 1202, Plate xlii., of Urian de St. Pierre, A.D. 1239, Plate Lil., of Williarn Plantagenet in the Temple church, A.D. 1256, Plate Lir., and of Prior William de Basing, A.D. 1295, Plate LXVII., will prove this point. Plates xlii. to liv. are probably all of this date, and will sufficiently shew without detailed description, the style of work and design of the period.

Plates lv. to lxiv. contain examples all of which are probably of the fourteenth century; those from Tintern, Plate Lxi., Dereham, Plate Lxu., and Plate Lxiv. may be pointed out as possessing strongly marked fourteenth century characteristics.

Plates Lxv. and LxvI. contain examples of the fifteenth century, of which that from Jervaulx, Plate Lxvi., may be specially pointed out.

· It is, however, somewhat remarkable that while in all other parts of ecclesiastical architecture during these three centuries we find three strongly marked styles, the Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, we do not find any corresponding broad distinctions of style in these gravestones. Ornamental work peculiar to these styles frequently occurs upon them ; but almost as frequently there is so little of peculiar character in the design, that it requires considerable familiarity with the subject to be able to assign, within a hundred years, the probable date of a slab within this period; and in some instances the designs are so utterly void of any thing like character, that they may be of almost any date.

When stone coffins went out of fashion, (about the end of the fifteenth century,) the coffin-shaped stone still continued in common use as a covering to the grave, with little or no alteration in its shape or dimensions. Indeed the coffin-stone never has gone out of use, and is still very common in all the southern counties. In Weston churchyard, Hunts., are some very well-shaped specimens of the seventeenth century; they are flat, taper from head to foot, have no cross, but an inscription round the margin, and are placed on brick graves. In St. Mary's churchyard, Hunts., is one slightly coped with a bold roll on the ridge, and an inscription running lengthwise, to Thomas Dales, churchwarden, A.D. 1675. In the churchyard of Standlake, Oxfordshire, are several examples of the last and present century.

The very late ones are generally semicircular instead of being coped, and are widest at the shoulder, tapering towards the head and feet, and are generally accompanied by a headstone bearing an inscription; of this kind examples abound in the south of England.

There is a variety of the simple highly coped coffinlid, which is sometimes met with ; viz., where instead of one simple ridge, there are two, crossing one another at right angles, giving the idea of the roof of a cross church. The ridges are finished with a bold roll, so that the two rolls crossing at right angles form the symbol of the cross, as at Fingall, Yorks., Plate LXII., also at Bredon, Worcestershire, Plate LxII., where the gabled ends are ornamented.

Double coffin-stones also occur, having two crosses upon them : as that of Sir Adam de Cliderhow, at Ribchester, Lancashire, Plate LXIV., where the slab is divided into two compartments, each has a cross under a canopy, and an inscription runs round each division, one commemorating Sir Adam, the other his wife, Also one at Goosenerg, Plate LXIV., which has two crosses, each with a shield at the base, and other ornamental work, the whole stone being surrounded by a border of pateræ.

We find several French examples of these double stones in the Gagnières collection; they are generally placed over two successive abbats, and have two pastoral staves, each under its canopy, with a separate inscription to each abbat.

There is another kind of double stone where the stone is not divided into two compartments, but it is about double the usual width, and is charged with two crosses, each accompanied by appropriate symbols; it is clear that they have been placed over two persons, and both these and the preceding stones were probably the lids of double stone coffins, such as that called Rosamund Clifford's P.

There is such a stone at Chollerton, Northumberland, Plate Lx., where the sinister cross has a sword beside it, the dexter a book : another at East Shaftoe, Northumberland, Plate Lxv., where the sinister cross has

p The author's reference to the locality of this curious double coffin has been mislaid.

a sword beside it, the dexter a pair of shears : another at Aycliffe, Durham, Plate V., where the sinister cross has a sword, pair of pincers, square (or hammer), and a small cross patée; the dexter a key and pair of shears : another at Forcett, Yorkshire, with two crosses which are run into one another, in the same way as the three on the slab from St. Peter's at Gowts, Plate XIII.; the sinister cross on this slab has beside it a sword with curious projections which look like parts of the belt, the dexter cross has two keys.

There is one class of stones, which might be classed either as incised stones, or as coffin-stones. The upper part of the device consists of a floriated cross within a circle, and the cross is thrown into relief by cutting away the remaining part of the stone within the circle to the depth of about } of an inch or more. Generally the sunk part was filled up with plaster or pitch. Those from Bakewell, Plates XXXVIII., XL., XLII., XLV., XLVI., &c., are specimens of this class. Those from Aycliffe, Plate v., and Rushen abbey, Plate xliv., are treated in a similar manner.

We not uncommonly find stone coffin-lids without any cross upon them. Thus at Gosforth, Northumberland, is a well-coped stone, with only a roll or bead round the edge ; at the same place is another stone well coped, with a roll along the ridge, both engraved in the Archæol. Æliana, vol. i. p. 243. Highly coped but perfectly plain stones are frequent, as at Barton, Camb., &c.

At Jesus college chapel, Cambridge, is a well-known stone, acutely coped in the same way as that of William Rufus, Plate XXXVII., without any cross, but with the inscription


HIC : BONA : BERTA : ROSATA. the monument probably of some nun of the thirteenth

century, who was buried here while the chapel was still a part of the priory of St. Rhadegunda. A similar stone was found on the site of Belvoir priory with the inscription "E ROBERT . DE . TODENI . LE . FVdevr.” Botlı these are engraved in Gough, vol. ii. pl. xvi. p. ccxlvi.

There is another very interesting developement of the simple coffin-stone, which requires notice. Sometimes a head was sculptured above the cross representing the deceased, as in the monument of Emote de Hastings, Plate LXVII., at Bitton, Gloucestershire; in that of Prior William de Basing, Winchester, A.D. 1295, Plate LXVII. ; in that of a female at Bottesford, Notts., Plate Lxx.; in one at Silchester, Plate Lxix., where there are two heads; one at Llandaff cathedral has two heads, male and female, over a cross with lily terminations; the inscription (illegible) is French in Lombardic character; date probably the fourteenth century; figured in the Archæologia Cambrensis, vol. iii. p. 320.

At Silchester is a slab, Plate cxix., where the head is placed in a sunk quatrefoil, so as to give the idea of there being a quatrefoil hole cut in the coffin-stone, through which the face of the deceased is visiblem. One soinewhat similar exists in Merton college chapel, Oxford, of Richard Camsall, D.D., figured in Gough, vol. ii. pl. vii. fig. 2.

An interesting late example exists at Llanvihangel Aber Cowin churchyard, Glamorganshire : on the lower part of the stone is a plain calvary cross; over it a half-length figure in falling ruff, with the hands clasped in prayer ; round the cross is the inscription, 4 DEUS RESIPIT ANNIMOS . . . ORUM IN MISERICORDIAM; and on three sides of the stone, 4 HEARE LYETH E IN GRAVE THE BODYE OF GRIFFITHE GRANT SONE TO RICHARD GRANT AND MARGET VETRFIS A ..... DECEASED THE 4 DAYE OF MAY ANNO

4 When great personages were laid in state, were they not sometimes laid in

the coffin with such a hole as this in the lid?

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