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he overcame his former faults. In his ballads and some of his later poems, as Die Enuartune, he shows lyric power of the highest quality. He is great in nis moral earnestness, in his idealism, in his youthful freshness, in his enthusiasm for the cause of art and humanity. Schiller's collected works were issued by his friend Korncr (12 vols. 181215). The most complete editions are by Goedeke (17 vols. 1868-76), and by Boxbcrgcr and Birlinger (13 Vols. 1882-95). Selections arc given in the editions of Boxbcrger (6 vols. 1894) and Bcllermann (12 vols. 1896/.). The poet's correspondence is fully given by F. Jonas (7 vols. 1892-6). We may mention also his letters to Dalberg (1819), to Korner (2d ed. 1874), to Wm. von Humboldt (2d ed. 1876), to his wife Lotte (3d ed. 1879), to Fichtc (1847), and to Cotta (1876). English translations include Poems and Ballads, by Lord Lvtton (1887); Poems and Plays, by "Lord Lytton and others (1889); the Complete Works, by Coleridge, Lord Lytton, Bohn, Churchill, and others (1870); and the Historical and Dramatic Works and Essays, jEsthelical and Philosophical (1846, in Bonn's Library). See also G. H. Calvcrt's Translation of the Correspondence bet-xeen Goethe and Schiller (2 vols. 1877-79). Schiller biographies have been written by H. Duntzer (1881; trans, by P. Pinkerton, 1883), by Karoline von Wolzogen (6thed. 1884), by O. Brahm(188892), by J. Minor (1890 ft.), by R. Wettnch (1899), by E. Palleske (13th ed. 1891; trans, by Lady Wallace, I860), and by C. Berger (1905 ff.). In English we have the famous biography by T. Carlyle (1825), and those by Lord Lytton (1844J, James Sime (1842; in Classics for English Readers Series), H. Nevinson (1889; in Great Writers Series), and T. Calvin (1902). For criticism the following are of importance—E. Dowden's Schillers Friendship with Goethe (in Fortnightly Review, Ivi.), F. Werner's The Characteristics of Schiller's Dramas (1859), E. Fischer's Schiller's Works illustrated by the. Greatest German Artists (4 vols. 1883), G. HaufT's Schillerstudien (1880), H. Viehoff's Schillers Gcdichte erlaulert (6th ed. 1887), Bellermann's Schillers Dramen (2 vols. 1888-91), Duntzer's Schillers Lyrische Gcdichte (3d cd. 1891), Kuno Fischer's Schiller als Philosoph (2d ed. 1892), and Robertson's Schiller ajter a Hundred Years (1905). For a complete Schiller bibliographv, see Goedeke's Grundriss (2d eel. vol. v. 1884-92).

Schilling, Johannes ,(1828). German sculptor, born at Mittweida. Saxony. He studied under


Rietschcl. In 1853 he visited Italy, and in 1868 was appointed professor in the Academy of Fine Art at Dresden. His works include Schiller, the Wounded Achilles, The Four Seasons, and Germania; the last, the national monument on the Niederwald beside the Rhine, is his masterpiece (1877-84).

Schlmmcl, Hendrick Tan (1824), Dutch poet and novelist, born at Gravcfand, N. Holland; entered the Dutch Treasury at Amsterdam, and finally became a director of the Amsterdam Credit Association. His chief plays are Twee Tudors (1847), Napoleon Bonaparte (1851), Jujfrouw Bos (1857), and Struensee (1878); his noblest work, Zege na Slrijd (1878). The plots of his principal novels are laid in England—Mary Hollis (I860; Eng. trans. 1872), My Lady Carlisle (1864), De Vooravond der Revolutie (1866), Sinjeur Scmeyns (1875), De Kaptein van dc Liifgarde (188ft; Eng. adaptation, 1896). Schimmel's chief characteristics are dramatic intensity and great knowledge of stagecraft, while the personages of his works are portrayed with great truth to life. A collected edition of his dramas appeared in 1885, and of his novels in 1892. See Life by Jan ten Brink.

S c h I n k c 1, Karl Friedricii (1781-1841), German architect, was born at Neu-Ruppin (Brandenburg), and in early life was a landscape painter. In 1806 he was appointed architect to the king, and erected the Royal Museum and theatre. In 1820 he became a professor at the Royal Academy, Berlin. His designs are classical in spirit, See Life, in German, by Dohme (1882).

Schlnus, a genus of tropical American shrubs and trees belonging to the order Anacardiacea:. They bear small, white, dicecious flowers, followed by oily, globose fruits; after rain the leaves of some of the species exude a resin, often of considerable fragrance. S. molle, the Peruvian mastic-tree, is known in California as the 'pepper-tree,' and was formerly much cultivated in the warmer districts there: but the tree harbors the black-scale, and is being removed as dangerous to orange groves. It has long leaves, with many leaflets, and drooping panicles of rose-tinted fruits. The tree is evergreent with pendulous branches, and dome-shaped head.

Schlpka. See Shipka.

Sehlpperke, a small tailless dog. originally bred in Belgium, and only lately introduced into N. America. Tt is exceedingly vivacious, inquisitive, and alert, and makes a most excellent wrtch

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broad; back straight but supple; fore-legs straight, fine, and set well under body; feet small, round, and well knuckled; body short and thickset; tail absent; coat dense and harsh; smooth on the cars, short on the head, but profuse round the neck, and forming a mane and a frill on the chest. Weight, from 12 to 20 Ibs.

Schism, the formal separation from the unity of a church. The great schism is the division between the Greek or Eastern and the Roman or Western Churches. The Western schism (also called the great schism) arose out of a disputed claim to the papal chair (1378-1417), during which there were two, sometimes three, popes.

Schists, fine grained rocks of foliated character consisting of thin films or folia of various minerals. They belong to the metamorphic scries, and are found mostly in regions composed of very ancient and muchdisturbed strata, such as the Lake Superior district, the Green Mountains, the Blue Ridge, south-eastern N. Y., Canada, the Highlands of Scotland, Norway, and the Alps. The schists are given specific name by indicating the mineral that gives schistose character to the rock. The commonest variety is micaschist, consisting of layers of mica, alternating with quartz and feldspar, often contorted or crumpL'd; it is frequently an altered form of slate. Chforiteschist, hornblende-schist, talcschist, graphite-schist, and quartzschist are also common. The schists differ from the gneisses 'in being more finely foliated or banded. Extremely fine micaschists are sometimes called Schlzanthus

phyllites. They practically never contain any fossils.

Schlzanthus, a genus of annual, herbaceous Chilean plants belonging to the order Solanaceae. Most of the species are desirable garden plants, and S. finnatus is widely cultivated for its varicolored butterfly' flowers.

Schlzomycctes. Sec Schizo


Schlzophyta, or Fission Plants, division of Thallophytes, comprising forms of the simplest structure, which are single-celled, or aggregations of such cells. Multiplication takes place by fission, or by means of spores formed within a cell, and liberated by the rupture of the walls. This division includes the Cyanophycea;, or blue-green algae, and the Schizomycetes, or bacteria.

Schlagintwelt, a family of German travellers and naturalists. Herman, Baron SchlaGintweit (1826-82), born at Munich, explored the Alps with his brother Adolf (1829-57) from 1846 to 1853, when they made the first ascent of Monte Rosa (1851), publishing the results in Untersiit-hungen iibcr die physikalische Geographic der Alpen (1850), in which work Humboldt assisted, and Neue Untersuchungen (1854). Afterwards Hermann, with his brothers Adolf and Robert, was engaged by the king of Prussia and the East India Company to carry on scientific explorations in Asia. Together or separately they explored India, the Himalayas, Tibet, Sikkim Bhutan, Kashmir, Ladak, Nepal, and the Karakoram and Kuenlun Mountains (1855-7). Their travels were published as Results of a Scientific Mission to India, and High Asia (1860-6) and Reisen in Indian und Hochasien (1869-80). Adolf, who was killed in Kashgar by Yakub Beg (1857), himself wrote Uebcr die Orographische und Geologische Slruktur der Gruppe des Monte Rosa (1853).— Robert (1833-85), who was appointed (1863) professor of geography at Giessen, is known by many excellent geological studies and 1>y the records of his travels. He visited the U. S., where he travelled extensively in 1868-9, and again in 1SSO, and published Die Pacific-Eisenbaltn (1870); Kali/ornien (1871); Die Mormonen (2d ed. 1877); Die Prurien (1876); and Die Santa Ft und Siidpacificbahn (1884). The fourth brother,' Kdouard (1831-66), wrote an account of the Spanish invasion of Morocco, in which he served; and the fifth, Emil (1835-1004), was the author of Buddhism in Tibet (1865), Die Brrechnung der Lchre (trans, from Tibetan, 1896), and Die Lebensbe


schreibung von Padma Sambhava (1899).

Schlatter. Francis (1856), American 'divine healer,' born in the village of Elser in AlsaceLorraine. He emigrated to the U. S. in 1884, and worked for a time as a cobbler; but in 1892, while at Denver, he believed, or affected to believe, that he had received a 'call' to give up his worldly possessions and become a healer of the sick. He walked from one city to another in the Southwest, and great crowds assembled, to be healed by him. In July, 1895, he returned to Denver, and in the following November disappeared, leaving behind him a note to the effect that his mission was ended. What became of him is unknown, but it is thought by some that he perished in the wilderness.

Schlegel, August Wilhelm VON (1767-1845), German critic, translator, and author, was born at Hanover. He studied at Gottingen, where Heyne persuaded him to take up literature, and where he wrote songs, sonnets, and romances, as tne favorite disciple of tne poet Burger. In 1795 he wrote a careful appreciation of Dante's Divina Commcdia-. and gave evidence of his remarkable gifts as a translator and as a literary critic after the manner of Herder. In 1796 he went to Jena, and became intimate with Schiller, under whose influence he wrote his best ballads (Arion. 1798). The first collection of his Gedichte appeared in 18,00. He did a good deal of critical work at this period, the most noteworthy being his discussion of Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea and of Voss's translation of Homer. His most valuable achiever lent was the singularly faithful and happy translation of seventeen of tne plays of Shakespeare (17971810). An attempt to do for the Ion (1802) of Euripides what Goethe had done for the Iphigenia was unsuccessful. Wilnelm Schickel had joined his brother i:. editing tl.j Athenian (1708-1800), the organ of what soon came to be known as the romantic school. Wilhclr.i Schlegel won many adherents by his public lectures on literature (1801-4), published (1808-11) as Uebcr drainiitischc Kunst und Literatur (Eng. trans. 1815). In 1803 Schlcgel travelled with Madame de Stael in Italy, Denmark, and Sweden, and in 1814 he rejoined her at Copi>et on the Lake of Geneva. After her death (1817) he received a call to the University of Bonn, and there devoted t'he rest of his life (181845) chiefly to Oriental studies. His complete works were edited by E. Becking in 12 vols. (1846-7);


a brief selection has been i by O. Walzcl in Kiirsch Deutsche Natwnal-LUteratu,

Schlegel. Friedrich (1772-1829). German ron writer, brother of the above born at Hanover. He wroti eral articles on Greek poetr kindred subjects. His styli peculiar, hazy and brilliar turn, and never without affectation. His Gcschicht Poesie der Griechen und b (1798) deals mainly with He and shows the influence of V Prolegomena. Like his br he went to Jena; but his petuous and rather cone manner estranged him Schiller. In 1797 he proci to Berlin. In 1799 he publ the novel Lucinde, a liti manifesto, and also avowed scries of confessions. Three; later his tragedy Alar cos was formed, and was as much a ure as his brother's Ion. haps his most valuable i is nis treatise Uebcr die Spt und Wcisheit der Inder (1; His conversion to Roman Cat cism paved the way for a poli career in Austria, where he ga the confidence of Metten His lectures, Ucber die nc GeschUhte (1811; Eng. ti 1879), contain the programm th? reactionary party after 1 and his Geschichtc der alien ncr.cn Litteratur (1815; Eng. tr 1840) is replete with original often biased and eccentric i mates. Of two works there English translations — The 1 losophy oj History (1835), The Philosophy oj Life and Philosophy oj Language (18 His cot iplete works appearei 10 vols. in 1822-5 (2d cd. in vols. 1846). There is an cdi of selected works by O. Walzc Kur^chncrs's Deutsche Natio Lutfratur. See also the be quoted under Schlecel, A. \N

CJchlclchcr, August (18 68), German philologist, bon Meiningcn, was appointed (II to the chair of Slavic langua at Prague, and afterwards (II at Jena, where he l)ccanie authority on the Indo-Germ; languages by his Compend, oi the Comparative Grammar the Indo - European, Sansk Greek, and Latin Grammar (!• trans. 1874-7), Indogermanis Chrcstomatliie (1869), Darwin Tested by the Sciene oj Lang-' (Eng. trans. 1869), Formenlt der Kirchcnslau'ischen Spra 1852), and Handbuch der Lit ischen Sprache (1856-67), the • two of especial importance the languages named. See I mann's August Schleicher (18'

Schleldrn, Matthias Jai (1804-81), German physician; botanist, born at Hamburg: came professor at Jena (183M): Schlelermacher

at Dorpat (1863). He wrote a number of botanical works, including Grundziige der WissenschajUifhen Bolanik (1842-3; trans. 1849), and ilrundriss der Bolanik (1846). He made important contributions to the cell theory in botany.

Schlrlrrmachpr, Friedrich Ernst Daniki. (1768-1834), German theologian, was born at Hreslau. From 1804-6 he was professor at Halle, and then preached and delivered patriotic addresses to large audiences in Berlin. With Wilhelm von Humboldt and Fichle he was instrumental in founding the University of Berlin, and was appointed professor of theology there in 1810. At an earl}' a(/e he showed an unusual combination of delicate sensibility and a keen spirit of scientific inquiry; and while still under the care of the Moravian Brethren at Barby (1783-5) he began to strike out an independent line. Schleiermacher puts aside all dogmatic theology, and sets about constructing a religion in which Rant, Spinoza, ana Christianity shall be reconciled. His discourses, Ueber die Religion (1799), are an attack upon the rationalisii then in vogue. He separates religion from metaphysics and morality, explaining it (after the manner of Spinoza) as an intuition of the universe, as the action of the universe upon man. In his Monolozc (1800) Schleiermacher anticipates some objections which may be raised. He himself described the book as a 'lyrical extract from his private diary'—• lyrical indeed, for the thoughts are expressed in poetic language of singular beauty and eloquence. Schleierraacher's Complete Works (30 vols.) were published in 183464, his Correspondence (4 vols.) in 1860-3. See W. Dilthey's Leben Schleiermachers (1870).

Schleswlg, tn., cap. Prussian prov. of Schleswig-Holstein, at head of Baltic inlet, the Schlei, 86 m. N. of Hamburg by rail. The castle of Gottorp was the residence of the dukes of Schleswig. There is a Gothic cathedral (rebuilt after 1440). In Viking times it was a famous trading town under the name of Heidaby. Pop. (1900) 17,909.

SchleswlR - Holstein, prov., Prussia, between North Sea and Baltic. Along the E. coast it is diversified by the Baltic Ridge, as well as penetrated by numerous deep, narrow inlets—e.g. bavs of Kiel and Eckernforde, river Schlei, and fiords of Flensburg, Apenrade, and Hadersleben. The w. coast is low marshland, in part protected by artificial dikes. The interior is mostly geest or heath-clad moor land.-;. On the Baltic side there

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and shipbuilding. Cap. Schleswig. Area, 7,338 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 1,387,968. There is a university at Kiel, which is also the chief naval station of the empire in the Baltic. The province elects ten deputies to the Imperial Diet and nineteen to the Prussian House of Representatives. In 1891 the island of Heligoland was incorporated with this province.

Schley, Wintield Scott (1839), American naval officer, born near Frederick, Md. He graduated at the Naval Academy in 1860, and had his first service on the Niagara in Asiatic waters. In July, 1862, he became lieutenant, and was attached to the West Gulf Blockading Squadron under Farragut. After the passage of Port Hudson (q.y.) he served on the Pacific station as executive officer of the Wateree,

American waters. In 1884 he volunteered for the relief of the polar expedition under A. W. Greeley (q.v.) and after a hard struggle with the elements, succeeded in rescuing Greeley and s'x of his men at Cape Sabine. From 1885 to 1889 he was chief of the Bureau of Recruiting and Equipment and made a good record. In 1888 he became captain, and while in command of the Baltimore in the harbor of Valparaiso in 1891 showed much firmness and decision when some American sailors had been stoned to death by a mob. From 1892 to 1898 he was chiefly engaged in the care and inspection of lighthouses and was chief of the Lighthouse Board, 189798. He reached the rank of commodore, Feb., 1898, and soon after was appointed to command the Flying Squadron. Schley

On May 13 he left Hampton Roads and began the search for the Spanish fleet. After stopping at Cienfucgos, he was ordered to proceed to Santiago, if satisfied that the Spanish fleet was not in the harbor, but hesitated, and finally received peremptory orders. Some of nis snips had not received a full supply of coal, but after some delay ne started, retracing, however, a part of the distance before taking position outskte of Santiago, where the Spanish ships were discovered May 29. On the arrival of Admiral Sampson's fleet June 1, that officer took chief command, but, when Admiral Cervera attempted to escape July 3, was seven or eight miles from the mouth of the harbor. Commodore Schley in his flagship, the Brooklyn, was in the thick of the battle, though a sudden turn or 'loop' made by that vessel was afterwards criticised. The report of Admiral Sampson did not mention Schlcy's name, and strong popular sympathy with the latter as a victim of supposed injustice developed. President McKmley, on Aug. 10, 1898, recommended that both be made rear-admirals and that Sampson should be the ranking officer, but the controversy over their nierits prevented the confirmation of either. Both officers, however, reached the grade afterwards, and Admiral Schley was retired for age in 1901. In July of that year vol. iii. of a History of the American Navy by E. S. Mac lay (q.v.) appeared. In this work, the proofs of which had been read by Admiral Sampson, the conduct of Schley both before and during the battle was severely condemned, ami he was charged with exhibiting 'timidity amounting to absolute cowardice,' with having 'turned in caitiff flight,' etc. Admiral Sampson, however, had permitted Schley to remain second in command six weeks after most of the events criticised by Maclay had taken place. Admiral Schley immediately asked for a court of inquiry, which was granted. The court consisting of Admiral Dewey and' Rear-Admirals Berham and Ramsey, organized Sept. 21, and announced its verdict, Dec. 13, 1901. Some of the questions considered were, the delay at Cienfuegos, the slow progress toward Santiago, the retrograde movement, the 'loop' of the Brooklyn, and Schley's bearing and conduct in the battle. Admirals Benham and Ramsey found that he had exhibited 'vacillation, dilatoriness, and lack of enterprise.' Admiral Dewey though condemning the 'loop1 and some other actions found the delays justifiable under the circumstances, and added his


personal opinion that Schley was in actual command in the battle, though this question had not been before the court. All joined in suggesting that no action be taken. Admiral Schley immediately filed objections to the majority report, but it was approved by the secretary of the navy, Dec. 20, 1901. An appeal to 'the President was likewise fruitless.

Admiral Schley has published The Rescue of Creelcy (1886), with J. R. Soley, and Forty-five Years Under the Flag (1904). The testimony before the court of inquiry was published by the Government Printing Office in 1902.

Schllemann, Heinrtch (1822-90), German explorer and archa:ologist, was born at Neu-Buckow in MccklenburgSchwerin, and was engaged in commercial life in St. Petersburp (1846^-63). During a trip to California in 1850, he was present when that state was received into the Union on July 4, and thus, by accident, became a citizen of the U. S. After travelling in India, China, Japan, and Greece, he published (1869) an account of these travels as Ithaca, the Peloponnesus, and Troy, which expounded the chief theories which led him to success in his excavations. His excavations bc^an at Troy in 1870, and were continued, with breaks, until 1882. In 1870 he explored Mycence, bringing to light an enormous quantity of treasure. His book Myccrtt appeared in 1878, and Ilios in 1880 (Eng. ed. 1881, a revised eel., Troja, 1883). In 1884 he excavated the site of Tiryns, and discovered the foundation of the palace; his book Tiryns appeared in 1885. In 1887 his correct judgment led him to try to acquire the site of Cnossus in Crete. Sec Schuchhardt's Schliemann's Excavations (1891).

SchlUter, Andreas (1664^ 1714). German sculptor and architect, born in Hamburg. He was for a time architect to the Sobieskis, and worked at Warsaw. In 1694 he was appointed court architect at Berlin, and in 1695 co-director of the academy. His finest works are the royal palaces at Charlottenburg (1695) and Berlin (1697-1708), the Great Elector in Berlin, and the bronze statue of the Elector Frederick in. at Kbnigsberg.

Schmalkaldlc League, formed in December, 1530, by the Protestant princes and city deputies at Schmalkalden, its object oeing the defence of the Protestant faith and the maintenance of political independence against the Emperor Charles v.

Schmauk, Theodore Esjanci-i- (I860). American clergyman,


born at Lancaster, Pa. He gr; uated (1883) at the University Pennsylvania, and took his" vinity course at the Luther Philadelphia Theological Sei nary. He made his permaix residence at Lebanon, Pa., a became literary editor of 1 Lutheran in 1889, and editor the Lutheran Church Revictc 1892. In 1903 he was elccl president of the Lutheran Gene Council of North Ameri Among his numerous works i The Negative Criticism of , Old Testament (1894), and // tory of the Lutheran Church Pennsylvania from the Origii Sources (1903).

SchmcrllnR, Anton v (1805 - 93), Austrian politic!; born at Vienna. He represenl Austria at the Frankfort Par! ment (1848-9), and was elecl to the National Assembly. A pointed minister of foreign affa and of the interior by the vii regent, Archduke John, he so resigned. He became (18Austrian minister of justice, a then for some years was presidt of the provincial Court of Appca Becoming Austrian premier 1860, he promulgated a new cc stitution on a liberal, but ct tralistic, basis. The oppositi of the Hungarians to his poli brought about his resignation 186.1. He was appointed pre; dent of the Supreme Court, a in 1867 became life member the Austrian House of Pee where he led the liberal oj>po tion to the measures of Taaf See Life, in German, by A. v< Arncth (1895).

Schmidt, Henry Immant: (1806-89), American Luther clergyman and educator. I was born at Nazareth, Pa., a: studied at the Moravian Semina there. In 1829 he severed 1 connection with the Moravi, Church, and became a Luther: clergyman. He was pastor Bergen, N. J., from 1833-30. the latter year he was ma assistant professor at Hartwi Seminary, N. Y., and from 18 to 1838 was a pastor in Bostc He became professor of Germ; and French in Pennsylvania Ci lege, Gettysburg, Pa., in 182 and filled the chair of German the Theological Seminary in t same place from 1839 to 18-5 From 1843 to 1845 he was a p; tor at Palestine, N. Y. He becar professor of German at Columl College in 1848, and remain until 1880. He wrote a Histo of Education (1842); Inaiigut Address (1848); Scriptural Che acter of the Lutheran Doctrine the Lord's Supper (1S52J; and Course of Ancient Geograp (1860).

Schmidt. Nathaniel (186 American Hebrew scholar a educator. He was born at Hudiksvall, Sweden, and studied at Stockholm, Colgate, and Berlin Universities. He was professor of Semitic languages and literatures at Colgate University from 1888 to 1890, when he accepted the same chair at Cornell. In 1904-05 he was director of the American School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. He contributed largely to the Jewish Encycloparfia and other reference works, and published Biblical Criticism and Theological Belief (1897). several histo'ies of Oriental countries, and The Prophet of Nazareth (1905).

SohmlPdel, Paul Wilhelm (1S51), German cxegcte and critic, »as born ner»r Dresden; became lecturer at Jena (1878-90), professor at Zurich from 1890. He collaborated with Holtzmann, etc., in the Kurzcr Hand-Cornmcntar, revised Winer's Crammar (1894), and contributed important articles to the Encyclopedia Biblica.

Schmucker, Bealemei.anchThon (1827-88), American Lutheran liturgical scholar, son of Samuel S. Schmucker. He was born at Gettysburg, Pa., graduated at Pennsylvania College, and took his course in divinitv at the Gettysburg Theological Seminary. He was ordained in 1847, and was pastor of Lutheran churches in va. and Pa. until his death. He edited the Liturgy of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania (I860), Collection of Hymns of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania (1805), and Church Book of the General Council (1808), and was co-editor of the American edition of the Hallesche Nachrichten (1882-84).

Schmucker, Samuel Simon (1799-1873), American Lutheran theologian, born at Hagerstown, Md. He studied for two years at the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1820 graduated from the Princeton Theological Seminary. In the same year he became a pastor at Frederick, Ind., where he remained until 1826. From 1820 to 1864 he was chairman of the faculty of the Gettysburg Theological Seminary', ana for four years was its only instructor. In 1846 he was largely instrumental in establishing ecclesiastical connection between the Lutheran Church in the U. S. and Europe. He was the author of the formula for the government and discipline of the Lutheran Church, adopted in 1826. His publications include: Elements of Popular Theology (1834); Portraiture of Lutheranism (1840); and The American Lutheran Church Historically, Doctrinally, and Practically Delineated (1851). Sehneekoppp, highest peak (5,265 ft.) in the Riesengebirge,


Germany; has a meteorological station.

SchneldemUhl, tn., Prussia, prov. Posen, 52 m. N. of Posen; manufactures bricks and glass. It suffered severely from floods in 1888 and 1893 (caused by an artesian well, one of the deepest in the world). Pop. (1900) 19,655.

Schnltzer, Edward. See Emin Pasha.

8 c h n o r r Ton Carolsfeld, Julius, Baron (1794-1872), German painter of prc-Raphaelite school (chiefly famous for frescoes), born at Leipzig. At Vienna (1810) he produced Contest of Three Christian and Three Heathen Knights, ajter Ariosto, a Holy Family, and St. Roch Giving Alms. Passing to Italv in 1817, ne spent that year at Florence, but lived thereafter at Rome, where he decorated the Villa Massimi with frescoes, being associated with Cornelius, Oycrbeck, and Veil in his artistic aims. He also painted in oils The Marriage in Cana, Ruth and Boaz, Jacob and Rachel, Madonna and Child, Flight into Egypt, Suffer Little Children, and The, Annunciation. Summoned to Munich by King Louis I. (1827), he commenced to decorate the new palace with Nibflungen scenes, turning aside at the king's request (1833-45) to frescoes of Charlemagne, Barbarossa, and Rudolph of Hapsburg. Appointed (1846) director of the gallery and academy of Dresden, He thenceforth divided his time between that city and Munich. At Leipzig (1852-60) appeared his Illustrated Bible. He also painted in oils, for the Munich Museum, Luther at the Diet of Worms; contributed glass for St. Paul's, London, and for Glasgow Cathedral; and wrote a treatise against Xaulbach's theory of historical philosophical painting.

Schoenfrld, Herman (1861), American author and educator, born at Oppeln, Prussia. He studied at the universities of Berlin, Leipsic, and Breslau, and in Paris. He was instructor in German in Joh.is Hopkins University from 1891 to 1893, when he was appointed U. S. consul at Riga, Russia, and was delegated to study higher education in Poland. He became professor of Germanic and Continental history in George Washington University in 1894, and in 1895 lecturer at the Catholic University. In 1899 he was appointed Turkish consulgeneral at Washington. He wrote Brant and Erasmus (1892) Higher Education in Poland (1896); History of Teutonic Women (1896); Women, Teutonic and Slav (1896); Erasmus and Rabelais (1903); Bismarck's Letters and Orations, ed. (1903).

SchofTer, Peter. See Fust, and Printing.


Scii. ill o id, John Mcallister (1831-1906), American soldier, born in Gerry, Chautauqua co., New York. He graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1853; entered the army, and was promoted first lieutenant in 1855. He taught natural and experimental philosophy in the academy during 1855-60; and in 1860-61, while on leave of absence, was professor of physics in Washington University, Mo. When the Civil War began, he was appointed a major in the First Mo. volunteers, and served as Gen. Lyon's chief of staff at Dug Springs and at the battle of Wilson's Creek, where Lyon was killed. He participated in the conflict of Fredericktown in October, 1861; was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in November; and commanded the militia of Mo. until November, 1862, when he was promoted major-general of volunteers. With t.he 'Army of the Frontier' he then performed some valuable service in Mo. and Ark.( and in April, 1803, took command for a time of a division in the Army of the Cumberland. In the following January he was assigned to command the Army of the Ohio under Gen. Shcrmanj and Participated in the conflicts at Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dallas, and Kenesaw Mountain, and in the operations against Hood around Atlanta. When Gen. Sherman started on his 'march to the sea," he sent Gen. Schofield with the Twenty-third Corps to report to Gen. Thomas at Nashville, Tenn. Schofield commanded the Union forces at the battle of Franklin (see Franklin, Battles Of). fought on Nov. 30, 1864, and two weeks afterwards assisted in the destruction of Hood's army at Nashville. He was then transferred to N. C., captured Wilmington and other places, and served under Sherman in the final operations against Gen. Johnston. He was promoted brigadier-general of regulars for his services at Franklin in 1864; attained the rank of major-general of regulars in 1869, and of lieutenant-general in 1895; and was commander-in-chief of the armies of the U. S. during 188895. In 1865 he was sent on a special mission to France to insist upon the withdrawal of the French troops from Mexico, and he was secretary of war during the last eight months of President Johnson's administration. He published Forty-six Years in the Army (1897).

Scholarship. The term used of the financial provision made for the tuition and support of students in American colleges. As distinguished from fellowships (q.v.), scholarships are granted

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