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vol. ii. p. 243, a sword is put in place of the shaft of the cross, just as the shears are here.
Plate LXI. T'intern Abbey, Monmouthshire. A very elegant design, the head of the pastoral staff is of curious shape. Inscription, IACET : HENRICVS : DE : LANCAVT : QVANDAM : ABBAS : DE : voto.
Tintern Abbey. Very elegant design. Inscription, hic : IACET : IOHANNES : DE : LOVNB :
Catworth, Hunts. Erroneously marked Kirkby in Ashfield, Notts. (Gough, vol. i. pl. 2. p. cviii.)
Fownhope, Herefordshire. The stems beneath the cross are probably intended for palm-branches.
Plate LXII. Darlington, Durham. A very interesting fragment, but difficult of explanation. Probably it is the monument of a man, wife, and child; the sword and book appear to be the symbols of the man, the shears and keys of the woman, and the shield of the child. The shears and keys we suppose merely to denote the domestic qualities of the lady, but the intention of the other symbols is very obscure. See p. 66, and Archæol. Journal, vol. v. p. 256.
Fingall, Yorkshire. An interesting example of the class mentioned at p. 22.
Bredon, Worcestershired. A very beautiful example of the class mentioned at p. 22. We have also here an example of an ornamented coffin.
Plate LXII. Dereham, Cumberland. The leaves which frequently spring from the shaft of the cross are here expanded into oakbranches very elegantly spread over the stone. The head of the cross very much resembles one at Gilling, Yorkshire. The calvary is triangular, and has bunches of foliage springing from it.
Kenilworth, Warwickshire. This mode of treating a design, viz., by carrying a bead round the outline, is very unusual, but has a good effect. The stone of John Lewys at Brecon priory, before mentioned, p. 63, is similarly treated. Compare the flowers springing from the calvary with those in the Sulby slab, Plate xlix.
Old Romney, Kent. The intention of the curious ornaments beside the shaft of this cross is not clear.,
1 Archæol. Journal, vol. ii. p. 90.
Jervaulx Abbey, Yorkshirek. The shape of the lilies here is very unusual. Two steps only to the calvary, as here, are very uncommon. The inscription is,
hic , facet in tomba . wills. noie, callay .
construrit . iabolā . dni . ivrma dvodena. PLATE LxIv. Goosenerg, Yorkshire. Each compartment of this singular stone contains a cross, the spaces between the shafts and border being filled in with trefoils, &c. The letters A. R. are of comparatively modern date, the stone having been used a second time. The border is filled with the common four-leaved flower of the fourteenth century'.
Ribchester, Lancashire. A very curious stone: this and the example from Rivenhall, Plate Lii.*, are the only English examples which have been met with in which the canopy is introduced. In the French examples in the Gagnières collection we find the cross, or pastoral staff, or sword very commonly placed under a canopy; there are examples there of the thirteenth, fourteentlı, and fifteenth centuries; also the double stones with canopies are numerous. The emblems on the dexter compartment of this stone are the sword and spear; we very seldom find the latter weapon introduced upon tombs, it occurs also on the cross-legged brass of Sir J. D'Abernoun, Stoke D’Abernon, Surrey.
PLATE Lxv. Horningsea churchyard, Cumbridgeshire. This bird, with its body on one side and its tail on the other side of the shaft, is very curious. On the upper part of the stone there appears to have been either a repetition of the bird, or a cross, it is not clear which.
Attleborough, Norfolk. An example very much like this exists at Brandon, Suffolk. The design is very curious; the Brandon example looks still more like a double axe.
East Shaftoe, Northumberland. For remarks on this stone see p. 22.
Jervaula: Abbeym. In the list of abbats of Jervaulx given in Dugdale's Monasticon occurs Peter de Snape, A.D. 1436, undoubtedly the person here commemorated.
Whittaker's Richmondshire, vol. i. ' Ibid., vol. ii. p. 467. p. 427.
.. Ibid., vol. i. p. 427. .
PLATE LXVI. Christ Church, Caerleon. (This cut is placed here for convenience of arrangement, its proper place is after Plate xxxi., where will be found some notes upon it.)
Jervaulx, Yorkshirem. An exceedingly curious design.
Ilorton, Northumberland". Inscription, orate pro anima anne bardoll, S T G. This is one of the slabs which render it highly probable that the shears were sometimes used as a female symbol. See p. 41.
Plate LXVII. Llantwit Major, Glamorganshire. For remarks on this and the slabs on the five succeeding plates, see p. 25. Inscription, NE : FETRA : CALCETVR : QVE : SVB : IACET : ISTA : TVETVR. The ornaments are of Norman character, but in Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, and other remote parts of the empire, the ancient style of art continued much longer than elsewhere; see for instance the stone at Iona, Plate LxxxII., whose date is A.D. 1489.
Gilling, Yorkshire. This very interesting stone may be of later date than is here assigned to it. It has been incorrectly given in the Arch. Journal. Bitton, Gloucestershire. Inscription,
* EMMOTE : DE : JASTINGS : GIST : ici :
DEV : DE : SA : ALME : EIT | MERCI : Winchester Cathedralo. Prior W. de Basing, A.D. 1295.
Plate LxvIII. Stanton, Notts. Sir William Stanton, A.D. 1326.
Plate LxIx. Brampton, Derbyshire. Inscription,
Silchester. The coffins of wliich this and the preceding are the lids have crosses upon their ends, given at page 16.
Plate LXX. Norton Disney, Lincolnshire'. in Whittaker's Richmondshire, vol. i. " Archæol. Journal, vol. v. p. 254. p. 427.
East Markham, Notts.P
Bredon, Worcestershire". An exceedingly interesting design. At Trim, co. Meath, Ireland, a very similar one has been recently discovered with SS. Mary and John beside the cross. At Hales Owen (engraved in Antiq. and Topog. Cabinet, vol. x.) is a coffinlid built into the wall of the church, which has a kneeling figure under a canopy, which is surmounted by a crucifix, with SS. Mary and John, the whole beneath another canopy. The cross ragulée is not very usual in figures of the crucifixion, one occurs, however, in a sculpture in a cave at Carcliffe Tor, Derbyshire, engraved in the Arch. Journal, vol. iv. p. 156.
PLATE Lxxi. Washingborough, Lincolnshire. This beautiful fragment has probably formed part of a slab with a semi-effigy; something after the style of the one beneath it from Corwen, or that of Sir W. de Staunton, Plate Lxvill.
Corwen, Wales. An exceedingly curious and valuable example. The upper part of the figure and his feet are in low relief; on the flat part of the stone, which, in kindred examples is plain or ornamented with a cross and other symbols, we have here the robes of the figure continued by incised lines, with an inscription running round the flat part of the stone, which passes like a broad band over the body at the middle and the feet. The chasuble and stole are richly embroidered, the robe under the chasuble appears at first sight to be entirely of einbroidery, but it is most probable that it is only the albe with a larger apparel than usual on the front, the apparels at the wrists also are made to look like embroidered cuffs.
PLATE LXXII. Hendon, Yorkshire. A very interesting design, the two quatrefoils are intended to contain the initials of the deceased.
PLATE Lxxii. These two, together with another of similar character, exist in the churchyard of Llanfihangel Aber Cowin, Caermarthenshire. Local tradition assigns these monuments to three holy palmers, “who wandered thither in poverty and distress, and being about to perish for want, slew each other, the last survivor burying himself in one of the graves which they had prepared, and pulling p Thoroton.
4 Archæol. Journal, vol. ii. p. 91.
the stone over left it ill adjusted in an oblique posture.” “On opening the middle grave there was found at the depth of four feet a sort of kistvaen, composed of six slabs of stone arranged in the shape of an ordinary coffin, two more slabs formed a top and a bottom for the sepulchral chest. In it were found some small bones of a youth or female, and half a dozen shells, each about the size of the palm of. the hand, by description precisely corresponding to the cockle shells. of pilgrims, thus evidently proving the graves to be those of persons under a vow of pilgrimage, performed by or attributed to them".! .
It is difficult to determine the date of these curious stones ; Mr. Westwood refers them to the fifteenth century; the date of the Welsh antiquities is not to be judged by the same rules as those of England ; but certainly the character of the work both in the recumbent stones and in the foot stones is decidedly of the eleventh or twelfth century.
The use of the head and foot stone together with the recumbent coffin-shaped stone is uncommon. The head-stones are too much worn for their design to be made out.
Plate LXXIV. Cashel, Ireland. These are introduced as examples of the complete effigy upon a coffin-lid in order to complete the preceding series of partial effigies. The cross-legged figure is probably of the end of the thirteenth century; the female figure of the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century.
Athassel Abbey, Tipperary. Richard de Burgo the Red, earl of Ulster, in civil robes ; before his death in A.D. 1326, he had retired. to this abbey.
Cashel. This is an interesting example of an ornamented stone coffin; its date is probably late thirteenth century.
In the Archæological Journal, vol. ii. p. 121, is a memoir upon the preceding examples.
PLATE LXXV. Church of St. Brecan, Isle of Arran, Ireland. This very interesting stone, a monument to seven Romanis, is of earlier date than A.D. 500. On the stone of St. Breccan, engraved in
" Archæologia Cambrensis, vol. iii. p. 317.