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Shoddy

face temperature. Shock varies with the temperament, and with the physical and mental condition of the patient. It is usually immediate in its effects, but may be deferred in those who are under intense mental preoccupation or excitement. Burns and crushing injuries are more apt to produce the condition than are "incised wounds, unless the latter are complicated by severe haemorrhage. A slight degree of shock in cases of haemorrhage is often beneficial, since it lowers the blood pressure and allows of the sealing of the vessels. , Since the o of anaesthetics, operations are much less freuently followed by collapse, though this may still occur even while the patient is anaesthetized. The cause of shock, is most probably a reflex inhibition, of the splanchnic nerves, , leading ... to sudden paralysis, and great dilatation of all the abdominal bloodvessels, which become engorged with blood at the expense of the rest of the lo. ecovery is frequently heralded by an attack of vomiting. In the graver cases a fatal result may follow the collapse almost immediately, or the torpid condition may transformed into a state of prostration with excitement, in which the respiration is hurried, and the skin is hot and flushed. Such a patient often exhibits intense headache, thirst, and suppression of urine, and becomes restless, excited, and delirious. Death may ensue from exhaustion. The patient must be kept at rest in the recumbent position with the head low. xternal warmth must be supplied by means of hot blankets and hot-water bottles; mustard may, be applied over the heart, and friction of the limbs is sometimes useful. Should the patient be unable to swallow, alcohol and other stimulants, such as ammonium carbonate, may be introduced by the bowel, while ether may be injected subcutaneously. In profound shock artificial respiration may be required, and benefit has in some cases been derived from electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerves, the electrodes being applied to the neck and to the epigastrium. In shock, after severe haemorrhage, transfusion of blood or of saline solution may be advisable. As soon as possible nourishment ought to be administered in a form easy, of assimilation and along with diffusible stimulants. Shoddy. TILES. Shoe - bi 11, or WHALE-HEAD (Balaeniceps rex), a large and very remarkable bird found o in the marshes round the hite Nile and its affluents, regarded

See WoolleN TEx

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by some authorities as an aberränt heron, and . by others as a stork: ...The special peculiarity is the bill, which is very, large, broad, and depressed, and down the middle of the upper portion

bears a strong ridge which ends in a prominent hook.. There is a short crest; the plumage ...is brownish-gray, the wiłł tails, and feet being black. he bird, which is rare, feeds on fish caught while wading. Shoeblacking. See BLACKING. Shoeburyness, cape, in Essex, England, on Thames, opposite Sheerness. The School of Gunnery and, Royal Artillery works are established here. Pop. (1901) 4,081. Shoes, MANUFACTURE OF. The manufacture of shoes in the United States dates back to the landing of the Pilgrims, for one of the passengers on the Mayflower was a shoemaker with a supply of hides. By the end of the i7th century shoemaking was a flourishing industry in New England, and during the Revolution all the shoes worn by , the Continental army were made in Massachusetts. Up to the middle of the 19th century the manufacture of shoes in łoś. States was strictly a hand, process. Shoes were hand sewed, nailed with copper, or pegged with wood. . The cobbler worked at his bench, with a few simple tools, and labored over each shoe until it was complete. The few factories were little less primitive, dividing the various stages of the labor among several workmen, although no machinery was employed. The first successful application of machinery to American shoe manufacture was made in 1845. In this year was invented a rollin machine for softening leather, and almost immediately afterward there was introduced a wax-thread

Shoes

sewing machine for sewing the uppers, a buffing machine for removing the grain from soleleather, a machine for making pegs, and a peg-driving machine; a splitting machine for solé leather soon afterward came into extensive use. The , McKay sewing machine, introduced in 1860, had probably more to do with revolutionizing the shoe industry than any other machine before or since invented. In this the shoe was placed on a saddle or horn, and the thread passed from the outsole through the scle and insole; forming a loop stitch. The next important invention was a machine for compressing and .# heels. An epoch, in shoe manufacture was marked by the introduction of the Goodyear outsole lock-stitch machine about 1860. This united the outsole to the welt by a chain-stitch from a channel in the outsole. This appliance was soon afterward improved upon, so that in one #. it prepared and trimmed the insole, and rounded and channeled the outsole, as well as making the actual stitches. From this machine was developed the Goodyear welt system, which is now employed almost universally for making the better grades of shoes. In the early 70's a machine was invented, for automatically drawing the shoe-upper over the last to allow of its being tacked by hand. In comparatively recent times, a lasting-machine ña. bc.cn introduced which not only fits the upper to the last but tacks it as well. Numerous other shoemaking appliances have been perfected in recent years, among them a machine designed to attach the soles with wire instead of the usual waxed thread. Almost all of the improvements in machinery for shoe manufacture have been made in the United States, and American made shoes are acknowledged to be the best in the world, both as regards style and durability. In modern shoe manufacture almost the only hand process now employed is the first one, that of cutting the leather for the uppers. This is done by men laying the skin over a bench, placing the pattern upon it, and cutting out the piece of leather, which is shaped close to the metal or brassbound cardboard pattern. In this manner the vamps, quarters, tops side linings, stays, facings, an other trimmings are cut. The yarious component parts having been cut, are passed, in dozen pair lots or more, into the machine room to be stitched together. The first machine employed is one with a rapidly revolving circular knife for 'skiying’ or beveling the edges of the leathers that have to be seamed or folded, after which

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snaped moulds in a machine which nails them loosely together, and, then they are :rished in a machine which brings a pressure of several tons to bear on them and so makes them into a solid heel. The top lift, however, is not added until the heel has been nailed to the shoe. These parts are then sent to the jubiš. room to join the uppers. he uppers, lasts, and bottom parts are now started through the making and finishing rooms. The insole is placed on the lasting machine, and the upper, is then added, being moulded into the shape of the last, the machine twisting, it in, with , pincers, and driving in tacks to hold it to the insole, just as a man would do b hand. By the Goodyear, west 3. the upper is nailed flat own to the insole, but is brought up against a lip previously out in the latter. ... It stands out with this lip Yolo from the insole, the tacks only holding it temporarily. he shoe is now welted, the ma; chine sewing through the lip and upper with a curved needle, and through the welt, which the machine holds in position, binding the three together, all this bein done on the outside, the last sti remaining in the shoe. The shoe being now welted, the seam, as it is called, is trimmed ièvei, the welt beaten out straight, and the bottom packed level with felt or other material. The outsole is now laid on, and held in position with nails; paste, or rubber cement. The shoe is now sent to the rounding machine, which cuts the channel in the outsole to receive the stitch; from there it passes again through the sewin machine, which stitches throug the welt outside of the upper. After this it is Ho! to the sevelling machine, which rolls down the sole, with considerable pressure of it, and moulding it into the waist of the last. The shoe is now ready for heeling...This is done on a machine that nails the previously built, heel on at one stroke. Another, machine drives slugs round the wearing part of , the top-piece, making its own, slugs from a continuous wire, and driving them home so rapidly that the operation cannot be followed by the eye. . The , shoe, is now technically “made,’ and is to the finishing room. The first operation here is cutting down the breast of the heel with a guillo

tine knife regulated to reach the sole but not mark it. second operation is trimming the heel to

the desired shape, which is done by revolving knives running at a very high speed. The heei is afterwards smoothed with sandpaper. A similar operation trims the ed of the sole smooth, and then

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Shogun

sole-edge and heel are colored and burnished with hot irons by machinery. The shoe is then passed forward to have the bottoms buffed, colored, , and polished. . The completed shoe is then, cleaned, treed, and packed for shipment. The Federal census of 1905 reported 1,316 factory-system boot and shoe manufacturing plants in the United States, employing an aggregate capital of $122,526,093 and 149,924 wage-earners, paying $69,059,680 for wages and $197,363,495, for materials, and having a combined output... valued at $320,107,458. Wholly distinct from the foregoing were plants having the following products and values: cut stock, $27,675,815; findings, $9,355,620;, and uppers $549,867. The production of a leather boots and shoes and parts was valued at $357,688,760; the total of rubber boots and shoes was $70,065,296–making a grand total of $427,754,056. Shogun (lit. ‘General'), the title of the de facto ruler of Japan from 1185 until the revolution of 1868, when the Mikado, who had always been recognized as the de iure sovereign, deposed the last older of the office. , Tycoon, or Taikun (“Great Lord'), is pro erly applicable to the Mikado only. Shola, or Solars, the pith of an Indian plant, chymomene aspera, largely used in making helmets and hats. Sholapur, th: and cantonment, cap. of Sholapur dist., Bombay, India, 147 m. S.E. of Poona. An important railway, station with manufactures of silk and cotton. Pop. (1901) 75,288. S h on ts, THEODoRE PERRY (1856), American engineer, chairman of the Panama Canal Commission. He was born in Craw. ford co., Pa., and graduated at Monmouth College in 1876. He was admitted to the Iowa bar and practised law in Centerville. In 1882 he became interested in the construction of a railroad between Centerville and Albia, now a part of , the Burlington system, He built the Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa railroad, of which he was an owner and president of the company. He became president of the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railroad Co. in 1893, and was chairman of the Panama Canal Commission in 1906–07, when he became president of the Interborough-Metropolitan Co. operat.ng the N. Y. street railways. Shooting in America includes a variety of branches of the sport, each with an enthusiastic following. Many to ... whom firearms appeal, more particularly as weap3.5 of the Chase, hold that big game hunting with the rifle

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has unequalled attractions. (See HUNTING For BIG GAME.) With others, field shooting with the shotgun in pursuit of game birds takes high rank. This, sport, is almost universally practised with the aid of dogs, which add markedly to the pleasure to be derived as well as to the success of the hunter. The ruffed grouse, of our native game birds, may deservedly be placed first. In flight strong, and matching remarkable cunning against the skill, of the sportsman, he who can bring to bag a fair proportion of these birds encountered in a day's * may consider his ability with the gun well established. uail and woodcock as well as snipe also furnish excellent sport. The introduction of heasants in a number of states is ing attended with a fair degree of success, and with proper protection another highly esteemed game bird will thus be added to our covers, replacing to a certain extent that ncble American bird, the vanishing wild turkey. For field shooting the double-barrel hammerless shotgun of 12 gauge with 28 or 30 inch barrels an weighing from 6% to 7+ pounds may be considered the typica arm. Repeating shotguns and also the semi-automatic pattern have ained wide popularity since their introduction and are the choice of many. , Smokeless powders, through their obvious advantages of an almost entire absence of smoke, lessened recoil, and greater cleanliness, have almost completely o black powder. Guns of fairly open bore, rather than the full choke at one time the standard, are now the choice of numerous sportsmen, the right-barrel cylinder and the left modified choke having many advocates. Ducks of all varieties, though their numbers have noticeably decreased in most sections the past few years, furnish sport for a multitude during their migrations. Various methods are in vogue in connection with duck-shooting, though the laws of most states tend to uniformity in prohibiting the molestation of wild fowl during the breeding season. Night shooting, the use of guns of large bore, and shooting from power boats are also forbidden in many sections. Either on the seacoast or on inland waters, decoys, both live and artificial, are commonly used, the shooter being concealed in a blind conforming to the natural surroundings. For this sport the o full- choke double hammerless gun of from 8 to 9 pounds in weight is considered most desirable, , as heavy loads of powder and shot are required to , insure killing the heavily feathered birds. A maga

Shooting

zine gun , is often , used, and has the advantage of placing an extra number of shots at one's command. The past dozen years have witnessed marked changes in rifles, principally due to the introduction of smokeless powders. Experiments on the Continent, in which Prof. Rubin was the pioneer, resulted in the adoption by the leading, nations of milita repeating rifles of relatively small bore, o .30 calibre. The bullet was a wide departure from previous o inasmuch as it was made with a hard jacket, usually composed of cupro-nickel, enclosing a soft lead core. The advantages of this type of arm, such as high velocity, flat trajectory, and reduced recoil, at once interested sportsmen. As a result sporting models of the military bolt-action repeating arms soon appeared. e immense penetration of the full-jacketed bullet was neither necessary nor desirable for sporting purposes, as, unless a bone was struck, the bullet would pass through game animals without inflicting a mortal wound. ... Consequently , the soft-point bullet, in which the lead core was left exposed, was evolved. These, on striking game, expand or mushroom, having the effect of bullets of much larger original diameter. This type of weapon and ammunition gained immediate popularity, and as a result the .45 and .50 calibre heavy express arms, o the standard big game rifles of black owder days, were superseded. f late, owing perhaps to a desire to kill game with a certainty that did not seem so vital when the supply was more abundant, there has been a demand for sporting rifles of even greater energy than could be produced by modifications of standard military cartridges of .30 calibre. Consequently repeating arms may now be obtained for special game cartridges of great power, up to 40 calibre. enmi-automatic rifles have been developed to a high state of efficiency, and while used by some hunters are condemned by the better class of sportsmen. Small game, such as rabbits and squirrels, are hunted with rides of .22, .25, .28, and .32 cali

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i"...". is *of and their light weight, and slight recoil result in their use to the exclusion of arms of larger calibre. Target-shooting with rifles, revolvers, and pistols has long been a recognized pastime in America, and there are many clubs devoted exclusively to the purpose. Ranges 200 yards in length have been most popular for the past 25 years, and a high degree of skill has been developed. The record scores have been made with the improved schuetzen type of rifle, an arm weighing from 13 to 16 pounds with a set, or hair trigger and peep or telescope sights. The calibres most in use are .32 33, and 3s." The builei is of lead and tin, grooved and lubricated, and for the most accurate results is loaded from the muzzle, thus centring and fitting perfectly in the rifling; the shell charged , with blac wder, rimed with a few grains of smokeess to aid in cleaning the bore, being inserted at the breech. Groups of 10 consecutive shots in a 2-inch circle at 200 yards from rest must be made with these arms to conform with the schuetzen expert's standard of accuracy. The two targets in general use for offhand shooting at 200 yards are the Standard American and the German ring. The dimensions of the former are as follows: 10 circle, 3.36 inches; 9 circle, 5.54; 8 circle, 8; 7 circle, 11; 6 circle, 14.8; 5 circle, 19.68; 4 circle, 26; 3 circle, 34.22; 2 circle, 46; and balance of target 4 x 6 feet, counting 1. The bull's-eye includes either the 8 or 7 circles, as individual riflemen may elect, the choice depending upon peculiarities of eyesight as well as on the sights used upon the rifle. The German ring o has a centre measuring 1% inches counting 25, circles # inch apart counting down to 1 composing the balance of the target, the bull's-eye, including the 18 ring, being 12 inches. Long-range shooting, formerly a popular pastime, has recently been revived. Modern military rifles are excellently adapted to the purpose, as they are extremely accurate, and they are the chosen arm of the majority. As a consequence, military rules and targets are adopted by civilian clubs devoted to this class of shooting. The dimensions of the regulation military targets are as follows: Third class for 200 and 300 yards, bull's-eye 8 inches, centre 26 inches, inner 46 inches, outer 4 x 6 feet. Second class for 500 and 600 yards, bull's-eye 22 inches, centre 38 inches, inner. 54 inches, outer 6 x 6 feet. First class for 800, 900, and 1,000 yards, bull's-eye 3 feet, centre 4% feet, inner 6 feet square, outer 12 x 6 feet. The bull's-eye counts 5, centre 4, inner 3, and outer 2: At 200 yards the position required is standing, at 300 yards kneeling or sitting, and at the longer ranges prone. Indoor rifle shooting has many interested followers and numerous clubs maintain galleries devoted exclusively to this purpose. The usual distance is 25 yards Shorthand

and the calibre of the rifles is limited to .22. No restrictions are made as to weight, sights, or trigger pull, and #. schuetzen type of weapon is in general use, resulting in remarkably high records. The ring target with a §§ centre counting 25, and 4-inch rings counting down, to 1, with the bull's-eye including the 22 ring, is the standard. Revolver . and pistol practice exclusively is carried on "in numerous clubs, while many rifle clubs, provide facilities, for this branch of the sport. Fifty yards is the maximum range generally adopted, though milita competitions sometimes include a 75ard stage. Target revolvers are imited by , standard rules to , a length of barrel, including the

cylinder, of 10 inches, and a minimum trigger pull of 2% pounds. The most popular

weapons are of .32, .38, and .44 calibre. Military revolvers are defined as being of the model issued by the government for service and have barrels 6 or 6 inches in length. They are use to a considerable extent for target practice under military rules, and with the addition of adjustable sights are equal to the oforio e

special target weapons. trigger pull must be at least 4 pounds.

The single-shot pistol with a 10-inch barrel is considered the arm capable of the best results in target practice. ...It is, almost invariably of .22 calibre, the light recoil of this cartridge proving an advantage to many. A 2go." trigger pull is the standard. emi-automatic magazine pistols are now produced in a number of models and are gaining in popularity, o the target recor made with the revolver have not as yet been equalled. The 200yard Standard American rifle target is used in practice with target revolvers and , pistols at 50 yards, and the third-class military rifle target for military revolver competitions. Indoor revolver and pistol clubs almost invariably adopt a range of 20 yards, using the Standard American target with a 23-inch bull's-eye. or trap shooting see PIGEON SHootING.

Shore. See SEASHORE.

Shore, JANE (d. P1527), a woman of singular wit and beauty, wife of a London goldsmith, who subsequently became the mistress of Edward iv. When he died she became a companion of Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset. She was tried for witchcraft by order of the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III., and condemned (1483) to walk in penitential garb, with a taper in her hand and attired only, in her kirtle, an incident utilized by

Shakespeare in Richard III. Two Alays have been founded on her fe, one § Nicholas Rowe (1714), the other by W. G. Wills (1876). Shoreditch. See LoNDON. Shoreham, WILLIAM of. See with AM of ŠHöß. Shore Lark, a lark (Otocorys § of the northern part of orth America, and the only true alandine) lark on the continent. tis a small, ground-keeping, yet often high-flying, bird, with a brownish streaked }. e. and conspicuous black feathers form: ing a little erectile ‘horn' on each side behind the head. They sing in spring with great, brilliancy while hovering high in the air over the place where, among the grass, their mates are attending to their nests and speckled eggs. These birds. are most numerous and familiar on the interior plains. Shorey, PAUL (1857), American Greek scholar, was born at Davenport, Ia., and graduated (1878), at Harvard, taking his PH.D. degree at Munich in 1884. He was admitted to the bar in Chicago in 1880, and practised for a short time. From 1885 to 1892 he was professor of Greek at Bryn Mawr, and in the latter year accepted the same chair at the University of Chicago. During 1901–2 he was professor at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens. He published De Platonis Idearum Doctrina o). The Ido,2{ good, in lato's Republic (1895), The Odes and Epodes of Horace (1898), and The Unity of Plato's Thought (1903). . Shoring refers to the support: ing of walls from which the natural or original supports have been temporarily removed. The shor

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1767, after his death. This was follo by those of Dr. W. F. Mavor (1780), Samuel Taylor (1786), and ło Henry Lewis (1812). Taylor's is an excellent system of its class, has been adapted to several foreign lan#. and is still used by some

nqon legal shorthand writers.

Phonetic Systems.-Practically from the outset writing by sound has been more or less aimed ate.g. John Willis (1602) gave instructions to omit silent letters, and to write not by orthography but according to sound. In many other A B C systems, there are traces of ‘phonetic pairing,’ such as the use of similar signs (differing in length, thickness, or position) for f and v, for t and d. The first system on a full, phonetic basis was William Tiffin's (1750), followed #. those of David

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Pitman's Phonography.—The most important phonetic system is that of Isaac Pitman, first §. in 1837 as Stenographic oundhand. It was the result of attempts to improve the vowel representation of Taylor. The phonetic principle is adopted to the full extent. The consonants number twenty-four, the pairs known as “breath’ and ‘voice’ letters being, represented by characters written in the same direction, but made thin and thick respectively. (see, Fig. 2). The vowels are divided into six long and six short, for which are provided detached signs, a dot and a dash, written heavy, and light, in three positions with re#. to the consonant, and four iphthongs. The number of sounds ous rovided for by the alphabet is forty. In 1840 the system appeared under the new title of Phonography, or Writin by Sound, being also a New an Natural System of Shorthand, in the form of an engraved sheet. The consonant signs were arranged somewhat differently from the 1837 plan, , and have since remained practically , unaltered. The vowel scale now in use was not settled till 1858 (see Fig. 3). There are, in addition, many principles of abbreviation. The name phonography had been used by at |. three previous writers, one being V. D. de Stains, the author of a shorthand system which appeared in 1839 (2d ed. 1842), the original title, however being o; by an error) given as negraphy. Geometrical v. Script Systems. —The former class includes systems using only straight lines and regular curves (segments of circles), the vowels * represented, in general, by detached

191

marks. In the latter class the characters are intended to follow the general slo of ordinary longhand, (e.g. Callendar's; see Fig. 1), the vowels, when shown, being written by joined signs. The earliest script systems were those of S. G. Bordley (1787), R. Roe (1802), which was also phonetic, T. Oxley (1816), J. and J. Aitchison (1832), and D. Cadman (1835), but none of these became Polo, Script systems have en in use on the Continent from the time of Fayet's French system (1832) and Gabelsberger's erman (1834); and of late years a few have appeared in Great Britain and in the United States. Amongst them may be mentioned those of T. S. Malone (1886) . R. Gregg o , F. j. Kingsford 1888), H. L. Callendar (1889), ... Sweet (1892), and A. J. Clay |...}} besides some ado rom foreign systems. Many of the script systems, , are also “light-line” methods, thickened or ‘shaded’or signs being either absent or used only for special purposes, their authors contending that a sufficient distinction between light and heavy characters is generally not practicable, despite the experience of o and other systems using the principle. For a full discussion of the comparative merits and disadvantages of geometrical and script systems, see A Monograph on cript and Geometric Shorthand, §: Crabb Watt (1889). owel "Representation.—At ts. usual rate of public speaking it is impossible to write down all the letters (or all the o of eyery word uttered, and abbreviation of some kind is essential. Most shorthand methods provide for a very full representation of the consonants, and for the omission (to a greater or less extent) of the vowels, according to some recognized principle. (1.) Detached vowels. . In most geometrical shorthand systems, the consonants of a word are generally written first, without, lifting the pen, and form the skeleton or “outline.' . In the full style of shorthand, the vowels are then added by means of detached marks placed in various positions near the proper consonant. In brief shorthand (reporting style) the important or necessary vowels only are written, or are indicated by the position of the outline or otherwise. Some systems depend almost entirely upon the consonantal representation—e.g. Taylor's, in which one dot, in any position, may represent any of the five vowels. Others employ signs of different shape for the different vowels; while in phonetic systems the more numerous vowel-sounds to be represented are provided for by a dot, a dash,

Shorthand

or a small curve, placed in various positions. (2.) Vowel mode: One of the earliest methods of vowel indication, now known as “vowel mode,’ was to show the vowel between two consonants by the position of the second with reference to the first. For example, the word man was written thus—first the sign for m, then the sign for n, not joined to but commencing, near the beginning of the m, and indicating the ‘firstplace’ vowel a. Similarly, in the word men, the n commenced a little way from the beginning of the m, indicating the ‘secondplace' vowel e, and so on. This method, which involves the lifting of the pen, was revived so recently as 1877 in the ingenious system of Prof. J. D. Everett of Belfast. (3.) Vowel indication. By variations in the length or the shape of a consonant certain systems indicate the presence and the place (though not necessarily the walio, or the absence of a vowel. us, in A. Melville Bell's system (1855), each consonant had three lengths—the longest sign to indicate a vowel before it, the medium length a vowel after, and the shortest sign no vowel either before or after. In reporting, as indicated above, vowels in the middle of words are generally not shown; but, it is very desirable that initial vowels, and to a less extent final vowels, should either...be written or their presence indicated. In many systems—Pitman's among others—the consonant outline occasionally shows the place of a vowel, and the kind of vowel is sometimes indicated by the position of the outline above, on, or through the line; but there is lack of any definite general rule on the point. In Edward Pocknell's system (1881), notable for the employment of many ingenious principles of abbreviation, the principle of vowel-position indication was carried out very fully. Each consonant had three different shapes (as compared with Bell’s three lengths)—a straight line and the two curves of the same direction (see the three signs for p in Fig. 2). The two curved signs were used to show initial or final vowels, which were supposed to be carried in the hollow of the curve; thus, the third p sign, used at the beginning of a word, meant ap, ep, etc., and the second sign, used at the end of a word, meant pa, etc. In the middle of words any of the three signs could be used, according to convenience of joining, as a vowel was always ‘understood’ at the junction of two consonants. The use of the three shapes necessitated the employment of , three lengths of consonants—short, medium,

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