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Shaft sinking

Pose of extracting mineral from Thines or ventilating the same; to Teach a water-bearing strata for a water-supply, as in the case of wells; or to establish a foundation Son rock to support a superstructure, as in the case of foundations. In the sinking of shafts various methods are employed, depending upon the nature of the work, the sue of the excavation, and the thaterial through which they must driven. In mining the form is usually that of a rectangle divided into two or more compartments, depending upon circumstances; in wells the form is usually circular, while in foundations any form is employed that is found to be most satisfactory. For about eight yards in depth he soil is thrown out to the sur* in one or two stages. After ...ish a hoisting engine should be joyed to raise the débris, the §:oar being erected over the sifti hard rock is reached the Ort** the excavation are sup#. o by a lining - 1 and 3) of sheet piling, or timber, but where the material is S0ft and runs, as in quicksand, other means and precautions must be adopted. When rock is reached, a curb or crib (Fig. 2) of either wood or iron is inserted: It is, made in segments, bolted †. by cover strips, and is taken down the shaft in parts. It is laid on the prepared bed, and the wall (Fig. 4) is then built up to the surface. Sinking is then prodi'i, ui, i.e. advisable to put in a fresh curb, whereupon the brickwork is again built up to the curb above. only a small quantity of water is met with in sinking, it may be removed by bailing, but if a constant feeder is encountered, *Ps are usually employed, the s: form being either the pulso... steam pump or an ordina F." steam pump suspende j. the surface by ropes and as o: so that it can be lowered ... sinking proceeds. Where Someti is met with, the shaft is tight iłos lined , with a waterIn hong of brick, wood, or iron. in builose of brick this consists hree sing separate walls, two, Sr up to five in number with coes between them filled suitaboonent; but as brick is not

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Lippman. In the former method the shaft is bored with a tool called a trepan (Figs. 5 and 6 for small and large holes respectively), in two or three operations, the first hole being 5 ft. and the last hole 16 ft. in ãote: The 5-ft. hole is put down, first, and is kept in advance of the larger holes. The weight of the boring tool for the 5-ft. hole is about 8 tons, and for the larger, hole anything up to 20 tons. The tool consists of a wrought-iron frame, in which a large number of steel chisels are inserted. It is suspended by wooden rods from a beam on the surface. A large sludger is emloyed to clear out the débris. fter the water-bearing , rocks have been sunk through, tubbing, composed of rings cast in one piece about 4 ft. high and bolted too is lowered into the shaft. t the bottom of the tubbing is a stuffing-box arrangement, which forms an air-tight joint as soon as the weight of the tubbing rests upon it. After the tubbing has been lowered, the water is pumped out of the shaft. . In Lippman's method the shaft is bored the full size in one operation. Sinking through Quicksands.-Where soft ground is met with near the surface, sinking by driv# *. piling is resorted to. This consists in laying down a large wooden curb on the surface, and driving down outside it pointed planks close together. As the ground inside the planks is excavated, fresh curbs are put in to keep the planks vertical. Another curb is said down inside, and planks are driven down outside this. ... In this way the shaft is gradually sunk until the hard ground is reached, when a brick wall is built up to the surface. The space between the brick lin: ing and the wooden planks is filled with cement. Where the quicksands are met with at some depth from the surface long tubes are sometimes driven down into them, and a freezing mixture is forced through them; the ground round each tu is thus rendered solid, and the sinking is carried on as if in solid rock, with the exception that explosives are not used. This is the Poetsch method. Sometimes quicksands are sunk through by using brick drums. A curb of W. or iron is constructed, with a cutting edge on the under side, and then a wall of dry brickwork is built, on , this, and the weight causes the drum to sink. At intervals a curb is placed in the wall, and bolts running from one curb to another keep the structure together. Sinking through quicksand by the pneumatic process consists in forcing back the water in the quicksand by pumping air into a cylinder built up of steel

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than the common form, from which it may be distinguished b its prevailing green color. t haunts rocky coasts. Shagbark or SHELLBARK. A common name for the most valuable hickory #. icoria ovata). It is a tall tree, of picturesque growth and straight trunk. Its gray bark splits off in long strips, hānging from their upper ends. Shagreen, a variety of leather made from the skins of such fishes as the ray, dog-fish, and shark, whose epidermis is covered with small, pointed, closely set, calcified papillae, which polish readily, Shagreen was also manufactured in the East from the skins of horses and asses. Certain seeds were forced into the skins when moist, and then scraped off; the skins then presented a dimpled appearance. The outside covering of ancient Persian, MSS., also horse and mule trappings, were made of shagreen. Shah, the title of the ruler of Persia, meaning. ‘emperor’ or ‘supreme monarch.' . It may also be conferred on princes of the blood, as, for example, ‘Shahzada,” “son of the reigning ruler.’ Shahabad. (1.) Municipal th:, Hardoi dist., United Provinces, India, 60 m. s.E. of Bareilly. so 1901) 20,036. § Town, Ambala ist., Punjab, India, 17 m. s. of Ambala. Pop. (1901) 11,009. Shahaptins, a linguistic stock of North American Indians formerly occupying the country along the tributaries of the Columbia.

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The best-known tribes are the Nez Percés, Klikitat, Umatilla, and Waisa Wālia. See Nez Porężs. Shahapur, ...tn. in feudatory state of Sangli, Bombay, India, 36 m. Now" of Dharwär. "Silk: dyeing is the chief industry. Pop. (1901) 11,256. Shah Jahan (1592–1666), emperor of Delhi, , ascended the throne on the death of his father, Jahangir, in 1628. Europeans (Bernier, Tavernier, . Mandelslo, and Manucci), who visited Delhi and Agra during his reign bear testimony to his popularity, his tolerance, and the magnificence of his court. They also dilate on the equity of his courts of law, and the general prosperity of the empire. His fame, however, chiefly rests on the magnificent buildings he constructednotably the Taj Mahal at Agra, in memory of his wife... He was the founder of New Delhi, which he called Shahjahanabad, and there he constructed a most magnificent palace, the remains of which are still in existence. The Pearl Mosque in the fort at Agra is another of his unrivalled structures. His famous peacock throne, radiant with #. was valued at over six millions o 1658 he was captured by his Aurungzebe, and was ke prisoner at Agra until his death. Shahjahanpur, munic...tn. and cantonment, cap. of Shahjahanpur dis., United Provinces, India, 44 m. s.E. of Bareilly. Manufactures sugar. Pop., (1901) 76,458. Sháhnamah. See FIRDAUSI. Shahpura, th:... and cap. of feudatory state of Shahpura, Rajputana, India, 60 m. S.E. of Ajmere. Pop. (1901) 11,250. The state has an area of 400 sq. m., and a population (1901) of 57,677. Shairp, Joo. 85), En o, critic and poet, principal of St. Andrews, was born at Houstoun, Scotland. He was assistant master at Rugby (1846– 56), and assistant professor of Latin at St. Andrews (o Thereafter he held the chair till 1872, but in 1868 he was apinted principal of the United ollege. From 1877 he was #;"; of poetry, at Oxford. is Kilmahoe; a Highland Pastoral, and Other . Poems o charming in description and fee ing, includes the classic ‘Bush aboon Traquair.” Glen Desseray, and Other Poems, with exquisite lyrics, and the fine and stately 3alliol Scholars, appeared in 1888. The author's critical and expository work includes Studies in Poetry and Philosophy (1868; 4th ed. 1886); Culture and Re

In son t a

ligion (1870; often reissued); Poetic Interpretation of Nature (1877); Burns, in English Men of

Letters Series (1879); Aspects of Poetry (1881); Sketches in History

and Poetry (1887). Shairp collaborated with Professor Tait in The Life and Letters of J. D. Forbes §. and he edited Dorothy Wordsworth’s Journal (1874). See Knight’s Principal Shairp and his Friends (1888), Dean Boyle's preface to Studies in Poetry and Philosophy (ed. 1886), Sellars's ‘Memoir” in Portraits of

Friends (1889). Shakers, a religious society, styling itself the United Society o Believers in Christ's Second Coming, organized on a communistic basis, having as , its fundamental principles ‘virginal purity, confession of , sin, ristian communism, and separation from the world.” . Acceptance of these principles is accompanied by belief in a duality of maternity and paternity in the Godhead, in the Second Coming of Christ, in the person of Ann Lee, in the new birth, resurrection and judgment of believers, in a coming millennium, and in spiritualism. Membership in the society is voluntary, no inducements are of: fered to take membership, and no one is constrained to remain in fellowship. The origins É. e

back to the manifestations of t

‘French, prophets’ of the first half of the 17th century, a movement which spread on the Continent and reached England. Among the Quakers it found a home, and there in 1747 Jane and James Wardlaw, the first of whom professed to ‘have received illumination,’ became the nucleus of a society, in the public services of which the members were affected with movements of the limbs and of the entire person, from which they received their name of ‘Shakers.” Persecution followed with no result except to increase their numbers. In 1770 Ann Lee joined them, and although illiterate, soon became prominent. She was imFo in Manchester, England or obstructing the streets, an while in durance received a vision directing emigration to America. In 1774 she and seven §:"...; who called her Mother Ann (by which name she was thereafter known) landed in New York, and in 1776 settled at Niskayuna (now Watervliet), near o organizing into community ife in 1787 at Mt. Lebanon, N. Y., which has ever since been the central home. A tour of New England had in the meantime sown the seeds from which, subsequently developed several settlements, no little influence resulting from the policy of non-resistance to the attacks made upon , them by those "F. posed to the Roo. n 1784 Mother Ann died, and Elder James Whittaker succeeded her in the leadership. In 1787

!. h Meacham became the ead of the society, and the one whose formative influence has ever since been felt. The members form three orders. The first is the Novitiate, and includes those who while holding the Shaker faith, do not enter the community life. The Junior order embraces those who, not having families of their own, enter, a Shaker ‘family’ (or §o devote services, and E.; erty if they so wish, to the benefit of that family and without return, but may at any time resume disposal of both service and property. The Senior, or “church’ order includes those who have permanently devoted person and property without compensation or claim to the uses and aims of the organization. In all thought, and action, the religious and ethical element is foremost. Personal purit in thought, word, and act, gentleness in treatment of fellows, rfect honesty and fairness in all commercial operations, industry, and sobriety as the daily habit, characterize this people. . In their eighteen settlements, located in nine states, and numbering about 1,000 members, the industries of lumbering, farming, pasturage, and various forms of manufacturing arc carried on. The members of a ‘family’ rise at the same time, eat together, all must labor during the day under the directions of the officers (elders and deacons) and all attend the religious services unless excused. These last consist in singing of hymns, marching and exhortation, while occasionally , all watch as some one or two of the members rform a sort of whirling dance. evivals have been frequent,

and membership has been , at times increased through this In eans.

A sect known as Shakers was formed in England under the leadership of Mary Anne Girling in 1864. The leader died in 1872, and the sect has entirely disappeared. See Evans's Shakers' Compendium {:}; Eads's Shaker Theol#. 1879); Robinson, Concise istory of the Shakers (1893); Blinn, Concise History of the Shakers (1894); White and Taylor's Shakerism (1905); MacLean, Bibliography of Shaker Literature (1905). Shakespeare, WILLIAM (1564– 1616), English dramatist and poet, was the descendant of a good stock of Warwickshire yeomen. His father, John Shakespeare, was a native of Snitterfield, a village four miles north of Stratford-on-Avon, and moved into this latter town about 1551. He married (1557) Mary, Arden, a daughter of his father's land.

A SHAKESPEARE PAGE.

1. Memorial Theatre, Stratford-on-Avon. 2. The Globe Theatre, Southwarks. (From an old engraving.), 3: Shakespeare Momorial, ratford. 4. Portrait of Shakespeare, known as the Chandosportrait, in the National Portrait o, o :by Emeru Walker) a

5. Stratford-on-Avon. ...6., Shakespeare's autograph. (Photographed for Lee's Life of Shakespeare) 7. espeare's birthplace: the kitchen, etc. 8. Ann o cottage. Shottery. 9. Shakespeare's birthplace. 10. Room in which Shakespeare was born. 11. Stratford Church; the chancel, with Shakespeare monument. (Photos, except 2, 4, and 6, by Frith.)

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lord. The future dramatist was the third child, but the eldest son, of this marriage. There is no o evidence to fix the exact

ay of his birth, but it is generally given as April 23, on the strength of a tradition that he died upon his birthday. The F. registers bear record of his

aptism on April 26. His education was probably received at the grammar school of his town, where he acquired a ‘pretty fair' knowledge of Latin, with perhaps some French and Greek. "And in later life he must have added an

acquaintance with Italian. , Ben Jorison's phrase, . ‘small Latin and less Greek,” is to be taken

in relation to the speaker's own learning. During his school days Shakespeare must have seen more than one dramatic ... representation; for the good folks of Stratford were by no means backward in welcoming the strolling players, and his own father, during his term as bailiff of the town, entertained two of these companies. It has been suggested also that Shakespeare may have witnessed the Corpus Christi mysteries as acted in the o: city of Coventry; and the close, reproduction in A Midsummer Night's Dream (II. 2, lines o some of the pageants with which the Earl of F. in 1575 entertained Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth seems to point to the t’s having witnessed them. }*śs. when Shakespeare was still short of nineteen years, he married Anne Hathaway, of the

neighboring hamlet of Shottery.

No record of it is found in the parish registers, and from the unusual absence of any reference to the bridegroom's parents in the license, it is conjectured that the whole proceeding was carried out without their knowledge. About 1585. Shakespeare removed to London. The immediate cause of his departure is stated, according to early tradition, to have been a poaching adventure, carried out at the expense of Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote, on whom Shakespeare is said to have composed some scurrilous verses in return for what he conceived to be a vindictive persecution. The tradition is thought to be borne out by the picture of ustice Shallow in The Merry ives of Windsor, whose coat of arms with its dozen white luces plainly shows that here the dramatist was caricaturing his old enemy. Once in London, Shakespeare, very soon became connected with the theatres. The story of Sir William Davenant, that his first employment was that of tending the playgoers horses, may or may not be authentic, as also the 17th-century

Stratford tradition that he entered the theatre as a servitor. He figures in 1594 as a member of the lord chamberlain's company. His position as an actor was undoubtedly one of eminence, although we cannot speak with certainty as to the rôles he filled. The ghost in Hamlet, the part of Adam in As You Like It, and some “kingly parts in sport’—i.e. in the comedies—have been attributed to him. . It is possible that his yalue to his company lay as much in his keen business ability as in his acting qualities. The earliest certain contemporary reference to him as a dramatist is contained in the Groatsworth of Wit, written by Robert Greene on his deathbed in 1592, where he speaks of “an upstart crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tygers heart wrapt, in a Players hyde, supposes he is as well able to bumbast out a blanke verse as the best of you; and being an absolute Johannes Fac-totum, is in his owne conceit the onely Shake-scene in a countrey.’ The play on Shakespeare's name is obvious, and the line in italics is a travesty of one which occurs in the Third Part !. Henry VI. This was one of the plays which the dramatist had recast from an earlier work, in which critics have recognized the hand of Greene and Marlowe. The quotation plainly indicates that this recasting of earlier works was a o part of the poet’s theatrical duties. A few months afterwards (December, 1592), Greene's publisher, Henry Chettle, publicly apologized to Shakespeare in the preface to his amphlet Kinde Hart’s Dreame. n, the following year, the poet published his poem Venus and Adonis, dedicated to, the Earl of Southampton; and this was followed in 1594 by the Rape of Lucrece, dedicated to the same patron in terms which betoken a close degree of intimacy. His reputation as a dramatist grew rapidly. In 1597, the first printed copies of individual plays made their appearance; and next }. Francis Meres, in his Paladis Tamia, ranked Shakespeare as holding in England, both in comedy and in tragedy, the place assigned to Plautus, and Seneca among the Latins. Shakespeare's name was also freely, used the unscrupulous publishing pirotes of his day, from 1595 onwards. A collection printed by William }o. in i599, entitled The assionate Pilgrim, was fathered on the dramatist, although only five of the pieces it comprises came from his pen. On the occasion of a third edition o issued in 1612, including some additional thefts from Heywood, both Heywood and Shakespeare protested. This is the only case in which the lat

ter is known to have made any protest against the liberties taken

with his reputation. . A probably authentic allegorical poem, The Phoenix and the urtle, was

printed in 1601 under his name, along with Robert Chester's Love's Martyr. On May 1, 1602—the year of the production of Hamlet—Shakespeare, then a prosperous man, urchased 107 acres of land near tratford, adding another 20 acres eight years later. In 1602 also, a cottage and garden situated at Chapel Lane were transferred to him. Since 1599 he had been a shareholder in the Globe Theatre, London; and when Burbage purchased the Blackfriars Theatre in 1603, he placed actors there, among whom 'Shakesper: is named, and in all probability assigned him a share in that house also. Taking these and his salary as an actor and as a playright into account, , Mr. Sidney É. estimates Shakespeare's income subsequent to the year 1599 as at least £600 per annum, or about 5,000 in present English money, hus we can easily understand how he was able in jui 1605, to purchase the to: of a moiety of the tithes of Stratford Qld Stratford, Bishopton, an Welcombe for £440. Shakespeare inherited to the full his father's litigious nature. We find him bringing actions in London against John Clayton for a debt of # at Stratford against Phili ogers for £1 15s. 10d., the basance of an account for malt sold to him; and later (1609) against John Addenbroke for £7 and £1 10s. expenses, and in default of him against 'Thomas Horneby, who had gone bail for the debtor. The acting company to which Shakespeare belonged was, on the accession of James I., granted special privileges, and named the “king's servants.” . They took art in many of the ceremonial unctions in which James rejoiced, and in 1613, during the festivities in connection with the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth, seven of Shakespeare's plays were acted at court. The dramatist probably came to reside permanently in Stratford about 1611; but his connection with London did not altogether cease, for in March, 1613, we have a record of his ". o a house and shop near the Blackfriars Theatre. When, in the following year, an attempt was made to enclose the Stratford commons, he intervened against the proposal; but when his own interests as lessee of the tithes had been safeguarded, his active §posio evidently discontinued. . The attempt, however, proved unsuccessful. Qn March 25, 1616, his will, which was first drafted in Janu:

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As to the poet's personal appearance, we are told by Auto that he was a ‘handsome, well

shaped man.” The bust that now stands in Stratford Church was erected a few years after his death, and the present coloring —the eyes of hazel and the hair and beard auburn—represents correctly, the original coloring. The only other contemporary rtrait is the engraving by roeshout, prefixed to the First Folio in 1623. This was probably a copy of a painting, and the original may have been the socalled “Flower portrait, now in the Stratford Memorial Gallery. The ‘Chandos portrait,” in the National Portrait Gallery, London, differs somewhat from these, but does not possess the same authority... It belonged at one time to Sir William Davenant (who was not averse to being regarded as Shakespeare's natural son), and is said to have been painted by Richard Burbage, the actor. --The first collected edition of the Fo was produced in 1623,

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corn . This collection, as §."#ir, Folio, contains all the generally accepted plays ex: cept Pericles, and was reprinted with some textual alterations in 1632. The Third Folio of 1663 contains few changes; but a later edition in 1664 adds Pericles, together with six other plays which are not now renerally accepted as Shakespearean—viz. The London Prodigal; The History of Thomas Lord Cromwell; Sir John

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divisions of narrative poems,

sonnets, and plays. Of these, the narrative ms, consistin of Venus and Adonis (1593) an

Lucrece (1594), are the least important. They are little, different from the conventional poem of this type prevalent at the time; but they were extremely pular, seven editions of the o. and five of the Lucrece og during their author's lifetime. The Sonnets did not appear in printed form until the year 1609, when they were Ho! in o by Thomas horpe, one of the piratical publishers of the day; but they were certainly written much earlier. In 1598 Meres speaks with praise of Shakespeare's “sugred sonnets among his private friends'; and a line from one of them is quoted in the play of Edward III., which is assigned to a date earlier than 1595. Some of the sonnets were therefore written before this date, and the probability is that the great majority of them were comsed about 1594–5. Two of them figured in Jaggard's Passionate Pilgrim in i599. But Thorpe did the poet , the ill-service of prefixing to his edition a dedication to a certain “Mr. W. H.,’ who is described as ‘the onlie begetter of these insuing sonnets.” The wording of this dedication naturally has suggested to Shakespearean students that “Mr. W. .’ is to be identified with the person to whom the sonnets are addressed. But no satisfactory identification of the person thus indicated has ever been adduced. The initials have been regarded by some as a transposition of those of Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, Shakespeare's earl o: while others have read them as those of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. In the latter case, at all events, there is really, no substantial evidence to lead us to think that the poet ever stood in such relations to Pembroke as would prompt him, to address to that nobleman a long series of poems like the sonnets. The view favored by Mr. Sidney Lee is that ‘Mr. W. H.' stands merely for William Hall, a hanger-on of the publishing trade, who made a traffic of procuring or “begetting’ copies of manuscript works for the pirating fraternity. In at least one o case Tho had thus dedicated a work to its ‘begetter.” The significance of the sonnets themselves is a problem as much in dispute as the personality of their patron. The popular view undoubtedly, regards them as to a very large extent autobiographical and traces in them a double division: the first one hundred and twentysix being addressed to a young

Shakespeare

man, the remainder dealing with the “dark’ woman who takes the t captive, and then, throwin er spells over his young friend, sows estrangement between them. The counter theory looks on the sonnets as so many essays in the manner of *...* which between 1591 and 1597 had become the rage in England. Shakespeare's sonnets bear many marks of likeness to the other sonnet cycles of those years; and probably it is o the superb #. enius. which made him, identify imself with the situations depicted in them, that has led men to regard them as a transcript from life. The form of sonnet used by Shakespeare consists simply of three quatrains closed with a couplet. It has no interlinked rhymes, and has nothing in common with the Petrarchan form, except its conciseness. But in Shakespeare's usage the very bareness of the form, and its entire freedom from the attractiveness which comes of mere metrical ingenuity, add to the imF. produced by the whole cause they leave the min free to concentrate on the wonderful language , and rhythmical splendors of the poems. So that not only are these sonnets ranked by universal consent as the greatest of all sonnet cycles, but, in the estimation of , the majority of competent judges, they constitute the highest achievement of the human mind in the region of pure poetry. But from 1591 until his retirement to Stratford, in 1611, the main, occupation of , his genius was the production of plays, and during those years his average output amounted to two plays per annum. The exact dating of the yarious plays is a matter on which no two critics are absolutely agreed. The earliest edition of , any of them occurs in 1597, when Romeo and Juliet was published in a pirated form, while Richard II. and Richard III. #. in more authentic guise. thers of Shakespeare's productions were printed at irregular intervals, subsequently; but this irregularity of publication is not to be attributed to the poet's indifference to his own reputation. The fact of , his having revised many of his o-s, Romeo and uliet, , Hamlet, roilus and Cressida—before publication, is in itself sufficient proof that he was not indifferent to their reception by the reading public. But the copyright of the plays was the property of the acting company, and it was their interest to retain the works in manuscript. As the poet of the company, Shakespeare's duties consisted in the adaptation of other men's works, as well as the

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