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CHA P. IV.
Of VERBS and PARTICIPLES.
ERBS Reciprocal, or that take myself,
them, require the
and the Verb have is ́
Pronoun to be before them, changed into the Verb am.
Ex. I make haste, mi affretto.
He kills himself, fi ammazza.
My, thy, his, her, our, your, their, before a Part of the Body, or the Word Mind, are turned by myself, thyself, himself, &c. and the Article the or to the is put before the Part expreffed.
Ex. I wash my Hands, mi lavo le mani.
The Wine makes his Head ake, il vino gli fà
I kiss your Hands, vi, or, le bacio le mani.
The Italians make ufe of the Verb Reciprocal, instead of the Verb Paffive, which is put in the third Perfon, either Singular or Plural, as the Noun requires.
Ex. Things are doing flowly, le cofe fi fanno piano. Books are fold, fi vendono libri, or, i libri fi vendono.
It is, it was, it has been, are turned by è, era, fù, and the other third Persons of the Verb fono.
Ex. It is Time, è tempo.
It is the Time, è il tempo.
It was five o' Clock, erano le cinque bore.
He is a, he is a,, are expreffed by è un M. è una F. and by the third Perfons of the Verb Jono I am.
Ex. He is, a Man of Business, è huomo d'affari.
They are, is expreffed by fono, the third Perfon Plural of the Verb effere to be.
Ex. They are Soldiers, fono foldati.
They are good for nothing, non fono buone.
It is, in fpeaking of the Weather, is expreffed by fa, the third Perfon Singular of the Verb fare, and in a Question; but otherways, if the Noun comes before the Verb, it is or are, are è or fono.
Ex. It is cold, fà freddo.
The Weather is hot, il tempo è caldo.
Am, and its Tenfes, before thefe four Qualities of the Body, hot, cold, dry, hungry, are expreffed by the Verb havere to have; dry is turned by thirst fete F. and hungry by hunger fame F.
Ex. I am cold, bò freddo.
The Italians make use of the Verb andare to go, and the Verb following to be rendered by the Gerund in do, for Verbs of Motion, and the Verb andare is put in the fame Tenfe that the Gerund ought to be.
Ex. I will accompany him, anderò accompagnandolo.
Stare to ftand, is in like manner made use of for Words of Reft, with the Gerund in do, or an Infinitive with à or ad before it.
Ex. He ftudies, stà ftudiando, or, stà à studiare.
The Verb ought is rendered by dovere. Ex. I ought, or, must go, devo, or, debbo andare.
The Verb may or can, is rendered by potere.
Ex. May I speak? posso jo parlare?
The Particle Should, in laying an Obligation or Duty, is turned by ought; doverei, doveresti, doverebbe, doveremmo, doverefte, doverebbero.
Ex. You fhould go to fee him, dovereste andar à vederlo.
Might, implying a Power, is expreffed by potero, poterei, poteffi.
Ex. He prayed me he might come, me pregò che potelle venire.
The Definite Tenfe of Verbs, which is the third Tenfe of the Indicative Mood, is used in expreffing an Action past, and in relating a Story.
Ex. I faw him yesterday, lo viddi hieri.
The King took Namur, il Ré pigliò Namurco.
"The Indefinite Tense is turned by the Verbs have or am, and the Participle Common, when we express an Action from Morning to Midnight; and when this or thefe are before a Part of Time.
Ex. I saw him to-day, l'ho veduto hoggi.
To, before an Infinitive, is expreffed by di, after a Noun, or a Verb governing the Genitive or Ablative Cafe in Latin: And when we can turn to by of or from, and the Infinitive into a Participle in ing. To is alfo da after a Verb that governs an Ablative Cafe.
Ex. He is worthy to speak, or, of speaking, è digno di parlare.
She hinders me to go, or, from going, m' impedifce d' andare.
I am glad to fee you, hò gran gústo di vedérla.