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be subdued, and more minutely almost than any other writer displays the various details of holy and devotional feeling. He is here invaluable.
Baxter was another eminent divine of these times, of immense reading and writing also. Perhaps he ought not to be numbered among the Non-conformists. In some measure he was indeed led away by the politics of the times; yet, notwithstanding this and some of his controversial writings, and his Reformed Liturgy, this holy man, when silenced, continued to attend the established church. His practical writings are invaluable; powerful, awakening, with deep views of eternity, and the most heavenly meditations on the future state. The defect of Baxter's practical, or rather experimental, writings was such as might be expected from his defects in doctrinal views. We do not now remember (even in his most glowing work, the Saint's Rest) any very glowing views of the amazing love of Christ to the most sinful, and the freeness of his salvation. His method of peace to troubled consciences is circuitous and perplexed, instead of the direct road of simple and immediate .faith. His Christian Directory is one of his most valuable works. His main power was in addresses to the conscience, in which he was probably more free and unfettered than most writers. His controversial writings are of various character. His Catholic Theology has much valuable information, and his reasons for the Christian Religion contain an able statement of the Evidences. He had to contend at first with Antinomians, who abused the gospel : he was a great pacificator, and these things which, in one view, are the highest excellence of character, seem to have led him into most of his mistakes. From an anxious desire to unite all parties, and to guard most carefully against the abuse of the doctrines of grace, he departed from the simplicity of the gospel, and multiplied the very divisions which we may well believe, it was the desire of his heart to heal. Bishop Stillingfleet has well pointed out some part of his character. Speaking in favour of him to some who wanted to charge serious error upon him, he says, *Some liberty must be allowed to Metaphysical heads, to show their skill in distinctions above other men ; and sometimes when there is no cause for them. But
must not presently charge men with heresy for new invented distinctions, wherein they may be allowed to please themselves; so that they do not cumber the faith with them, nor be too sharp upon their brethren for not apprehending the use of them.' Of his Aphorisms of Justification, his Confession of Faith, and his Treatise on the imputation of Christ's righteousness, Mr. Fuller of Kettering gives the following views. He
"I find but little satisfaction in Mr Baxter's Disputations on Justification. He says a great deal about it, distinguishing it into different degrees, pleading for evangelical works, as necessary to it.' • Mr. Baxter considered Calvinists and Arminians as reconcileable, making the difference between them of but small account. The scheme of the Arminians appears to me to undermine the doctrines of salvation, by grace alone, and resolve the difference between one sinner and another into the will of man, which is directly opposite to all my views and experience. Nor could I feel a union of heart with those .... who hold with the gospel being a new remedial law, and represent sinners as contributing to their own conversion."
Doubtless Mr. Fuller, by union of heart, does not mean more than entire and cordial concurrence, and probably few would openly profess the words to which he objects. Much, very much, allowance is to be made for the darkness of human conception and expression in good men, and we may have Christian communion with our brethren when we cannot concur in all their expressions. Mr. Cecil
says, • Baxter surpasses all others in the grand, impressive, and persuasive style; but he is not to be named with Owen, as to furnishing the Student's mind. He is, however, multifarious, complex, practical. 1
It is painful to see two such eminently holy men, and useful writers, as Owen and Baxter, writing against each other as they do. With a conviction, agreeing with Mr. Cecil, (that Owen is much nearer the truth in doctrine) it is yet painful to see Owen sò severely handle such a man as Baxter, and to see Baxter's recriminations. One is only forted in the thought of their perfect union above, in together magnifying the riches of that grace which has covered all their asperities. What a lesson may such differences teach us of ceasing from man ! We learn similar lessons in the disputes of good men, on points of discipline as well as of doctrine.
But it is impossible to enlarge on each individual. Mr. Hervey sums up their respective characters with happy discrimination. · Dr. Owen, with his correct.
Mr. Cecil observes in his Remains, "There is something so remarkable in the genius and spirit of the gospel, that it is not to be understood by any force of speculation and investigation. Baxter attempted this method and found it vain.'
judgment and immense fund of learning. Mr. Chart nock, with his masculine style and inexhaustible vein of thought. Dr. Goodwin, with sentimients truly evangelical, and a most happy talent at opening, sifting, and displaying the hidden riches of scripture; these are, I think, the first three. Then come Mr. Howe, nervous and majestic, with all the powers of imagery at his command. Dr. Bates, fluent, polished with a never-ceasing flow of beautiful similitudes. Mr. Flavel, fervent and affectionate, with a masterly hand at probing the conscience and striking the passions; Mr. Caryl, Dr. Manton, Mr. Poole, with many others whose works will speak for them ten thousand times better than the tongue of panegyric, or the pen of biography
The missionary spirit of the Protestant Church (at least as far as regards our own country, for some efforts had been previously made from Switzerland and Sweden, and by the Dutch in Ceylon and other islands), commenced with the labours of Eliot (justly called the Apostle of the Indians), who arrived in New England in 1632. He acquired the native English, and began preaching to them in 1646. The scattered state of the Indians being the chief impediment to their instruction ; large collections were made in every parish in England, and in 1649 an ordinance was made in parliament for propagating the gospel.
On the restoration in 1661, through the efforts of Baxter, Ashurst, and Boyle, the king granted a new corporation, under the name of the Company for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England; and land, bought with the former collections, was permanently settled on this corporate society, of which Boyle was the President, and Ashurst the Treasurer.
Boyle himself, in his own conduct, set the precedent of those Bible and Missionary exertions which have since so increased. Holland and Denmark followed the example of England. 1
The Society formed in 1662 being confined to New England and its neighbourhood, and not meeting the wants of other countries; another charter was granted in 1701 for the formation of another Society on a larger scale, called the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Dr. Stanley, Bishop Compton, and Archbishop Tenison seem to have been mainly instrumental in obtaining this charter.
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, (chiefly confining at first its labours at home), had been formed in 1698, by friends who heartily joined also in the chartered Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
It is pleasing to observe these first beginnings of that spirit, which is one of the highest results of scriptural divinity-a spirit of labour to make the light of the gospel shine in every land--a spirit which, through Divine mercy, is now more and more spreading through the Christian Church.
1 Particulars will be found in Baxter's Life, p. 290-297; Milar's Propagation, Vol. ii. pp. 296—314; Humphrey's Account, pp. 5, 6; Mather's Magnalia, pp. 170—211 : Birch's Life of Boyle, pp. 140, 141. Birch gives the charter, pp. 319—335.o
Full accounts of the progress of the Missions will be found in Brown's History of the Propagation of the Gospel, and Smith's History of Missions,