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Shoddy

face temperature. Shock varies with the temperament, and with the physical and mental condition of the patient. It is usually immediate in its effects, but may be deferred in those who are under intense mental preoccupation or excitement. Burns and crushing injuries are more apt tc produce the condition than are incised wounds, unless the latter are complicated by severe hxmorrhage. A slight degree of shock in cases of haemorrhage is often beneficial, since it lowers the blood pressure and allows of the sealing of the vessels. Since the introduction of anaesthetics, operations are much less frequently followed by collapse, though this may still occur even while the patient is anaesthetized. The cause of s!-ock is most probably a reflex inhibition of the splanchnic nerves, leading to sudden paralysis and great dilatation 01 all the abdominal bloodvessels, which become engorged with blood at the expense of the rest of the body. Recovery is frequently heralded by an attack of vomiting. In the graver cases a fatal result may follow the collapse almost immediately, or the torpid condition may be transformed into a state of prostration with excitement, in which the respiration is hurried, and the skin is hot and flushed. Such a patient often exhibits intense headache, thirst, and suppression of urine, and becomes restless, excited, and delirious. Death may ensue from exhaustion. The patient must be kept at rest in the recumbent position with the head low. External warmth must be supplied by means of hot blankets and hot-water bottles; mustard may be applied over the heart, and friction of the limbs is sometimes useful. Should the patient be unable to swallow, alcohol and other stimulants, such as ammonium carbonate, may be introduced by the bowel, wnile ether may be injected subcutaneously. In profound shock artificial respiration may be required, and benefit has in some cases been derived from electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerves, the electrodes being applied to the neck and to the epigastrium. In shock after severe Haemorrhage, transfusion of blood or of saline solution may be advisable. As soon as possible nourishment ought to be administered in a form easy of assimilation and along with diffusible stimulants.

Shoddy. See Woollen TexTiles.

Shoe-bill, or Whale-head (Balantceps rex), a large and very remarkable bird found only- in the marshes round the White Nile and its affluents, regarded

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bears a strong ridge which ends in a prominent hook. There is a short crest; the plumage is brownish-gray, the wings, tails, and feet being black. The bird, which is rare, feeds on fish caught while wading.

Shoeblacklng. See BlackIng.

Shoeburyness, cape, in Essex, Englaiul, on Thames, opposite Sheerness. The School of Gunnery and Royal Artillery works are established here. Pop. (1901) 4,081.

Shoes, Manufacture Of. The manufacture cf shoes in the United States dates back to the landing of the Pilgrims, for one of the passengers on the Mayflower was a shoemaker with a supply of hides. By the end of the 17th century shocmaking was a flourishing industry in New England, and during the Revolution all the shoes worn by the Continental army were made in Massachusetts. Up to the middle of the 19th century the manufacture of shoes in the United States was strictly a hand process. Shoes were hand sewed, nailed with copper, or pegged with wood. The cobbler worked at his bench, with a few simple tools, and labored over each shoe until it was complete. The few factories were little less primitive, dividing the various stages of the labor among several workmen, although no machinery was employed.

The first successful application of machinery to American shoe manufacture was made in 1845. In this year was invented a rolling machine for softening leather, and almost immediately afterward there was introduced a wax-thread

Shoes

sewing machine for sewing the uppers, a buffing machine for removing the grain from soleleather, a machine for making pegs, and a peg-driving machine; a splitting machine for sole leather soon afterward came into extensive use. The McKay sewing machine, introduced in 1800, had probably more to do with revolutionizing the shoe industry than any other machine before or since invented. In this the shoe was placed on a saddle or horn, and the thread passed from the outsole through the sole and insole, forming a loop stitch. The next important invention was a machine for compressing and nailing heels. An epoch in shoe manufacture was marked by the introduction of the Gocdyear outsole lock-stitch machine about 1860. This united the outsole to the welt by a chain-stitch from a channel in the outsole. This appliance was soon afterward improved upon, so that in one operation it prepared and trimmed the insole, and rounded and channeled the outsole, as well as making the actual stitches. From this machine was developed the Goodyear welt system, which is now employed almost universally for making the better grades of shoes. In the early 70's a machine was invented for automatically drawing the shoe-upper over the last to allow of its being tacked by hand. In comparatively recent times a lasting-machine has been introduced which not only fits the upper to the last but tacks it as well. Numerous other shcemaking appliances have been perfected in recent years, among them a machine designed to attach the soles with wire instead of the usual waxed thread. Almost all of the improvements in machinery for shoe manufacture have been made in the United States, and American made shoes are acknowledged to be the best in the world, both as regards style and durability.

In modern shoe manufacture almost the only hand process now employed is the first one, that of cutting the leather for the uppers. This is done by men laying the skin over a bench, placing the pattern upon it, and cutting out the piece of leather, which is shaped close to the metal or brassbound cardboard pattern. In this manner the vamps, quarters, tops, side linings, stays, facings, and other trimmings are cut. The various component parts having been cut, arc passed, in dozen pair lots or more, into the machine room to be stitched together. The first machine employed is one with a rapidly revolving circular knife for 'skiving' or leveling the edges of the leathers that have to be seamed 'or folded, after which

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The Manufacture of a Shoe.

Yiff. 1 the parts of a shoe ns out out of the skin (drawn to scale). Fig. 2. the two pieces of upper, inside lining, leather baek-stjty, and loop, all sewn together. Fig. 3, quarter, vamp and toe-cap sewn together, anil attached to the upper: the quarter Ib cut smaller than the upper, stretched, and joined at A. The toe and sides are pulled over the block, ami nnilcd loosely to the inner sole (• rough rounding'). Fig. 4, vamp and quarter are sewn to the "feather' (1. Bi; the welt is sewn through channel mid feather (2}: the middle sole (8) is laid on. and then the outer sole (4). the dotted line shows the shape of the piece. Fig. 5, singes in the construction of the heel.

the parts are carefully pasted together and passed to the machines to be stitched, and finally hammered oil under a little powerhammer to level the scams. Here, also, the eyelets are put in by a machine that punches a hole, feeds in the eyelet, and clinches it all at one stroke.

The completed upper is now passed to the sole-leather department, the first section of which is usually styled the assembling room. In it the uppers and lasts

and the component parts of the bottom—soles, insoles, etc.—are assembled together. These bottom parts arc cut in the roughstuff department from butts, bends, shoulders, and bellies under powerful eccentric presses, with dies shaped to the various lasts and parts required. The soles and insoles are levelled and passed through heavy rolling-machines, which harden the leather and

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•ve all surface irregularities, heels are built with 'lifts' in

Shoes

onaped moulds in a machine which nails them loosely together, and then they are rnnced in a machine which brings a pressure of several tons to bear on them, and so makes them into a solid heel. The top lift, however, is not added until the heel has been nailed to the shoe. These parts are then sent to the assembling room to join the uppers.

The uppers, lasts, and bottom parts arc now started through the making and finishing rooms. The insole is placed on the lasting machine, and the upper is then added, being moulded into the shape of the last, the machine twisting it in with pincers, and driving in tacks to hold it to the insole, just as a man would do by hand. By the Goodyear welt process the upper is nailed flat down to the insole, but is brought up against a lip previously rut in the latter. It stands out with this lip vertically from the insole, the tacks only holding it temporarily. The shoe is now welted, the machine sewing through the lip and upper with a curved needle, and through the welt, which the machine holds in position, binding the three together all this being done on the outside, the last still remaining in the shoe. The shoe being now welted, the seam, as it is called, is trimmed level, the welt beaten out straight, and the bottom packed level with felt or other material. The outsole is now laid on, and held in position with nails, pastet or rubber cement. The shoe is now sent to the rounding machine, which cuts the channel in the outsole to receive the stitch; from there it passes again through the sewing machine, which stitches through the welt outside of the upper. After this it is passed to the levelling machine, which rolls down the sole with considerable pressure levelling it, and moulding! t into the waist ofthe last. The shoe is now ready for heeling. This is done on a machine that nails the previously built heel on at one stroke'. Another machine drives slugs round the wearing part of the top-piece, making its own slugs from a continuous wire, and driving them home so rapidlv that the operation cannot be followed by the eye.

The shoe is now technically 'made,' and is passed to the finishing room. The first operation here is cutting down the breast of the heel with a guillotine knife regulated to reach the sole but not mark it. The second operation is trimming the heel to the desired shape, which is done by revolving knives runnincr at a very high speed. The hcei is afterwards smoothed with sandpaper. A similar operation trims the edge of the sole smooth, and, then the Mi.,nun

s.ole-cdge and heel are colored and burnished with hot irons by machinery. The shoe is then passed forward to have the bottoms buffed, colored, and polished. The completed shoe is then cleaned, treed, and packed for shipment.

The Federal census of 1905 reported 1,310 factory-system boot and shoe manufacturing plants in the United States, employing an aggregate capital of $122,520,093 and 149,924 wage-earners, paying $69,059,680 for wages and $197,363,495 for materials, and having a combined output valued at $320,107,458. \\holly distinct from the foregoing were plants having the following products and values: cut stock, $27.675,815; findings, $9,355,620; and uppers, $549,867. The production of all leather boots and shoes and parts was valued at $357,688,700; the total of rubber boots and shoes was $70,065,296—making a grand total of $427,754,056.

Mi i.u i in (lit. 'General'), the title of the de facto ruler of japan from 1185 until the revolution of 1868, when the Mikado, who had always been recognized as the de jure sovereign, deposed the last holder of the office. Tycoon, or Taikun ('Great Lord'), is properly applicable to the Mikado only.

Shola, or Solah. the pith of an Indian plant, Aischynomene aspera, largely used in making helmets and hats.

Sholapur, tn. and cantonment, cap. of Sholapur dist., Bombay, India, 147 m. S.E. of Poona. An important railway station with manufactures of silk and cotton. Pop. (19O1) 75,288.

S h o n t s, Theodore Perry (1856), American engineer, chairman of the Panama Canal Commission. He was born in Crawford co., Pa., and graduated at Monmouth College in 1876. He was admitted to the Iowa bar and practised law in Centerville. In 1882 he became interested in the construction of a railroad between Ccnterville and Albia, now a part of the Burlington system. He built the Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa railroad, of which he was an owner and president of the company. He became president of the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railroad Co. in 1893, and was chairman of the Panama Canal Commission in 1906-07, when he became president of the Interborough-.Mi-tropolitan Co. operat• ng the N. Y. street railways.

Shoottni; '" America includes a variety of branches of the snort, each with an enthusiastic following. Many to vhom firearms appeal, more particularly as weapons of the chase, hold that big game hunting with the rifle

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has unequalled attractions. (Sec Hunting For Big Game.) With others, field shooting with the shotgun in pursuit of game birds takes high rank. This sport is almost universally practised with the aid of dogs, which add markedly to the pleasure to be derived as well as to the success of the hunter. The ruffed grouse, of our native game birds, may deservedly be placed first. In flight strong, and matching remarkable cunning against the skill of the sportsman, he who can bring to bag a fair proportion of these birds encountered in a day's shooting may consider his ability with the gun well established. Quail and woodcock as well as snipe also furnish excellent sport. The introduction of pheasants in a number of states is being attended with a fair degree of success, and with proper protection another highly esteemed game bird will thus be added to our covers, replacing to a certain extent that ncible American bird, the vanishing wild turkey. For field shooting the double-barrel hammerless shotgun of 12 gauge, with 28 or 30 inch barrels and weighing from 6j to 7i pounds may be considered the typical arm. Repeating shotguns ana also the semi-automatic pattern have gained wide popularity since their introduction and are the choice of many. Smokeless powders, through their obvious advantages of an almost entire absence of smoke, lessened recoil, and greater cleanliness, have almost completely displaced black powder. Guns of fairly open bore, rather than the full choke at one time the standard, are now the choice of numerous sportsmen, the right-barrel cylinder and the left modified choke having many advocates.

Ducks of all varieties, though their numbers have noticeably decreased in most sections the past few ^years, furnish sport for a multitude during their migrations. Various methods are in vogue in connection with duck-shooting, though the laws of mo.,t states tend to uniformity in prohibiting the molestation of wild fowl during the breeding season. Night shooting, the use of guns of large bore, and shooting from power boats are also forbidden in many sections. Either on the seacoast or on inland waters, decoys, both live and artificial, are common'y used, the shooter being concealed in a blind conforming to the natural surroundings. For this sport the 10-gauge full-choke double hammerless gun of from S to 9 pounds in weight is considered most desirable, as heavy loads of powder and shot are required to insure killing the heavily feathered birds. A maga

Shootlng

zinc gun is often used, and has the advantage of placing an extra number of shots at one's command.

The past dozen years have witnessed marked changes in rifles, principally due to the introduction of smokeless powders. Experiments on the Continent, in which Prof. Rubin was the pioneer, resulted in the adoption by the leading nations of military repeating rifles of relatively small bore, approximating .30 calibre. The bullet was a wide departure from previous types inasmuch as it was made with a hard jacket, usually composed of cupro-nickel, enclosing a soft lead core. The advantages of this type of arm, such as high velocity, flat trajectory, and reduced recoil, at once interested sportsmen. As a result sporting models of the military bolt-action repeating arms soon appeared. Tne immense penetration of the full-jacketed bullet was neither necessary nor desirable for sporting purposes, as, unless a bone was struck, the bullet would pass through game animals without inflicting a mortal wound. Consequently the soft-point bullet, in which the lead core was left exposed, was evolved. These, on striking game, expand or mushroom, having the effect of bullets of much larger original diameter. This type of weapon and ammunition gained immediate popularity, and as a result the .45 and .50 calibre heavy express arms, formerly the standard big game rifles of black powder days, were superseded. Of late, owing perhaps to a desire to kill game with a certainty that did not seem so vital when the supply was more abundant, there has been a demand for sporting rifles of even greater energy than could be produced bv modifications of standard military cartridges of .30 calibre. Consequently repeating arms may now be obtained for special game cartridges of great power, up to .40 calibre. Semi-automatic rifles have been developed to a high state of efficiency, and while used by some hunters are condemned by the belter class of sportsmen.

Small game, such as rabbits and squirrels, are hunted with rifles of .22, .25, .28, and .32 calibre, frequently equipped with telescope sights. The accuracy of such weapons is astonishing, and their light weight and slight recoil result in their use to the exclusion of arms of larger calibre.

Target-shooting with rifles, revolvers, and pistols has long been a recognized pastime in America, and then are many clubs devoted exclusively to the purpose. Ranges 200 yards in length nave been most popular for the past Shooting Shorthand

25 years, and a high degree of skill has been developed. The record scores have been made with the improved schuetzen type of rifle, an arm weighing from 13 to 16 pounds with a set or hair trigger and peep or telescope sights. The calibres most in use are .32, .33, and .38. The bullet is of lead and tin, grooved and lubricated, and for the most accurate results is loaded from the muzzle, thus centring and fitting perfectly in the rifling: the snell charged with black powder, primed with a few grains of smokeless to aid in cleaning the bore, being inserted at the breech. Groups of 10 consecutive shots in a 2-inch circle at 200 yards from rest must be made with these arms to conform with the schuetzen expert's standard of accuracy. The two targets in general use for offhand shooting at 200 yards are the Standard American and the German ring. The dimensions of the former are as follows: 10 circle, 3.31) inches; 9 circle, 5.54; 8 circle, 8; 7 circle, 11; 6 circle, 14.8; 5 circle, 19.68; 4 circle, 20; 3 circle, 34.22; 2 circle, 46; and balance of target 4x6 feet, counting 1. The bull's-eye includes either the 8 or 7 circles, as individual riflemen may elect, the choice depending upon peculiarities of eyesight as well as on the sights used upon the rifle. The German ring target has a centre measuring li inches counting 25, circles J inch apart counting down to 1 composing the balance of the target, the bull's-eye, including the 18 ring, being 12 inches.

Long-range shooting, formerly a popular pastime, has recently been revived. Modern military rifles are excellently adapted to the purpose, as they are extremely accurate, and they are the chosen arm of the majority. As a consequence, military rules and targets are adopted by civilian clubs devoted to this class of shooting. The dimensions of the regulation military targets are as follows: Third class for 200 and 300 yards, bull's-eye 8 inches, centre 26 inches, inner 46 inches, outer 4x6 feet. Second class for 500 and 600 yards, bull's-eye 22 inches, centre 38 inches, inner 54 inches, outer 6x6 feet. First class for 800, 900, and 1,000 yards, bull's-eye 3 feet, centre 4£ feet, inner 6 feet square, outer 12 x 6 fuel. The bull's-eye counts 5, centre 4, inner 3, and outer 2. At 200 yards the position required is standing, at 300 yards kneeling or sitting, and at the longer ranges prone.

Indoor rifle shooting has many interested followers and numerous chibs maintain galleries devoted exclusively to this purpose. The usual distance is 25 yards

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and the calibre of the rifles is limited to .22. No restrictions are made as to weight, sights, or trigger pull, and the schuetzen type of weapon is in general use, resulting in remarkably high records. The ring target with a f-inch centre counting 25, and J-inch rings counting down to 1, with the bull's-eye including the 22 ring, is the standard.

Revolver and pistol practice exclusively is carried on in numerous clubs, while many rifle clubs provide facilities for this branch of the sport. Fifty yards is the maximum range generally adopted, though military competitions sometimes include a 75rard stage. Target revolvers are .imited t>y standard rules to a length of barrel, including the cylinder, of 10 inches, and a minimum trigger pull of 2J pounds. The most popular weapons are of .32, .38, and .44 calibre. Military revolvers are defined as being of the model issued bv the government for service ancl have barrels 6 or 6^ inches in length. They are used to a considerable extent for target practice under military rules, and with the addition of adjustable sights are equal to the majority of special target weapons. The trigger pull must be at least 4 pounds.

The single-shot pistol with a 10-inch barrel is considered the arm capable of the best results in target practice. It is almost invariably of .22 calibre, the light recoil of this cartridge proving an advantage to many. A 2pound trigger pull is the standard. Semi-automatic magazine pistols are now produced m a number of models and are gaining in popularity, though the target records made with the revolver have not as yet been equalled. The 200yard Standard American rifle target is used in practice with target revolvers and pistols at 50 yards, and the third-class military rifle target for military revolver competitions. Indoor revolver and pistol clubs almost invariably adopt a range of 20 yards, using the Standard American target with a 2|-inch bull's-eye. For trap shooting see Pigeon ShootIng.

Shore. See Seashore.

Shore, Jane (d. ?1527), a woman of singular wit ancl beauty, wife of a London goldsmith, who subsequently became the mistress of Edward iv. When he died she became a companion of Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset. She was tried for witchcraft by order of the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard Hi., and condemned (1483) to walk in penitential garb, with a taper in her hand and attired only in her kirtle, an incident utilized by

Shoring

Shakespeare in Richard III. Two plays have been founded on her life, one by Nicholas Rowe (1714), the other by W. G. Wills (1876).

Shoredltch. See London.

Shoreham, William Of. See William Of Shoreham.

Shore Lark, a lark (Otocorys alpestris) of the northern part of North America, and the only true (alandine) lark on the continent. It is a small ground-keeping, yet often high-flying bird, with a brownish streaked pluma e, and conspicuous black feathers forming a little erectile 'horn' on each side behind the head. They sing in spring with great brilliancv while hovering high in the air over the place where, among the grass, their mates are attending to their nests and speckled eggs. These birds are most numerous and familiar on the interior plains.

Shorey, Paul (1857), American Greek scholar, was born at Davenport, la., and graduated (1878) at Harvard, taking his PH.D. degree at Munich in 1884. He was admitted to the bar in Chicago in 1880, and practised for a short time. From 1885 to 1892 he was professor of Greek at Bryn Mawr, and in the latter year accepted the same chair at the University of Chicago. During 1901-2 he was professor at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens. He published De Platonis Idcarum Doctrina (1884), The Idea ol Good in Plato's Republic (1895), The Odes and Epodes of Horace (1898), and The Unity of Plato's Thought (1903).

Shoring refers to the supporting of walls from which the natural or original supports have beer temporarily removed. The shoi

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1767, after his death. This was followed by those of Dr. W. F. Mavor (1780), Samuel Taylor (1786), and James Henry Lewis (1812). Taylor's is an excellent system of its class, has been a'dapted to several foreign languages, and is still used by some London legal shorthand writers.

Phonetic Systems.—Practically from the outset writing by sound has been more or less aimed at— e.g. John Willis (1602) gave instructions to omit silent letters, and to write not by orthography but according to sound. In many other Abc systems there are traces of 'phonetic pairing,' such as the use of similar signs (differing in length, thickness, or position) for 7 and 11, for t and d. The first system on a full phonetic basis was William Tiffin's (1750), followed by those of David Lvle (1762), Holdsworth and Aldridge (1766), Richard Roe (1802), and Thomas Towndrow (1831).

Pitman's Phonography.—The most important phonetic system is that of Isaac Pitman, first published in 1837 as Stenographic Soundhand. It was the result of attempts to improve the vowel representation of Taylor. The phonetic principle is adopted to the full extent. The consonants number twenty-four, the pairs known as 'breath' and 'voice' letters being represented by characters written in the same direction, but made thin and thick respectively (see Fig. 2). The vowels are divided into six long and six short, for which are provided detached signs, a dot and a dash, written neavy and light, in three positions with respect to the consonant, and four diphthongs. The number of sounds thus provided for by the alphabet is forty. In 1840 the system appeared under the new title of Phonography, or Writing, by Sound, being also a New and Natural System of Shorthand, in the form of an engraved sheet. The consonant signs were arranged somewhat differently from the 1837 plan, and have since remained practically unaltered. The vowel scale now in use was not settled till 1858 (see Fig. 3). There arc, in addition, many principles of abbreviation. The name phonography had been used by at least three previous writers, one being V. D. de Stains, the author of a shorthand system which appeared in 1839 (2d cd. 1*42), the original title, however, lieirig (apparently by an error) given as Pnonegraphy.

deometrical v. Script Systems. —The former class includes systems using only straight lines and regular curves (segments of circles), the vowels being represented, in general, by detached

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marks. In the latter class the characters are intended to follow the general slope of ordinary longhand (e.g. Calendar's: see Fig. 1), the vowels, when shown, being written by joined signs. The earliest script systems were those of S. G. Bordley (1787), R.Roe(1802), which was also phonetic, T. Oxley (1810), J. and J. Aitchison (1832), and D. Cadman (1835), but none of these became popular. Script systems have been in use on the Continent from the time of Fayet's French system (1832) and Gabelsberger's German (1834); and of late years a few have appeared in Great Britain and in the United States. Amongst them may be mentioned those of T. S. Malone (1886). J. R. Gregg (1888), P. J. Kingsford (1888), H. L. Callendar (1889), H. Sweet (1892), and A. J. Clay (1898), besides some adaptations from foreign systems. Many of the script systems are also 'light-line'metnods, thickened or 'shaded'or signs being either absent or used only for special purposes, their authors contending that a sufficient distinction between light and heavy characters is generally not practicable, despite the experience of phonography and other systems using the principle. For a full discussion of the comparative merits and disadvantages of geometrical and script systems, see A Monograph on Script and Geometric Shorthand, byj. Crabb Watt (1889).

Vowel 'Representation.—At me usual rate of public speaking it is impossible to write down all the letters (or all the sounds) of every word uttered, and abbreviation of some kind is essential. Most shorthand methods provide for a very full representation of the consonants, and for the omission (to a greater or less extent) of the vowels, according to some recognized principle. (1.) Detached vowels. In most geometrical shorthand svstems, the consonants of a word are generally written first, without lifting the pen, and form the skeleton or 'outline.' In the full style of shorthand, the vowels arc then added by means of detached marks placed in various positions near the proper consonant. In brief shorthand (reporting style) the important or necessary vowels only are written, or are indicated by the position of the outline or otherwise. Some systems depend almost entirely upon the consonantal representation—e.g. Taylor's, in which one dot, in any position, may represent any of the five vowels. Others employ signs of different shape for the different vowels; while in phonetic systems the more numerous vowel-sounds to be represented are provided for by a dot, a dash,

Shorthand

or a small curve, placed in various positions. (2.) Vowel mode. One of the earliest methods of vowel indication, now known as 'vowel mode,' was to show the vowel between two consonants by the position of the second with reference to the first. For example, the word man was written thus—first the sign for m, then the sign for n, not joined to but commencing near the beginning of the m, and indicating the 'firstplace' vowel a. Similarly, in the word men, the n commenced a little way from the beginning of the m, indicating the 'secondplace' vowel e, and so on. This method, which involves the lifting of the pen, was revived so recently as 1877 in the ingenious system of Prof. J. D. Everett of Belfast. (3.) Vowel indication. By variations in the length or the shape of a consonant certain systems indicate the presence and the place (though not necessarily the quality) or the absence of a vowel. Thus, in A. Melville Bell's system (1855) each consonant had three lengths—the longest sign to indicate a vowel before it. the medium length a vowel after, and the shortest sign no vowel either before or after. In reporting, as indicated above, vowels in the middle of words are generally not shown; but it is very desirable that initial vowels, and to a less extent final vowels, should either be written or their presence indicated. In many systems—Pitman's among others—the consonant outline occasionally shows the place of a vowelj and the kind of vowel is sometimes indicated by the position of the outline above, on, or through the line; but there is lack of any definite general rule on the point. In Edward Pocknell's system (1881), notable for the employment of many ingenious principles of abbreviation, the principle of vowel-position indication was carried out very fully. Each consonant had three different shapes (as compared with Bell's three lengths)—a straight line and the two curves of the same direction (see the three signs for p in Fig. 2). The two curved signs were used to show initial or final vowels, which were supposed to be carried in the hollow of the curve; thus, the third p sign, used at the beginning of a word, meant ap, cp, etc., and the second sign, used at the end of a word, meant pa, etc. In the middle of words any of the three signs could be used, according to convenience of joining, as a vowel was always 'understood' at the junction of two consonants. The use of the three shapes necessitated the employment of three lengths of consonants—short, medium,

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