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Of the APOSTROPHE.
HE Apostrophe is expreffed in this wise (') whereby in fpeaking and writing it is fhewn, that a Vowel is cut off or left out for the more quick pronunciation. It is generally put after articles ending in a Vowel, the next word beginning with another Vowel, or the letter h; as, l'animo, l'ufanza, l'honore.
Note. The i of the article il is apoftroph'd, or cut off after words ending with a Vowel, and not the Vowel of that word; as,
Ditemi 'l vostro nome, for ditemi il vostro nome, tell me your name.
Tutto 'l mondo sà, for tutto il mondo sà, every body knows.
The pronoun che is abbreviated before words beginning with the letter h, in this wife; viz. che havete, read c'havete.
Mi, ti, ci, fi, vi, di, da, ne, are apoftroph'd before Vowels, or the letter b; as,
M' intendi? do you understand me? for mi intendi.
Tintendo, I do understand you, for ti intendo. S' intende, it is understood, for fi intende, &c. Note. The following Examples will explain the nature of these abbreviations or contractions more fully to the learner.
Al, for, a il, to the.
Ai, a', for, alli, to the.
Bei, be', for, belli, fair, beautiful.
Bell' amante, for, bello amante, a fair lover.
Ch', for, che, that, or which.
Del, for di il, of the.
De', dei, for delli or degli, of the, pl.
Huomin' da bene, for huomini da bene, honest men. Huimin' ingrati, for huomini ingrati, ungrateful
Lo'mperatore, for, lo Imperatore, the Emperor.
Me'l, for a me il, to meet it.
Molt' anni, for molti anni, many years.
or, for it.
Pel, for, per il, or per lo, or the, or through the.
Sant' Antonio, for Santo Antonio.
Se', for fei, thou art.
Se'l, for, a fe il, to himself it, or, if it.
Tra'l, for, tra il, betwixt the.
Of the ACCENTS.
HE Italians have two Accents, which denote the fyllables to be pronounced long or fhort, as in other languages.
The one Grave [`] the other Acute ['] expreffed each by these oppofite marks.
Nouns ending in tà in Italian, which are generally derived from tas in the Latin, have a Grave Accent; as, purità, caftità, maestà, &c. And note, the plural of these words do not change, but end in tà alfo; except vifita, which is not accented, and makes its plural vifite.
Nouns derived from the Latin in us, and end in Italian in u, have a Grave Accent; as, virtus, la virtù, le virtù, &c.
The Grave Accent is put to the end of verbs of the first and third person of the Future Tense; as, canterò I shall sing, canterà he will fing. It is also used on Verbs of one fyllable, ending in o and a, and other words, as may be feen by the fol
lowing, which are always expreffed by a Grave Accent.
Amo, Hove. He love
Dì, a day. è, is. Europa, Europe. Eufrate, Euphrates. Fă, he doth, or makes. Fò, I do, or make. Fù, hath been. Frà, betwixt, alfo a contract, or abbreviation, of Frate Fryer.
Già, formerly, or now. Giesù, Jefus.
Grù, a crane.
Là, there, thither.
pronounced in one found.
Note, 1. When the Pronoun is put after the Verb, no Accent is ufed; as, farollo, for lo farò I hall do it; moftremmi, for mi mostrò he will shew
2. When the first person of the Definite Tense ends with two Vowels, the third perfon of the fame tenfe is accented, but not otherwife; as, amò he loved, crede he believed, the first persons of which are amai, credei. For this reafon, vinfe, prefe, are not accented, making in the first person vinfi, prefi.
The Acute Accent is ufed on the last fyllable but one of words ending in ia and io; as, pazzia folly, profezia prophecy, desio defire, &c. And alfo on words that have a double fignification; as, tenére to hold, is by the Accent diftinguished from tenere tender; ancora ftill, from ancora an anchor.
Note. This Rule is attended with fo many uncertainties, that it is difficult to give certain Examples for the Reader's inftruction; Practice in reading, and a good Mafter, will be the best guide.