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he overcame his former faults. In his ballads and some of his later poems, as Die Erwartung, he shows lyrictor of the hi §: est quality. e is great in his moral earnestness, in his idealism, in his youthful freshness, in his enthusiasm for the cause of art and humanity. Schiller's collected, works were issued by his friend Körner (12 vols. 1812– 15). The most complete editions are by Goedeke (17 vols. 1868–76), and .*.*. and Birlinger (13 vols. 1882–95). Selections are given in the editions of Boxberger (6 vols. 1894), and Bellermann (12 vols. 1896 i.). The poet's correspondence is fully given b F. Jonas (7 vols. 1892-6). We may mention also his letters to †: (1819), to Körner (2d ed; , 1874), to Wm. von . Humboldt (2d ed. 1876), to his wife Lotte (3d ed. 1879), to Fichte (1847), and to Cotta (1876). English translations include Poems and Ballads, by Lord . Lytton (1887); Poems and Plays, by Lord Lytton and others (1889); the Complete Works, by Coleridge, Lord Lytton, Bohn, Churchill, and others (1870); and the Historical and Dramatic Works and Essays, AEsthetical and Philosophical (1846, in Bohn's Library). See also G. H. Calvert’s Translation of the Correspondence between Goethe and Schiller (2 vols. 1877–79). Schiller #o. have been written by H. Düntzer (1881; trans. by Pinkerton, 1883), by Karoline von Wolzogen (6th ed. o by O. Brahm (1888– 92), by J. Minor (1899 7% by R. Weltrichi (1899), by E. Palleske (13th ed. 1891; trans. by Lady Wallace, 1860), and by C. Berger o: ff.). In English we have the amous biography by T. Carlyle (1825), and those by Lord Lytton (1844), James. Sime (1842; in Classics for English Readers Series), H. . Nevinson (1889; in Great Writers Series), and T. Calvin (1902). For criticism the following are of importance, E. Dowden’s Schiller's Friendship with Goethe (in Fortnightly Review, lvi.), F. Werner's The Characteristics of Schiller's Dramas (1859), E. Fischer's Schiller’s Works illustrated by the Greatest German Artists (4 vols., 1883), G. Hauff's Schillerstudien (1880), H. Viehoff’s Schillers Gedichte erlautert (6th ed. 1887), Bellermann's Schillers Dramen (2 vols. 1888–91), Düntzer's Schillers Lyrische Gedichte (3d ed. 1891) uno Fischer's Schiller als Philosoph (2d ed. 1892), and Robertson's Schiller after a Hundred Years (1905). or a complete Schiller bibliography, see Goedeke's Grundriss (2d ed. vol. v. 1884–92). Schilling. Johan NEs , (1828), German sculptor; born at Mittweida, Saxony. He studied under


Rietschel. In 1853 he visited Italy, and in 1868 was appointed rofessor in the Academy of Fine rt at Dresden. His works include Schiller, the Wounded A chilles, The Four Seasons, and Germania; the last, the national monument on the Niederwald beside the Rhine, is his masterpiece (1877–84). Schimmel, HENDRICK AN 1824), Dutch t and novelist, orn at Graveland, N. Holland; entered , the Dutch Treasury at Amsterdam, and finally became a director of the Amsterdam Credit Association. His chief lays are Twee Tudors (1847), apoleon Bonaparte (1851), Jujfrouw Bos (1857), and Struensee (1878); his noblest work, Zege na Strijd (1878). The plots of his principal novels are laid in England–Mary Hollis (1860; Eng. trans. 1872), My Lady Carlisle (1864), De Vooravonid der Revolutie (1866), Sinjeur Semeyns (1875), De Kaptein van de Liifgarde (1888; Eng. adaptation, 1896). Schimmel's chief characteristics are dramatic intensity and great knowledge of stagecraft, while the personages of his works are Porto with great truth, to life. A collected edition of his dramas appeared in 1885, and of his novels in 1892. See Life by Jan ten Brink. S ch in kel, KARL FRIEDRICH (1781–1841), German architect, was born at Neu-Ruppin (Brandenburg), and in early life was a landscape painter. . In 1806 he was appointed architect to the king, and erected the Royal Museum and theatre. In 1820 he became a professor at the Royal Academy, Berlin. His designs are classical in spirit, See Life, in German, by Dohme (1882). Schinus, a genus of tropical American shrubs and trees be ong# to the order Anacardiaceae. They bear small, white, dioecious flowers, followed by oily, globose fruits; after rain the leaves of some of the species exude a resin, often of considerable fragrance. S. molle, the Peruvian mastic-tree, is known in California as the ‘pepper-tree,’ and was formerly ot. in the warmer districts there; but the tree harbors the black-scale, and is being removed as dangerous to orange groves. It, has lon leaves, with many leaflets, an drooping panicles of rose-tinted fruits. The tree, is evergreen with pendulous branches, an dome-shaped head. Schipka. See SHIPKA. *:: a small tailless dog originally bred in Belgium, and only lately introduced into . N. America. It is exceedingly viva: cious, inquisitive, and alert, and makes a most excellent watch

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broad; back straight but *P. fore - legs straight, fine, and set well under body; feet small, round, and well Kiucol, body short and thickset; tail absent; coat dense and harsh; smooth on the ears, short on the head, but profuse round the neck, and forming a mane and a frill on the chest. Weight, from 12 to 20 lbs. Schism, the formal separation from the unity of a church. The great schism is the division between the Greek or Eastern and the Roman or Western Churches. The Western schism (also called the great schism) arose out of a disputed claim to the papal chair (1378–1417), during which there were two, sometimes three, popes. Schists, fine grained rocks of foliated character, consisting of thin films or folia of various minerals. . They belong to the metamorphic series, and are found mostly in , regions comsed of very ancient and muchisturbed strata, such as the Lake Superior district, the Green Mountains, the Blue Ridge, south-eastern N. Y., Canada, the Highlands of Scotland, Norway, and the Also The schists are given, specific name by indicating the mineral that gives schistose character to the rock. The commonest variety is micaschist, consisting of layers of miga, , alternating with quartz and feldspar, often contorted or crumpled; it is frequently an altered form of slate. Chloriteschist, hornblende-schist, talcschist, graphite-schist, and quartzschist are also common. The schists differ from the gneisses in being more finely foliated or banded. Extremely fine mica: schists are sometimes called

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Schlagintweit, a family of German travellers and naturalists. HERMAN, BARON SCHLAGINTwent (1826–82), born at Munich, explored the Alps with his brother ADolf (1829–57) from 1846 to 1853, when they made the first ascent of Monte Rosa (1851), publishing the results in. Unterst-chungen über die physikalische Geographie der #. (1850), in which work Humboldt assisted, and Neue Untersuchungen (1854). Afterwards Hermann, with his brothers Adolf and Robert, was o: by the king of Prussia and the East India Company to carry on scientific explorations in Asia. o or o they explored. India, the Himalayas, Tibet, Sikkim, Bhutan, Kashmir, Ladak, Nepal, and the Karakoram and Kuenlun Mountains § 7) Their travels were pubished, as Results of a Scientific Mission to India and ##| Asia (1860–6) and Reisen in Indien, und Hochasien (1869–80). Adolf, who was killed in Kashgar by Yakub Beg (1857), himself wrote Ueber, die Orographische und Geologische Struktur der Gruppe des Monte Rosa (1853).RoBERT (1833–85), who was appointed (1863) professor of geography at Giessen, is known by jo, excellent geological studies and by the records of his travels. He visited the U.S., where he travelled extensively in 1868–9 and again in 1880, and published Die. Pacific - Eisenbahn. (1870); Kalifornion . (1871); Die. Mormomen (2d ed. 1877); Die Prarien (1876); and Die Santa und Süd pacificbahn (1884). The fourth brother, Edoua RD (1831–66), wrote an account of the Spanis invasion of Morocco, in which he served; and the fifth, EMIL (1835–1904), was the author of Buddhism in Tibet (1865), Die Berechnung der Lehre (trans. from Tibetan, 1896), and Die Lebensbe

schreibung von Padma Sambhava (1899). S ch latter, FRANCIS (1856), American “divine healer,' born in the village of Elser in . AlsaceLorraine. He emigrated to the U. S. in 1884, and worked for a time as a cobbler; but in 1892, while at Denver, he believed, or affected to believe, that he had received a ‘call’ to give up his worldly possessions and become a healer of the sick. He walked from one city to another in the Southwest, and great crowds assembled, to be healed by him. In July, 1895, he returned to Denver, and in the , following November disappeared, leaving behind him a note to the effect that his mission was ended. What became of him is unknown, but it is thought by some that he perished in the wilderness. Schlegel, AUGUST WILHELM voN (1767–1845), German critic, translator, and author, was born at Hanover. He studied at Göttingen, where o persuaded him to take up literature, and where he wrote songs, sonnets, and romances, as the favorite disciple of the poet Bürger. In 1795 he wrote a careful appreciation of Dante's Divina Commedia, and gave evidence of his remarkable gifts as a translator and as a literary critic after the manner of Herder. In 1796 he went to Jena, and became intimate with Schiller, under whose influence he wrote his best ballads (Arion o The first collection of his dedichte appeared in 1800. He did a good deal of critical work at this period, the most noteworthy being his discussion of Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea and of Voss's translation of Homer. His most valuable achievernent was the singularly faithful and happy translation of seventeen of the of Shakespeare An attempt to the Ion (1802) of Duripides what Goethe had done for the Iphiemia was unsuccessful. ilelm Schlccel ... had joined his brother in cditing, the Atheno um (1708–1800), the organ of what soon came to known as the romantic school. Wilhelm Schlegel won many adherents by his public lectures on literature 1801-4), published (1808–11) as eber dramatische Kunst und Literatur (Eng: trans. 1815). In 1803 Schlegel travelled with Madame de Staël in Italy, Denmark, and Sweden, and in 1814 he rejoined her at Coppet on the Lake of Geneva. After her death 1817) he received a call to the niversity of Bonn, and othere devoted the rest of his life (1818– 45) chiefly to Oriental studies. His complete works were edited by E. Böcking in 12 vols. (1846-7);

a brief selection has been by O. Walzel in Kürsch eutsche National-Litteratu. S ch lege 1, FRIEDRICH (1772–1829) erman ron writer, brother of the above born at Hanover. He wrot eral articles on Greek, poetr. kindred subjects. His styl. peculiar, hazy and brilliar turn, and never without affectation. His Geschicht Poesie der Griechen und R (1798) deals, mainly with H. and shows the influence of W Prolegomena. Like his br he went to Jena; but his petuous and rather conc manner estranged him Schiller. In 1797 he proce to Berlin. In 1799 he publi the novel Lucinde, a lit, manifesto, and also avowed series of confessions. Three : later his tragedy Alarcos was formed, and was as much a ure as his brother's Ion. ha his most valuable is his treatise Ueber die Spr wnd Weisheit der Inder (1. His conversion to Roman Cat cism paved the way for a poli career in Austria, where he ga the confidence of Metteri His lectures, Ueber die ne Geschichte (1811; Eng. tr 1879), contain the programm the reactionary party after 1, and his Geschichte der alten net:en Litteratur (1815; Eng. tr. 1846) is replete with original often biased and eccentric mates. Of two works there English translations The 1 #;p} of History (1835), The Philosophy s Life and Philosophy of Language (18 His cornplete works appeared 10 vols. in 1822–5 (2d ed. in vols., 1846). There is an edi of selected works by O. Walze Kürschners's Deutsche Natio Luteratur. See also the bo quoted under SchLEGEL, A. W Gchleicher, AUGUST (18 68), German philologist, born Meiningen, was appointed (1: to the chair of Slavic langua at Prague, and afterwards (1: at Jena, where he became authority on the Indo-Germa languages by his Compend ol.” Comparative Grammar t Indo-European, Sansk Greek, and Latin Grammar (F trans. 1874–7), Indogermanis Chrestomathie (1869), Darwin Tested by the Scierce of Lang, (Eng. trans. 1869), Formenle der Kirchenslawischen Spra 1852), and Handbuch der J.it ischen Sprache (1856–67), the two of especial importance the languages named. . See I mann's August Schleicher (18. Schleiden, MATTHIAs JA 1804–81), German physician tanist, born at Hamburg; came professor at Jena (1839). Schleiermacher

at Dorpat (1863). He wrote a number of tanical works, including Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen Botanik (1842 – 3 ; trans. 1849), and Grundriss der Botanik o He made important contributions to the cell theory in botany. Schleiermacher, FRIEDRICH ERNst DANIEL (1768–1834), German theologian, was rn at Breslau. From 1804–6 he was professor at . Halle, and then preached and delivered patriotic addresses to large audiences in Berlin. With Wilhelm von Humboldt and Fichte he was instrumental in founding the University of Berlin, and was appointed professor of theology there in 1810. At an early age he showed an unusual combination of delicate sensibility and a keen spirit of scientific inquiry; and while still under the care of the Moravian Brethren at Barby (1783–5) he began to strike out an independent line. Schleiermacher puts , aside, all dogmatic theology, and sets about constructing a religion in which Kant, Spinoza, and . Christianity shall be reconciled. His discourses, Ueber die Religion o are an attack upon the rationa is m then in vogue. He separates religion from , metaphysics and morality, explaining it (after the manner of Spinoza) as an intuition of the universe, as the action of the universe upon man. In his Monologe (1800) Schleiermacher †". some objections which may raised. e himself described the book as a ‘lyrical extract from his private diary – lyrical indeed, for the thoughts are expressed in poetic language of singular beauty and eloquence. Schleiermacher's Complete Works (30 vols.) were published in 1834– 64, his Correspondence (4 vols.) in 1860–3. ee W. Dilthey's Leben Schleiermachers (1870). Schleswig, ,tn.,. o: Prussian prov. of Šohleswig. olstein, at head of Baltic iniet, the Schlei, 86 m. N. of . Hamburg by rail. The castle of Gottorp was the residence of the dukes of Schleswig. There is a Gothic cathedral (rebuilt after 1440). In Viking times it was a famous trading town under the name of Heidaby. Pop. (1900) 17,909. Schleswig - Holstein, prov. Prussia, between North Sea an Baltic. Along the E. coast it is diversified by the Baltic Ridge, as well as penetrated by numerous deep, narrow inlets—e.g. bays of Kiel and Eckernförde, river Schlei, and fiords of Flensburg, Apenrade, and Hadersleben. *F. w. coast is low marshland;...in part, protected by artificial dikes." The interior is mostly geest or heath-clad moor lands. On the Baltic side there

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and shipbuilding. Cap. Schleswig. Area, 7,338 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 1,387,968. There is a university at Kiel, which is also the chief naval station of the empire in the Baltic. . The province elects ten deputies to the Imrial Diet and nineteen to the russian House of Representatives. In 1891 the island of Heligoland was incorporated with this province. Schley, WINFIELD. Scott 1839), American naval officer, rn near Frederick, Md. He graduated at the Naval Academy in 1860, and had his first service on the Niagara in Asiatic waters. In July, 1862, he became lieutenant, and was attached to the West Gulf Blockading Squadron under Farragut. After the passage of Port Hudson (q.v.) he served on the Pacific station as executive officer of the Wateree,

American waters. In 1884 he volunteered for the relief of the §. expedition under A.

reeley (q.v.) and after a hard struggle, with the elements, succeeded in rescuing Greeley, and six of his men at Cape Sabine. From 1885 to 1889 he was chief of the Bureau of Recruiting and Equipment and made a good record. In 1888 he became captain, and while in command of the Baltimore in the harbor of Valparaiso in 1891 showed much firmness and decision when some American sailors had been stoned to death by a mob. From 1892 to 1898 he was chiefly engaged in the care and inspection of lighthouses and was chief of the Lighthouse Board, 1897– 98. He reached the rank of commodore, Feb., 1898, and soon after , was appointed to command the Flying Squadron. On May 13 he left Hampton Roads and began the search for the Spanish fleet. After stoppin at Cienfuegos, he was ordere to proceed to Santiago, if satisfied that the Spanish fleet was not in the harbor, but hesitated, and finally received oy orders. Some of his ships had not received a full supply of coal, but after some delay he started, retracing, however, a part of the distance before taking position outside of Santiago, where the Solo ships were discovered ay, 29. On the arrival of Admiral Sampson's fleet June 1, that officer took chief command, but when Admiral Cervera attempted to escape July 3, was seven or eight miles from the mouth of the harbor. Commodore Schley in his flagship, the Brooklyn, was in the thick of the battle, though a sudden turn or “loop' made that vessel was afterwards criticised. The report of Admiral Sampson did not mention Schley's name, and strong popular sympathy with the latter as a victim of supposed injustice developed. President McKinley, on Aug. 10, 1898, recommend that both be made rear-admirals and that Sampson should be the ranking officer, but the controversy over their merits prevented the confirmation of either. Both officers, however, reached the grade afterwards, and Admiral Schley was retired for age in 1901. In July of that year vol. iii. of a History of the American Navy b E. S. Maclay (q.v.) *P. In this work, the proofs of which had been read by Admiral Sampson, the conduct of Schley both before and during the battle was severely condemned, and he was charged with exhibiting ‘timidity amounting to absolute cowardice, with having 'turned in caitiff flight,” etc. Admiral Sampson, however, had permitted Schley to remain second in command six weeks after most of the events criticised by Maclay had taken lace. Admiral Schley immeiately asked for a court of inquiry, which was granted. The court consisting of Admiral Dewey and Rear-Admirals Berham and Ramsey, organized Sept. 21, and announced its verdict, Dec. 13, 1901. Some of the questions considered were, the delay at Cienfuegos, the slow progress toward Santiago, the retrograde movement, the ‘loop' of the Brooklyn, and Schley's bearin and conduct in the foul. Admirals Benham and Ramsey found that he had exhibited “vacillation, dilatoriness, and lack of enterprise.” Admiral Dewey though condemning the ‘loop' and some other actions found the delays justifiable under the circumstances, and


personal opinion that solo was in actual command in the battle, though this question had not been before the court. All joined in suggesting that no action be taken. Admiral Schley immediately filed objections to the majority, report, but it was †. proved by the secretary of the navy, Dec. 20, 1901. An appeal to the President was likewise

fruitless. Admiral Schley has published The Rescue of Greeley (1886), with J. R. Soley, and Forty-five Years Under the Flag (1904). The testimony before the court of inquiry was, published by the Government Printing Office in 1902. Schlie mann, HE INR ICH (1822 – 90), German explorer and archaeologist, was born at Neu-Buckow , in MecklenburgSchwerin, and was engaged in commercial life in St. Petersburg (1846–63). During a trip to California in 1850, he was present when that state was received into the Union on July 4, and thus by accident, became a citizen o #. U. S. After travelling in India, China, Japan, and Greece he published (1869) an account of these travels as Ithaca, the Peloponnesus, and Troy, which exunded the chief theories which ed him to success in his excavations. His excavations began at Troy in 1870, and were continued, with breaks, until 1882. In 1876 he explored Mycenae, bringing to light an enormous o; of treasure. His book Mycerae apared in 1878, and Ilios in 1880 Eng. ed., 1881, a revised ed., Troja, 1883). In 1884 he excavated the site of Tiryns, and discovered the foundation of the palace; his book Tiryns appeared in 1885. In 1887 his correct judgment led him to try to acquire the site of Cnossus in Crete. See Schuchhardt's Schliemann's Excavations (1891). Schlüter, ANDREAs (1664– 1714), German sculptor and architect, born in Hamburg. He was for a time architect to the Sobieskis, and worked at Warsaw. In 1694 he was appointed court architect at Berlin, and in 1695 co-director of the academy. His finest works are the royal palaces at Charlottenburg (1695) and Berlin (1697–1708), the Great Elector in Berlin, and the bronze statue of the Elector Frederick III. at Königsberg. Schmalkaldic League, formed in December, 1530, by the Protestant princes and city deputies at Schmalkalden, its object being the defence of the Protestant faith and the maintenance of ol. independence against the mperor Charles v. Schmauk, THEODORE EMANUEL (1860), American clergyman,

born at Lancaster, Pa.. He gri uated (1883) at the University Pennsylvania, and took his vinity course at the Luther odoi, Theological Ser nary. e made his perman residence at Lebanon, Pa., a became literary editor of T Lutheran in 1889, and editor the Lutheran Church Review 1892. In 1903 he was elect resident of the Lutheran Gene ouncil of North Ameri Among his numerous works The Negative Criticism of , Old Testament (1894), and H tory of the Lutheran Church Pennsylvania, from the Origi Sources (1903). Sc h m er 1 in g, ANTON y (1805–93), Austrian politicia born at Vienna. He represent Austria at the Frankfort Parl o (1848–9), and was elect to the National Assembly. A pointed minister of foreign affa and of the interior by the vi regent, Archduke, John, he so resigned. He became . (18. Austrian minister of justice, a then for some years was preside of the provincial Court of Appea Becoming Austrian premier 1860, he o a new co stitution on a liberal, but ce tralistics, basis. The oppositi of the Hungarians to his poli brought about his resignation 1865. He was appointed pre dent of the Supreme Court, a in 1867 became life member the Austrian House of Pee where he led the liberal oppo tion to the measures of #o See Life, in German, by A. v. Arneth (1895). Schmidt, HENRY IMMANU (1806–89), American Luther clergyman and educator. I was born at Nazareth, Pa., a studied at the Moravian Semina there. In 1829 he severed h connection with the Moravi Church, and became a Luther clergyman. He was pastor Bergen, N. J., from 1833–36. the latter year he was ma assistant professor at Hartwi Seminary, N. Y., and from 18 to 1838 was a pastor in Bostc He became professor of Germ. and French in Pennsylvania C. lege, Gettysburg, Pä., in 183 and filled the chair of German the Theological Seminary in t same place from 1839 to 184 From 1843 to 1845 he was a po tor at Palestine, N. Y. He becar rofessor of German at Columb ollege in 1848, and remain until 1880. He wrote a Histo | Education (1842); Inaugu, ddress (1848); Scriptural Cho acter of the Lutheran Doctrine the Lord's Supper o and Course of Ancient Geograp (1860). Schmidt, NATHANIEL (186 American Hebrew scholar a Schmiedel

educator. He was born at Hudiksvall, Sweden, and studied at Stockholm, Colgate, and Berlin Universities. He was professor of Semitic languages and literatures at Colgate University from 1888 to 1896, when he accepted the same chair at Cornell. In 1904–05 he was director of the American School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. He contributed o to the Jewish Encyclopaedia and other reference works, and published Biblical Criticism and Theological Belief (1897) several "histories of 'Oriental countries, and The Prophet of Nazareth (1905). Schmiedel, PAUL WILHELM (1851), German exegete and critic, was born near Dresden; became lecturer at Jena (1878–90), professor at Zürich from 1890. "He collaborated with Holtzmann, etc., in the Kurzer Hand-Commentar, revised Winer's Grammar (1894), and contributed important articles to the Encyclopardia Biblica. Schmucker, BEALE MELANCHTHoN (1827–88), American Lutheran liturgical scholar, son of Samuel S. Schmucker. e Was born at Gettysburg, Pa., gradu: ated at Pennsylvania College, and took his course in divinity at the Gettysburg Theological Semio: e was ordained in 1847, and was pastor of Lutheran churches in Va. and Pa.. until his death. He edited the Liturgy # the Ministerium of Pennsylvan (1860), Collection of Hymns of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania (1865), and Church Book of the General Council (1868), and was co-editor of the American edition

of the Hallesche Nachrichten (1882–84). Schmucker, SAMUEL SIMON

(1799–1873), American Lutheran theologian, born at Hagerstown, Md. He studied for two years at the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1820 graduated from the Princeton Theological Seminary. In the same year he became a tor at Frederick, Ind., where e remained until 1826. From 1826 to 1864 he was chairman of the faculty of the Gettysburg Theological Seminary, and for four years was its only instructor. In 1846 he was largely instrumental in establishing ecclesiastical connection between the Lutheran Church in the U. S. and Europe. He was the author of the formula for the government and discipline of the Lutheran Church, adopted in 1826. His publications include: Elements of Popular. Theology (1834); Portraiture of Lutheranism (1840); and The American Lutheran Church Historically, Doctrinally, and Practically Poio (i. Schneekoppe, ighest a (5,265 ft.) in the #o.


Germany; has a meteorological station. Schneidemühl, th:, Prussia, prov. Posen, 52 m. N. of Posen; manufactures bricks and #. It suffered severely from floods in 1888 and 1893 (caused by an artesian well, one of the deepest in the world). Pop. (1900) 19,655. Schnitzer, EDWARD. See EMIN PASHA. Sc h n or r von Carolsfeld, JULIUS, BARON (1794–1872), German painter of pre-Raphaelite school (chiefly famous for frescoes), born at Leipzig. At Vienna (1810) he produced Contest of Three Christian and Three Heathen Knights, after Ariosto, a Holy Ho: and St. Roch Giving Alms. Passing to Italy in 1817, he spent that }. at Florence, but lived thereafter at Rome, where he decorated the Villa Massimi with frescoes, being associated with Cornelius, Overbeck, and Veit in his artistic aims. e also P.” in oils The Marriage in ana, Ruth and Boaz, Jaco Rachel, Madonna and Child, Flight into E #. Suffer Little Children, and % e Annunciation. Summoned to Munich by King Louis I. (1827), he commenced to decorate the new palace with Nibelungen scenes, turning aside at the king's request (1833–45), to frescoes of Charlemagne. Barbarossa, and Rudolph of Hapsburg. o (1846) director of the allery and academy of Dresden, e thenceforth divided his time between that city and Munich, At Leipzig (1852–60) appeared his Illustrated Bible. e also ainted in oils, for the Munich Museum, Luther at the Diet of Worms; contributed o: for St. Paul's, London, and for Glasgow Cathedral; and wrote a treatise against Kaulbach's theory of historical philosophical painting. Schoenfeld, HERMAN (1861), American author and educator, 2. born at . Oppeln, Prussia. He studied at the universities of Berlin, Leipsic, and Breslau, and in aris. He was instructor in German in Johns Hopkins Uniyersity from 1891 to 1893, when he was appointed U. S. consul at Riga, Russia, and was delegated to study higher education in Poland. He became professor of Germanic and Continental history in George Washington University in 1894, and in 1895 lecturer at the Catholic University. In 1899 he was appointed oish consuleneral at Washington. He wrote rant and Erasmus (1892) Higher Education in Poland (1896); History of Teutonic Women (1896); Women, Teutonic and Slav (1896); Erasmus and Rabelais (1903); Bismarck's Letters and Orations, ed. (1903). Schöffer, PETER. See FUST, and PRINTING.


Schofield, John McALLISTER (1831–1906), American soldier, born in Gerry, __Chautauqua co., New York. He graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1853; entered the army, and was promoted first lieutenant in 1855. He taught natural and experimental philosophy in the academy our of 1855–60; and in 1860–61, while on leave of absence, was professor of physics in Washington, University, Mo. When the Civil War began, he was appointed a major in the First Mo. volunteers, and served as Gen. Lyon's chief of staff at Dug Springs and at the battle of Wilson's Creek, where Lyon was killed. IIe participated in the conflict of "Fredericktown in October, 1861; was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, in November; , and commanded the militia of Mo. until November, 1862, when he was promoted major-general of , volunteers. . With the “Army of the Frontier” he then performed some valuable service in Mo. and Ark. and in April, 1863, took comman for a time of a division in the Army of the Cumberland. In the following January he was assigned to command the Army of the Ohio under Gen. Sherman, and participated in the conflicts at Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dallas, and Kenesaw Mountain. and in the operations against Hood around Atlanta. When Gen. Sherman started on his “march to the sea,’ he sent Gen. Schofield with the Twenty-third Corps to report to Gen. Thomas at Nashville, Tenn. Schofield commanded the Union forces at the battle of Franklin }. FRANKLIN, BATTLEs of) ought on Nov. 30, 1864, , an two weeks afterwards assisted in the destruction of . Hood's army at Nashville. He was then transferred to N. C., captured Wilmington and other places, and served under Sherman in the final operations against Gen. |...}. He was promoted rigadier-general of regulars for his services at Franklin in 1864; attained the rank of major-general of regulars in 1869, and of lieutenant-general, in 1895; and was commander-in-chief of the armies of the U. S. during 1888– 95. In 1865 he was sent on a special mission to France to insist upon the withdrawal of the French troops from Mexico, and he was secretary of war during the last eight months of President Johnson's administration. He published Forty-six Years in the Army (1897).

Scholarship., The term used of the financial provision made for , the tuition and support of students in American colleges. As o fellowships (q.v.), scholarships are granted

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