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Thamar diu vidua.
Hic Moyses à puellâ,
Dum se lavat, in fiscellâ
Reperitur scirpeâ.


Hic mas agnus immolatur,
Quo Israel satiatur,
Tinctus ejus sanguine.
Hic transitur rubens unda,
Ægyptios sub profundâ
Obruens voragine.


saints, see Augustine, Con. Faust., 1. 22, c. 83; and again c. 87: Oderimus ergo peccatum, sed prophetiam non extinguamus. Cf. Gregory the Great, Moral., 1. 3, c. 28. St Bernard, in a remarkable passage which I cannot now recover, speaks of the New Testament sacraments, (using that word in its largest sense,) as fair both within and without, while in the Old, some are fair only within, and ill-favoured without. It is not my part here to enter into the question of the fitness or unfitness of the use of such types, but merely to indicate what is sufficient for their full understanding. These words of Augustine are sufficient to explain the present ; who cares to see the matter brought out in greater detail may follow up the reference (Con. Faust., 1. 22, c. 86): Habitus meretricius confessio peccatorum est. Typum quippe jam Ecclesiæ ex gentibus evocatæ gerit Thamar. A non agnoscente fætatur, quia de illâ prædictum est, Populus quem non cognovi, servivit mihi. The words tegens nuda allude to Gen. xxxviii. 14 (Vulg.): Operuerat enim vultum suum.

134–36. Moyses] Hugh of St Victor (Alleg., 1. 3, c. 1): Moyses juxta flumen significat quemlibet hominem juxta fluvium præsentis sæculi positum ; filia regis Gratiam designat, quæ quemlibet ad vitam prædestinatum de Auxu sæculi liberat, et in filium adoptat, ut qui prius fuerat filius iræ, deinceps existat filius gratiæ. The words fiscella scirpea occur in the Vulgate, Exod. ii. 3.

37_39. Cf. Exod. xii, 5; 1 Cor. v. 7.

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46. ædis ornamenta] By these we must understand the candlestick, the altar of incense, the table of shewbread, and the like. He would say, Here, in the tabernacle which the Lord has pitched and not man, are these in their truth, and not, as in that old, the mere figures of the true. Heb. ix. 48. poderis]=T9òrpns, vestis talaris.

The word was quite naturalized in ecclesiastical Latin. Thus Hugh of St Victor : Tunica illa quæ Græcè poderis, hoc est, talaris dicitur; being for once right in his etymology of a Greek word. The poderis is the “robe” of Exod. xxviii. 4 (Troồrípns, LXX. and Josephus: tunica, Vulg.) The poet would say, Here, in the Church, are the realities which the garments of the High Priest, (indumenta,) and the robe, the chief among them, did but foreshew. A mystical meaning has always been found in these garments; see Braun (De Vest. Sacerd. Hebr.,

p. 7014752.)

Varias viduatur] See note on ver. 31–33. I could hardly quote, without offence, the lines of Hildebert, (Opp., p. 1217,) in which he traces the mystery of Rom. vii. 1–6 as foreshewn in 2 Sam. xi. 26, 27.

52--54. Cf. Ps. xliv. 10 (Vulg.): Astitit regina à dextris tuis in vestitu deaurato, circumdata varietate.

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Huc venit Austri regina,
Salomonis quam divina
Condit sapientia:
Hæc est nigra, sed formosa ;
Myrrhæ et thuris fumosa
Virga pigmentaria.


Hæc futura, quæ figura
Obumbravit, reseravit
Nobis dies gratiæ;
Jam in lecto cum dilecto
Quiescamus, et psallamus,
Adsunt enim nuptiæ :


55. Austri regina] The coming of the queen of Sheba, or of the South, (Matt. xii. 24) to hear the wisdom of Solomon, (1 Kin

. x.) was a favorite type of the coming of the Gentile world to hear the wisdom of a greater than Solomon. Hugh of St Victor (Allega

, 1. 7, c. 2): Venit ad Salomonem regina Austri ut audiret sapientiam ejus, et venit ad Christum Gentilitas ut audiret sapientiam ejus.

58. nigra, sed formosa] In these words, which are taken from the Canticles i. 5, “I am black but comely,” (Nigra sum, sed formosa, Vulg.) the middle age expositors found, not the Church's confessions of sin as still cleaving to her ; but rather made them parallel to such words as the Apostle's: “We have this treasure in earthen vessels,” (2 Cor. iv. 7,) or the Psalmist's,

- The king's daughter is all glorious within,” (Ps. xlv. 12,) within and not without; having no form nor comeliness, no glory in the eyes the world—“ black” therefore to it, but beautiful and "comely” to her Lord. (Bernard, In Cant., Serm. 25.)

60. Virga pigmentaria] Another allusion to the Canticles, namely to iii. 6 (Vulg.): Quæ est ista, quæ ascendit per desertum, sicut virgula fumi ex aromatibus myrrhæ, et thuris, et universi pulveris pigmentarii ? The Bride, or Church, is likened to the < pillar of smoke perfumed with myrrh and frankincense.”


Quarum tonat initium
In tubis epulantium,
Et finis per psalterium.
Sponsum millena milia
Unâ laudant melodiâ,
Sine fine dicentia,

Alleluia. Amen.


67–69. The marriage of Christ with his Church, which began under the Old Covenant, was completed in the New. The trumpets belong to the feasts of the Old, Num. x. 10; (cf. Ps. xli. 5, Vulg., sonus epulantis ;) the psaltery or decachordon (modulationem edens longè suaviorem et gratiorem auditu quàm sit tubarum sonitus obstreperus : Clichtoveus) to the New; it is on it that the new song is sung, even as David says (Ps. cxliii. 9, Vulg.): Deus, canticum novum cantabo tibi : in psalterio decachordo psallam tibi. Cf. Augustine, Serm. 9, De decem chordis, c. 5.

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[T. L. P.]


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XLV. Edélestand du Méril, Poésies Populaires Latines du Moyen Age, Paris, 1847, p. 108.—The poem from which these stanzas are drawn consists of nearly four hundred lines. It was first completely published by Du Méril, as indicated above, from a MS. in the Royal (I suppose now the National) Library at Paris. The MS. is of the twelfth century, and the poem itself can scarcely be of an earlier date. Three or four stanzas of it had already got abroad. Thus two are quoted by Gerhard, Loci Theoll., 1. 29, c. ll, and see Leyser, Hist. Poem. Med. Ævi, p. 423. The attribution of these fragments of the poem, and thus implicitly of the whole, to St Bernard, rests on no authority whatever; it is merely a part of that general ascription to him of any poems of merit to the period, whereof the authorship was uncertain.

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