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spective in the brass of Margaret Oliver, A.D. 1425, Bedington, Surrey, engraved in Mr. Boutell's Monumental Brasses.

PLATE XXVI. Lenton, Notts. This curious design would seem to be formed by placing four fleurs-de-lys with their points toward the centre. An illegible Latin black letter inscription runs in two lines above the cross.

Lolworth, Cambridgeshire. An illegible black letter inscription runs between the marginal lines.

Bridgeford, Notts. This elegant cross is on a slab of alabaster. Tintern Abbey.

PLATE XXVII. Papplewick, Notts. Papplewick was in the midst of old Sherwood forest : probably from the symbols, this stone was over some Sherwood ranger.

Papplewick, Notts. The introduction of small crosses here is curious, the letters W. B. are probably the initials of the deceased.

Plate XXVIII. Kirkwood, Yorks. Erroneously marked Topclyffe, Yorks. on the Plate. Several other slabs from this place are engraved in Gough's “Sepulchral Monuments,” vol. i.


Lynby, Notts. Near this is another incised stone of somewhat similar design, cusped at the angles of the cross. These two stones are very interesting from the fact that they have a black letter inscription belonging to them on an alabaster slab placed against the wall of the church, which runs thus, “ In this liitle chapelle under the low grave stones withe crosses Iyeth George Chaworthe Esquire and Marye his wiffe the doughter of sir henrie Sacheberell Knight late farmers of this manor place and demeanes of Lynbye be thwine home (i. e. ‘between whom') was issue three sons and three daughters whiche George dyed the tow & twentithe of August anno dní 1557 & marie his said wiffe dicd the 15 of June anno dní 1562 on whos sowells good hath mercie."

A similar instance of a separate inscription to a floor cross is recorded in the note to slab from St. Peter's at Gowts, Lincoln, Plate XII. It is not however probable that this was a common practice.

Plate xxix. Hinton, Kent. The device IV % within the heart was not an uncommon device upon grave-stones. Sometimes it doubtless meant that the heart alone was buried beneath it, as is proved by a very curious slab at Chichester cathedral, which bears a shield charged with a trefoil; the termination of the upper cusp is a heart between two hands, which form the terminations of the other cusps, and round the margin of the trefoil runs the inscription, ICI GIST LE COVER MAVD DE C.... Here lies the heart of Maud de C. Other examples of this exist at St. Mary the Virgin, Wiggenhall, Norfolk; Bredon, Worcestershire, &c.: this case is easily detected by the size of the slab. This practice of burying the heart separately is not unusual; every one will remember the romantic example of the heart of Robert Bruce, which, after being carried to the Holy Land, in performance of his vow, by his faithful soldier Sir James Douglas, was at last buried in its silver case in Melrose abbey, (see Introduction to Scott's “Abbot.") There is a popular opinion, founded perhaps upon the above romantic tale, that in some cases the heart upon a grave-stone alluded to some accomplished vow. There is however 110 proof of this; the true meaning is probably pointed out by the present example, which clearly means that she loved and trusted in her Saviour-held Him in her heart. It appears probable that the peculiar shape given to the angles of some of the floriated crosses was intended to represent the heart, as in 1. Bakewell, Plate X.; Chester, Plate XXIII.; Monkton Farley, Plate xxv.; in Marisk, Yorkshire, Plate v., this is very clearly represented.

It may be mentioned, that in some of the Jersey churchyards (St. Trinity for instance) there are comparatively modern small gravestones cut into the shape of a heart.

Plate XXX. Lolworth, Cambridgeshire. See page 6.

Dullingham, Cambridgeshire. The ornamental border on this stone is unusual. The inscription at the base of the cross is illegible.


Lichfield Cathedral. The monument of Bishop Hacket, A.D. 1670%.

· Mr. Paget's Tract upon Tombstoncs.


PLATE XXXI. Cliffe, Kent. Inscription,




There is little to shew the date of this stone, it may perhaps be fourteenth century.

These semi-effigies are not uncommon on many kinds of monuments : several examples of them in relief combined with raised crosses are given in Plates LXVII., LXIX., LXX., 1.XXII. On sepulchral brasses they frequently occur, as at Lingfield, Surrey; Kemsing, Kent, &c. An interesting example of two small semi-effigies inserted in a niche in the wall occurs at Bakewell, Derbyshire.

Monkton Farleigh, Wilts. Inscription, “HIO JACET HUGO FITZ WARVN CUJUS ANIME PROPICIETUR Deus.” The upper part of this stone looks perhaps more like fourteenth century, but the cusped cross and the moulded base seem of later date; it is probably early fifteenth century.

Lympley Stoke, Wilts. Date may perhaps be fourteenth century.

Lympley Stoke, Wilts. Date may perhaps be fourteenth century. There are nineteen other stones of similar character in this chapel yard, they have probably been removed from the interior of the chapel. Compare the terminations of the arms with the points of star in the base of the raised cross slab from Bilborough on Plate LvIII., and with the example from Bridgenorth, Gloucestershire, given in the margin. The shape of the slab is curious and unusual.

PLATE LXVI. Christ Church, near Caerleon, Brecknockshire. (This is the proper place of this example in the series; it was found necessary to ! place it in its present place in order to facilitate the arrangement of

· Archæol. Journal, vol. iv. p. 206.


the cuts in Plates.) This stone is a curious compound of the cross slab, and the slab with incised figures. In the Archæologia, vol. iv., (from which the drawing is taken,) is an account of a superstitious custom which the people of the neighbourhood have of laying their sick children upon this stone, on the eve of Ascension Day, in order to cure them of their sicknesses.

Plate XXXII. Considering how frequently the crucifix was introduced in other Gothic work, it is rather singular that we do not find it more frequently on English grave-stones. There is one curious example at Bredon, Worcestershire, Plate Lxx., and another at Hales Owen. (Antiquarian and Topographical Cabinet, vol. x.) This splendid example is in memory of an Englishwoman, Philippa, daughter of Henry IV., and wife of Eric Pomeranus, king of Denmark; it was placed in the monastery of Madstena, in Sweden, and is given from a drawing in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries, Copenhagen, engraved in the Archæologia Æliana, vol. ii. p. 169. It is uncertain whether the original is of stone or brass, but it appears to be a slab of the former material.

PLATE XXXII.* The examples from Lympley Stoke, Plate XXXI., shew the union of the incised half-length effigy with the incised cross; that from Cliffe, Plate xxxl., exhibits the semi-effigy where the cross is omitted ; that from Christ Church, Caerleon, shews a curious uvion of the incised cross and full-length effigy; the present fine and interesting example is given in order to shew the perfect incised effigy, and so complete the series; from its shape it is doubtless the lid of a stone coffin.


Plate XXXIII. Repton, Derbyshire. This is one of a class of monuments which attracted considerable attention from the antiquaries of the last century; they supposed them to be of Danish origin, and fancifully imagined that they were intended to represent a boat turned keel upwards over the grave; certainly a very suitable monument for an ancient Sea King. More probably, however, they are of Saxon workmanship; the spiral work round the base of this, and the last fragment from Bedale on the same plate, iş of Saxon character ; siinilar ornamental work is to be found in the illuininations of Saxon MSS. The interlaced serpents, too, on the first of the Bedale fragments, and the knot-work on the second, are very characteristic of Saxon work. This kind of ornamentation is very usual on the upright crosses which are still so numerous in the north of England, and in Scotland, Wales, Ireland, &c.

The marks on the upper part of the stone appear to represent the tiled roof of a house ; in the last of the Bedale cuts this is very clear ; in fragments of a coped stone at Bakewell also the sides are cut to represent overlapping square tiles. This overthrows the idea that these monuments represent Danish boats. The exact similarity in design between the side of this stone and the side of the Bedale stone represented in the last cut is highly interesting. The engraving is taken from Lysons' Derbyshire.

Other exainples of this class occur at Penrith, engraved in the Archæologia, vol. ii.; at Dewsbury, Yorkshire, engraved in Whittaker's Loidis; two fragments from Bedale engraved on this plate; one fragment from St. Dyonis, York, preserved in the museum in that city. In the present state of our knowledge of these antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon period, it is hazardous to attempt more than a very rough approximation to the date of this and similar stones : the plate has been headed eleventh century, as the latest date under which they can fall; but both the examples on this plate may be so early as the ninth. See p. 90, under Aycliffe, Durham.

Bedale, Yorkshire. The first three cuts represent the bases of two sides, and one gabled end of the fragment of a stone found in the choir of Bedale church; the slope of the sides is sculptured to represent a roof covered with diamond-shaped tiles, as in the fragment tigured in the fourth cut.

The fourth cut represents one side of a fragment of a similar stone found in the same place; the gabled end of this fragment is plain. For remarks upon the sculpture, date, &c., see preceding note.

FRONTISPIECE. Heysham, Northumberland. This exceedingly in

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