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7, 8. Clichtoveus : Nocturna lux est viantibus quantùm ad munus et officium, quod noctu iter agentibus nocturnas significat horas, perinde atque interdiu viam carpentibus lux solis eas insinuat conspicantibus solem....A nocte noctem segregare memoratur, quoniam priorem noctis partem à posteriore suo cantu dirimit ac disseparat, quasi noctis discretor. ll. erronum]

A preferable reading to the more commonly received errorum, which might have so easily supplanted it, but which it, the rarer word, would scarcely have supplanted. In the parallel hymn of Prudentius we find a corroboration of this read. ing :

Ferunt vagantes dæmones,
Lætos tenebris noctium,
Gallo canente exterritos
Sparsim timere et cedere.

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Invisa nam vicinitas
Lucis, salutis, numinis,
Rupto tenebrarum situ,
Noctis fugat satellites.

15. petra Ecclesiæ] That St Ambrose was very far from drawing out of Christ's words, Matt. xvi. 18, what Rome has

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Word. Nor did those, who used this image, fail to note this fur

ST AMBROSE.

20

thus the cock became, in the middle ages, the standing emblem that this bird, clapping its wings upon its sides, first rouses it.

Surgamus ergo strenuè,
Gallus jacentes excitat,
Et somnolentos increpat ;

Gallus negantes arguit.
since drawn out, or believing in a Church which was built upon
a man, even though that man were Peter, and that therefore in this
verse he can mean no such thing, is plain from other words of his
as De Incarn. Dom., c. 5: Fides ergo est Ecclesiæ fundamentum:
non enim de carne Petri, sed de fide dictum est, quia portæ mortis
ei non prævalebunt.
17. Surgamus ergo]

The cock-crowing had for the early Christians a mystical significance. It said to them, in no ordinary sense, “ the night is far spent, the day is at hand.” This, its mystical significance, comes out yet more plainly in the first Ca. themerinõn

of Prudentius, already quoted, and with more distinct allusion to the breaking of the great day of God, in which all darkness should for ever be chased away. Men learned to gard it as a continual summons to the casting away of all works of darkness, and to the putting on of the armour of light. And lion could not bear the sight of the cock, to which St Ambrose alludes (Hexaëm., 1.6, c. 4: Leo gallum and which we meet in Lucretius, 4, 716, and Pliny, H. N., .. 8, c. 19, easily adapted itself to this new symbolism. Satan, the roaring lion, filed away terrified, at the faithful preaching of God's ther fitness in the cock for setting forth the faithful preacher, self, before it seeks to rouse others. (Reg. Pastor., p. 3, c. 40): Gallus, cùm jam edere cantus parat, prius alas excutit, et semetipsum feriens vigilantiorem reddit

: quia nimirum necesse est, ut hi, qui verba sanctæ prædicationis movent, prius studio bonæ actionis evigilent, ne in semetipsis torpentes opere, alios excitent voce.

We have here the explanation of the cock surmounting so many of our churches. See the Gallus et Vulpes in Grimm's Latein. Gedichte des X. und xi. J.H.

et maximè album veretur,)

Thus Gregory the Great

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light

p. 351, and a curious poem, not without poetical merit, in Edéle-
stand du Méril's Poés. Popul. Lat., 1847, p. 12–16. This is one
stanza :

Quasi rex in capite gallus coronatur ;
In pede calcaribus, ut miles, ornatur ;
Quantò plus fit senior pennis deauratur ;

In nocte dum concinat, leo conturbatur:
which all, and much more of the kind, is then allegorized.

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L. Bernardi Opp., ed. Bened., 1719, v. 2, p. 914.- This

ST BERNARD.
L. DE NOMINE JESU.
ESU dulcis memoria,

Dans vera cordi gaudia,
Sed
super

mel et omnia
Ejus dulcis præsentia.

5
Nil canitur suävius,
Nil auditur jucundius,
Nil cogitatur dulcius,
Quàm Jesus Dei Filius.
Jesu, spes poenitentibus,

10
Quàm pius es petentibus,
Quàm bonus te quærentibus,

Sed quid invenientibus ? poem, among those of St Bernard perhaps the most eminently characteristic of its author, consists, in its original form, of nearly fifty quatrains, and unabridged would have been too long for insertion here—not to say that, with all the beauty of the stanzas in particular, the composition, as a whole, lies under the defect of a certain monotony and want of progress. Where all was beau, tiful, the task of selection could not indeed be other than a hard one; but only in this way could the poem have found place in this volume ; nor, for the reasons just stated, did I feel that it would be merely a loss to it to present it in this briefer form.

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