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The Question-negative is in like manner, and begins with non; as,
Do not I give it you? Non velo do io?
4. The Imperative Mood in bidding or commanding, when the Pronouns are put after the Verb; as,
Give it me, datemelo.
In the Imperative Negative, the Pronouns are put before the Verb, beginning with the Negative non; as,
Do not give it him, non glielo date.
Note. The Italians ufe frequently the Infinitive Mood of Verbs, inftead of the Imperative, in speaking to Inferiors; as,
Do not tell this to any Man, non dir questo a nißuno.
In fpeaking to an Equal, the second Perfon Plural of the Indicative Mood, Prefent Tenfe; as,
Do not go, for you will repent of it, non andate, che ve ne pentirete.
In fpeaking to a Superior, the third Perfon Singular of the Subjunctive Mood, Prefent Tense; as,
Say not fo I beseech you, non dica questo per gratia.
Thefe few Examples are fufficient for the Learner's prefent Obfervation, as the right placing of the Pronouns in general is fully explained hereafter.
Of the Auxiliary VERBS Havere to have, and Effere to be.
T is proper that the Learner be acquainted with these two Auxiliary Verbs, before he proceeds in his Compofitions; for this Reason they are here fet down at the Beginning: And it is recommended to him, to make himself perfect in conjugating these two Verbs, as the true Formation of all other Verbs depend greatly on these two: And as few Perfons fet themselves to learn the Italian Tongue, without being firft acquainted with the common Rules of Grammar in their own Native Tongue, or the Latin Language, I fhall not take up their Time in explaining the Ufe of Moods and Tenfes, but only remark, that Verbs in the Italian Tongue may be conjugated with or without the Pronouns at Pleasure; though I chufe here to fet them down to make the Learner more readily acquainted with them.
Plur. noi haverémo, havremo, voi haveréte, havréte,
Sing. Hábbi, or habbi tù,
hall or will.
I fhall or will have.
we shall have.
eglino haveránno, havránno, they shall have.
hábbia, or abbia egli, let him have.
Plur. habbiamo noi, habbiáte voi, bábbiano eglino,
Sing. Ch' io habbia,
Optative, or Subjunctive Mood.
Prefent Tenfe, may or can.
let us have.
let them have.
ch' tu hábbi, or bábbia,
Plur. che noi habbiámo,
Sing. Io haveréi, or havrei,
Plur. noi haverémmo,
that I may have.
that we may have. that ye may have. that they may have.
I should have.
we should have.
Preterit, or Definite Tenfe, had, might, &c.
Sing. Ch' io havéssi,
that I had.
that thou hadst.
che tu haveli,
that we had.
Havere, to Have.
Note, By thefe Tenfes, Verbs Active may be conjugated, as is observed in my RULES for the French Tongue, page 47, to which I refer the Reader; And here alfo by the Addition of the Participle Common Havuto Had, to the Tenfes above conjugated, will be formed the feveral other Tenfes or Parts of Time, which Grammarians frequently make use of; as will be feen in thefe following
COMPOUND TENSES of the VER Havere, to Have.