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Schools, Private

possess larger means or higher aspirations for their children. These statements indicate that, pioneer conditions having passed, the private school to some degree has become a class school, an aristocratic school. In spite of these facts it would be very misleading to represent the private school as the enemy of democracy, or as the nurse of aristocratic feeling. In its incipiency the American college included its own preparatory school. As the college developed and limited itself to strict collegiate work, schools for the preparation of students for college became a necessity. In its infancy the public nigh school made no attempt to relate itself to the college or university, and therefore made no provision for the preparation of its students to enter these higher institutions: hence private secondary schools originated in the necessity for making private provision for the college preparation of students. Besides offering opportunities for such preparation, the private secondary school offers the opportunity to acquire a good academic education. The third condition inducing private secondary instruction was found in the secular character of the public school. The most ardent friends of democracy have been the most enthusiastic supporters of the separation of church and state. The larger section of the public is so sensitive to anything looking to their union, that gradually the reading of the Bible, and all attempt at religious instruction, indeed of direct appeal to the spiritual nature of the child, has been dropped from the curriculum of the public school. This fact, coupled with the strong sectarian feeling which until within a very recent period has characterized American society, led to the establishment of private secondary schools under the protection of every leading denomination. While secularism as opposed to sectarianism has experienced a rapid growth in the last two decades, still, so late as 1904 (the latest date for obtaining statistics), more than 50 per cent, of the private schools in the United States were under denominational control.

The later secular secpnda»y schools have originated in the defects of public secondary schools. Chief of these defects is the relatively large number of pupils under the care of one single teacher, which fact forbids individual tuition and that close personal relation which is necessary to the best guidance of any student.

Number and Proportion of Pupils in Private Secondary

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Schools.—In 1907-8 there were 954,720 students receiving secondary instruction, of whom 103,808 were in private schools. This indicates a great growth since 1890 in the number of both high schools and high-school students. The last published statistics show that public high schools and students in attendance have more than trebled since that date. Private high schools increased in number and in support up to 1895, while in number such schools have decreased since 1895, so as to bring the actual number of such schools below that existing in 1890, though the number of students has almost remained stationary. In 1890 there were 1,632 private schools, which in 1895-6 had increased to 2,'06, but in 1908 had decreased to 1,320, of which 527 were in the comparatively small section of the country known as the North Atlantic division. A curious fact is, that whereas in 1890 only 94,931 students were registered in the 1,632 private schools, in 1907 91,652 students were registered in the 1,320 private schools. The progress made in

fublic secondary education since 890 has been remarkable. Its progress accounts both for the actual decrease and for the still larger apparent decadence of the private secondary school. The progress of the public secondary school has necessarily increased the school tax. The larger the tax that is imposed upon people for the support of public education, the less ready are the^ to add to this the cost of private schools for their own children. Moreover the improvement of the public secondary school has diminished the need of the private secondary school for pupils of corresponding age. On the other hand the improvement of the public secondary school is directly due to tne fact that the superiority of the private secondary school made an imperative demand for its improvement. The tendency may be summed up thus: At this date (1910) there is a tendencv toward the equalization of advantages offered by public and private secondary schools. The diminished number of the latter has increased the number of students to each teacher in the private school, and to that degree reduced the individualism of its tuition. On the other hand the growing support of the public secondary schools has diminished the number of pupils to each teacher and relatively has increased the sense of individual relation between pupils and teacher in such schools. However, the disproportion between the average num

Schools, Private

ber of pupils to each teacher in the two classes of institutions still gives the advantage to the private school.

Effect o/ Private Schools on Educational Advancement,—Private schools have initiated pedagogical reforms in all classes of schools, from infant schools to universities. For example, there is probably no community where the kindergarten has not started as a private venture, and in many of our largest cities it has become a part of the public school system only after the private kindergarten, sustained by the better classes for their own children, and the free kindergarten, maintained by the charity of the rich for the benefit of the children of the poor, have demonstrated the efficacy of this kind of infant education.

In private schools, also, have been inaugurated many features of what is called 'The New Education*—music, drawing, calisthenics, the more serious physical culture of the formal gymnasium—as well as sewing, cooking, wood-carving, and other practical applications of the trained hand.

One of the most valuable functions of the private school has been, and still is, experimentation. A school conducted by an individual who has founded it, either as a private venture or under the auspices of a board, enjoys an independence and an ease of action quite impossible to the public school. The founder of a private school may announce, as he frequently has done in the United States, that he has opened a school in order to try certain experiments, to introduce certain rarticular subjects or certain new methods of pursuing old ones. By an announcement of this sort he appeals to two classes of people: First, to those who are sympathetic with his aims; and, second, to those who, dissatisfied with existing institutions, welcome any announcement of change. By such an announcement he has established his freedom, since he has a right to assume that those coming to his school intend to conform to its requirements and to enter into his plans, co-operating with him to attain what he has pronounced desirable.

The objection most strongly urged against private secondary instruction is that it tends to induce false social ideals, and to develop class feeling which will have its outcome in the assumption of pseudo-aristocracy. On the other hand, its advocates point to the proportion of students whose education has been received in private institutions, who after their graduation have either immediately, or subscciuently to their graduation from some higher Schooner

institution, devoted themselves to some form of social service. The • second objection urged against private secondary instruction, especially against the private secondary schools for girls and young women, has been that the education received was narrow, one-sided, and superficial. As against this the following considerations may be urged: Of the 91,652 students enrolled in private secondary schools in 1 907-8, 25,611 were preparing for college, of whom almost one-third were girls; thus more than 27 per cent, of the students enrolled in such private schools were preparing for college as against less than 10 per cent, of the students enrolled in public schools. In addition to the students making

Ereparation for college, there is a irge number besides who go forward beyond the education of the secondary school into special schools, particularly schools of music, of the fine arts, and of applied arts. The special art schools, music schools, etc., are fed in much larger degree by private secondary schools than by public secondary schools, although exact statistics upon this point cannot be obtained. It is undeniable that many of the secondary schools, of the type called 'finishing schools," have little to recommend them excepting their expensivenesi, which in itself appeals to a relatively small class of foolish people who measure the education of their children by the money they have invested in it. A very large proportion of private secondary schools provide for boardins pupils as well as day pupils. It is perhaps by the service which they render the former that they best serve the state.

Schooner, a vessel with two or more masts, fore - and - aftrigged, whose main and fore sails are extended by gaffs and stretched out below by booms. Some small schooners have no boom for the foresail. Within

recent years it has bten found

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profitable to construct huge schooners of wood or steel with from four to six masts. These usually have steam engines for working the sails and hoisting the cargo in and out of the holds. These vessels are found to be economical for coastwise transportation, and arc being built both in the U. S. and Germany. Schopenhauer, Arthur (17881860), German philosopher, was born at Danzig. His first work, The Four/old Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, was published in 1813. At the instigation of Goethe he turned his attention to the theory of colors, and in 1816 published an essay on Vision and Colors. Three years later

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there appeared his great work, The World as \Vill and as Idea; but it failed to attract attention, and it was not till late in u'fe that he began to win disciples, and to achieve a prominent position in the philosophical world. In 1820 he essayed lecturing at the Berlin University, but failed to gain a Fufficient audience. In 1831 he settled down at Frankforton-Main to a solitary and uneventful life, and during this time published a work on The Will in Nature (1836), another on The Two Fundamental Problems o) Ethics (1C41), and finally a collection of essays entitled Parerga and Paralipomena (1851). Accepting from Kant the distinction between phenomena and the thing^ in itself, and agreeing with him in regarding the world which science exhibits to us in terms of space, time, and causality as wholly phenomenal, Schopenhauer diverges from him in regard to the thing in itself, or reality behind the phenomena. This

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Schottlnche

metaphysical ground of Schopenhauer's pessimism, though he also enforces his adverse estimate of human life by more empirical reasonings. Intellect, according to Schopenhauer, comes into existence as the servant of will; but, on the other hand, through intellect in the higher forms of its exercise man finds a way of escape fror.i the tyranny of will, for, t>y means of it, he is able to rise above the perpetual unrest and dissatisfaction of passion and desire into a wider and more peaceful outlook upon the world. In the feeling of sympathy, the individual transcends nis selfish isolation, and sympathy, accordingly, is for Schopenhauer the foundation of all morality. But it is not in the practical life, even when thus moralized, that man can hope fully to rid himself of the misery of unsatisfied desire. Only in the highest forms of purely disinterested contemplation, such as are opened up to us in science, and, above all, in art, does Schopenhauer see the possibility of any full and final victory over the striving and misery which is the portion of all life. The World as Will and as Idea has been translated (1883-6). Other Eng. translations arc: The Art of Literature (1891); The Wisdom of Life (1891); Counsels and Maxims, trans, by Saunders (1891). Sec also Wallace's Schopenhauer (Great Writers Scries, 1890); Caldwell's Schopenhauer's System in its Philosophical Sienificance (1896), and Colvin*s Schopenhauer's Doctrine of the Thing-in-U-seJf (1897).

Schorl Roek, an intermixture of schorl (black tourmaline) and quartz, which sometimes contains also white mica, felspar, topaz, and tinstone. It is a very frequent associate of tin-bearing veins in all parts of the world, and is found mostly in fissures in granite and slate. Luxullianite is a particular type.

S c h o 11, Charles Anthony (1820-1901), American scientist. He was born in Mannheim, Germany, and graduated as a civil engineer in the Karlsruhe Polytechnic in 1847. In 1848 he became an assistant on the U. S. Coast Survey. In 1855 he was placed in charge of the magnetic work of the survey, and in 185599 he was in charge of the computing division. He published: Magnetic Observations in the Arctic Seas (1858); Astronomical Observations in the Arctic Seas (I860); Tables and the Results of the Precipitation in Rain and Snow in the United Stales (1872); Tables, Distribution and Variations of Atmospheric Temperature in the United States (1876), and numerous magnetic charts.

Schottlsche, a form of round Schonler

dance which resembles a polka. Its music is usually written in 1 time, but what is termed a Highland schottische is often danced to strathspey tunes.

Schouler, James (1839), American lawyer and historian, born at Arlington, Mass. He graduated at Harvard in 1859; was admitted to the bar in 1802, and practised in Boston. He served in the Union army in 180263; was for a time professor of law in Boston University and lecturer at the National Law School. Washington; and also lectured on American history in Johns Hopkins University. His legal works include: The Lau< of Domestic Relations (1870); The Law of Personal Properly (1873-70); The Law of Bailments (1880); The Iji-w of Husband and Wife (1882): The Law of Executors and Administrators (1883); and The Law of Wills (1887). His chief work, however, is a History of the United Stales under the

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the Old Testament (Eng. trans. 1885-9); Die Hiillenfahrt der Istar (1874); Keilinschrilttn iind Geschichtsforscliung (1878); Zur Frage nach dem Ursprung def Alt la'iylonisfhen Kultur (1884); and has edited the Keilinschrijtliche Bikiotek (1888 ff.).

Sehrader, Julius (1815-1900), German historical painter, born in Berlin. He was a pupil of Schadqw at Dusseldorf. In 1845 he visited Italy, and was afterwards appointed professor at the Berlin Academy. He was strong in color, in the treatment of which he was influenced by the Belgian school of Gallait and De Biefre. Among his works are Ccnci, Surrender of Calais, Milton and his Daughters, and Esther.

Schreckhorn, Grosses, summit (13,386 ft.) of the Bernese Oberland. It rises S.E. of Grindelwald; N.w. rises its miniature double, the Klcines Schreckhorn (11,474 ft.), first climbed in 1857

Si'hlllicrt

missioner of S. Africa (1887), then attorney-Re ncral in the second ministry of Cecil Rhodes (1893), finally becoming premier of Cape Colony (1898). He held office during the greater part of the Boer War, but resigned in 1901. He was one of the leaders of the Afrikander Bond.

Schreycr, Adolf (1828-99), German painter of battle scenes and animals, born at Frankfort-on-Main. In 1862 he was appointed court painter to the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg. The experience he gained in the Crimean and Franco-German wars afforded him material for his battle scenes. His paintings are popular in the U. S., many of his pictures being in private' collections, among them Arabs Resting, Watering-Place, Danger, \Viilltirhian Tin m strrs, Arabs on Ifurcli.

Schroedcr, Seaton (1849), rearadmiral U. S. navy, was born in Washington, D. C.; graduated at the Naval Academy in 1868. He

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Constitution (6 vols. 1880-99). This history covers in great detail the period from 1783-18(15, and takes high place in historical literature, although the style is not all that could be desired. In addition he published: Life of Thomas Jefferson (1893); Historical Briefs (1896); Constitutional Studies (1890); Alexander Hamilton (1901); Eighty Years o] Union (1903); and Americans of 1776 (1906). A short biography of him is given in Historical Briefs.

Schrader, F.berhard (1836), German Oriental scholar, born at Brunswick; was elected professor of theology at Zurich (1863), at Giesscn (1870), Jena (1873), and finally professor of Oriental languages at Berlin (1875). He has made a specialty of Assyriologr. His chief works are Studien zur Kritik and Erklarung der biblischen Urgesfhichie (1863); Die Assyrisch -Babylonisrhen Keilinscnriften (1872): The Cuneiform Inscriptions and

The Schrecklwrn.

by Eustace Anderson; while the S.e. extremity of the main ridge forms the Gross Lauteraarhorn (13.265 ft.), first climbed in 1812 by Desor. Girard. and Escher von der Linth. The Grosses Schreckhorn was first scaled in 1861 by Leslie Stephen.

Schreiner, Olive (1S59), now Mrs. S. C. Cronwright Schreiner, English-South African novelist, was born in Basutoland. In her books, life on the veld and the peculiarities of the Dutch character are portrayed with striking force and charm. Under the pseudonym of 'Ralph Iron' she also contributed largelv to Boer journalism. Her chief works are Story of an African Farm (1893), Dreams (1893), Trooper Peter Halket of Afashonaland (1897), An English South African's View of the Situation (1899).

SchrelncT, W. Philip (1857), South African politician, was called to the bar of the Inner Temple, London (1882); appointed legal adviser to the Hign Corn

was made commander in 1899, captain in 1903, rear-admiral in 1908; advanced three numbers for eminent and conspicuous conduct in the war with Spain. lie was appointed naval governor of Guam in 1900; commander of the Atlantic fleet, 1900. Authorof Fall of Maximilian's Empire (1X85).

Schuhart, Christian FrihuRICH Daxikl (1739-91), German poet and musician, born at Obersontheim in Swania, is chiefly memorable as having greatly in-. fluenced Schiller when young. He wrote TodesgesiJnge "(1767), Zaubcreien (1766), Cedichts (1785). See his Autobiography (1791-3), and monographs by D. F. Strauss (1849), Hauff (1885)', Nagele (1888).

Schubert, Franz (1797-1828), Austrian musical composer and the greatest of song writers, born near Vienna. His musical studies were insignificant, although as a choir-boy in the Vienna Court Chapel he heard much good music and before he was eighteen he had composed more than 100 songs Schubert

and short pieces, many of them still in us. When nineteen years old he set to music Goethe's Erlking,Wanderer, nn&Heidenroslein, perhaps his most famous songs, and during the rest of his short life he poured out more than 500 songs as incomparable for their melody and descriptive power as for the ease and rapidity with which they were written. For years they were ignored except by a small coterie of music lovers, the composer receiving but a pittance for them. He would have starved had it not been for the assistance of a fellowstudent at the University of Vienna, Franz von Schober, and for Count Esterhazy, in whose family he gave lessons. In 1823 some of his Dest-known songs were published and he undertook an opera, Alfonso und Estrella, which was not heard until Liszt produced it without success in Weimar in 1854. From the same period dates the Unfinished Symphony, an orchestral work brimming over with melody and sunshine, which was

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Franz Schubert,

not heard in public until nearly forty years after the composer's death. His symphony in C, his greatest orchestral work, dates from the last year of his life. He died in Vienna of typhoid fever. Among his most famous songs in addition to those already mentioned are: the Junge Nonne. the Doppdg'inger, Ganymed, Du Bist die Ruh, 1m Waldc, Set mir Gegriisst, Am Mcer, Standchen, Vngeduld, and Auj dcm Wasser zu Singen. He set to music 72 of Goethe's poems (the poet making no acknowledgment of the honor (luring the composer's lifetime), 54 of Schiller's, 48 of Mayrhofei^s, 6 of Heine's, and 3 of Shakespeare's. Consult: JJfe by Von Hellborn (Englishtrans.l869),Niggli(1881),

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Frost's Schubert (London, 1888), and Heuberger (1902).

Schuchardt, Hugo (1842), German philologist, was born at Gotha; began to lecture on Romance philology at Leipzig in 1870, and became professor in the same subject at Halle in 1873, and at Graz in 1876. From the latter post he retired in 1900. His studies display exceptionally keen and brilliant finguistic gifts. They include researches in the vocafism of Vulgar Latin (perhaps his most important work, 3 vols. 1866-8), and in Romance, Basque, Celtic, and Crcolese philology, to say nothing of Gypsy jargons. He also wrote on the question of Volapiik and of a universal language, and a treatise on the ritornello and terzina.

Schultz, Sir John Christian (1840-90), Canadian statesman. He was born at Amherstburg, Ontario, and was educated at Obcrlin College, Ohio, and at Victoria College, Coburg, where he received the degree of U.D. in 1860. The same year he emigrated to the Northwest, and settled at Fort Garry, where he practised his profession. In 1809 he was sentenced to death by Louis Riel for his defence of the British flag, but he escaped to the U. S. whence, after many hardships, he reached Ottawa. He served in the Dominion Parliament, in 1871-82, when he was appointed to the senate. He was lieutenant-governor of Manitoba from 1888 to 1895.

Schulze -Delitzsch, Franz Hermann (1808-83), German economist, was born at Delitzsch in Prussia, his family name being Schulze. In 1851 ne began to devote himself to the formation of co-operative societies, both for consumption and for credit. As a most enthusiastic and practical believer in self-help, he came into controversy with Lassalte. His co-operative credit institutions are generally known as people's banks. In Germany alone, just before the close of his career, there were 3,481 credit and other co-operative associations in a flourishing condition. He wrote Vorschuss und KreditVcreine als Volksbanken (5th ed. 1876), and Die Entwickelung des Genossenscha/tsivesens (1870). See Lije, by Bernstein (1902).

Schumann, Clara Josephine (1819-96), German pianist, born in Leipzig, was early recognized as one of the greatest pianists of her generation. She became the wife of Robert Schumann in 1840, and during her frequent concert tours on the Continent and in Great Britain did much to familiarize the public with her husband's compositions. In 1878 she was appointed professor of piano in the Conservatorium, Frankfort,

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Robert Schumann.

whose daughter Clara he married in 1840, led him to adopt music as a profession. His early work shows the germs of a romantic, poetic spirit, and a freedom of form so opposed to the pedantic style of the day as to puzzle pianists and the public, although several noted virtuosi, such as Liszt, Tausig, and especially Clara Schumann, eventually made his piano works famous. In 1834 he took part in the establishment of the Neue Zeitschrilt jur Musik, the organ of the Neo-romantic school in music, and until 1853 he was a constant contributor to this and other musical journals, his critical writings showing remarkable acumen in discerning the new drift in music and the coming men, notably Brahms; and he greatly helped the fame of Schubert, Franz, and Berlioz, to whose Fantastic Symphony he gave enthusiastic praise. An injury to one of his fingers caused him to abandon playing for composition, and his love for Clara Wieck, an attachment opposed by her father, is reflected in a score of minor works, such as the Noyeletlen, the Nachlsliicke, the scries of songs known as 'LicdcrSch u T 11.111 M -11 elnk

kreis,' the 'Dichtcrliebc,' the 'Frauenlieb und Leben,' all now recognized as of matchless beauty. In 1834 he wrote the Symphonic Studies, which with the great A minor concerto and two sonatas remain among the most admired of all compositions for the piano. Although chiefly famous for his piano works and his songs, the symphonies in C major (Op. 61) and ID minor (Op. 120) and much of his chamber music are notable. His only opera, Genoveva (Op. 81), was a failure, but his cantata, Paradise and the Peri, is still heard with pleasure. Most of his life was passed in Dresden and Leipzig. In 1850 he settled in Dusseldorf as conductor, a post for which he was ill-fitted by nature, and 'soon afterward the melancholia which had poisoned his life became insanity. In 1854 he tried to drown himself in the Rhine, and two years afterward he died in an asylum near Bonn. His widow, Liszt, Rubinstein, Tausig, and other pianists have helped to make his works appreciated as among the most beautiful and significant of the century for concert purposes. while his songs are treasured wherever music is known. See his Life by Wasielewski (English trans. 1871), and a Life by FujlerMaitland in the Great Musicians series (1884).

Schumann-Helnk, Ernestine (1861), German contralto singer, born (Roessler) at Lieben, near Prague, and a pupil of Marietta von Leclair at Gratz. She made her d6but at Dresden in 1878, sang in opera there for the next four years, and in 1896 appeared at Bayreuth. In 1898 she came to the" U. S., and speedily became most popular, both in opera and in concert.

SchUrer. Emil (1844), German historical theologian, was born at Augsburg, and began to lecture at Leipzig (1869); was professor there (1873), at Glessen (1878), and at Gottingen (1895). His great work is his Geschichte des Jitdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi (3d ed. 1898-1901), published originally as Lehrbucn der A'' eulestamentlichen Zcitgcschichte (1874), and translated (2d ed.) as History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (1886, el sea.). He is also editor of the Tkeoiogische Litteraturzeitung (with Harnack since 1881).

Sehurrnan, Jacob Gould (1854), American educator, born at Freetown, Prince Edward Island. He studied at Acadia College, received his degree at the University of London in 1877, and afterwards attended the universities of Edinburgh, Heidelberg, Berlin, and Gottingen. He was professor of psychology, political ecpnomy, and English

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literature at Acadia College in

fessor of philosophy at Cornell University in 1886-91, and in 1891 was made president of the university. In 1899-1900 he was a member of the Philippine Commission. His administration at Cornell has been marked by great material prosperity for that university. His publications include: Kantian Ethtcs and the Evolution (1881), The Ethical Import of Darwinism (1888), Belief in God (1890), Agnosticism and Religion (1890), and Philippine Affairs: A Retrospect and an Outlook (1902).

8chun, Carl (1829-1906), German - American statesman, orator, and journalist, born in the village of Liblar, Rhenish Prussia. He was a student at the University of Bonn when the revolutionary movement which culminated in the upheaval of 1848 was gathering force, and under the influence of Professor Gottfried Kinkel attached himself to the revolutionary party, serving as adjutant to Gen. Tiedeman. Upon the surrender of the latter, in July, 1849, Schurz fled to Switzerland, whence he returned to Berlin in the following year, in order to bring about the escape of Kinkel, who had been tried for treason and sentenced to life imprisonment. Having succeeded in this Eroject, he made his way to ondqn; and in the two years following lived in that city and in Paris. Disheartened by the strength of the reactionary movement in Europe, he decided, in 1852, to remove to America. After three years' residence in Philadelphia, he settled in Watcrtown, Wis. He soon attained prominence in the politics of that state by his able speeches in behalf of the newly formed Republican party, which was regarded with distrust by foreign born citizens in consequence of its affiliation with the anti-foreign Know-Nothing party. As a member of the Republican Convention of I860, Mr. Schurz was successful in pledging the party to resist all attempts to abridge the rights of foreign born citizens. He took an active part in the presidential campaign of that year; and in recognition of his services received from Mr. Lincoln the post of Minister to Spain. This position he resigned in December, 1861, and returned to the United States to serve in the Union army. He was commissioned brigadier-general in April, 18f>2, and the following year was promoted to the rank of major-general. Upon the collapse of the Confederacy in 1865 he returned to Washington and resigned bis commission.

Schurz

In the summer of the same year he was appointed by President Johnson to make an investigation into the condition of the conquered states of the South, with a view to securing information upon which to base plans for the reconstruction of the territory. After thorough study of the subject, Schurz recommended an exhaustive investigation into local conditions by a congressional committee, as a preliminary to reconstruction, pis report, however, failed to receive the consideration which it merited, owing to the conflict between the President and Congress.

In 1866 Schurz became editor of the Detroit Post; in 1867, of the St. Louis Westliche Post. In 1869 he was elected United States senator from Missouri, and as such he identified himself with the movement for the resumption of specie payments and with civilservice reform. He was an active opponent of the scheme, espoused by many of the leaders of his party, for the annexation of Santo Domingo. Dissatisfied with the policy of the first Grant administration in regard to the South, and disgusted with the widespread corruption in the Federal service, he took part in the Liberal Republican movement which resulted in 1872 in the nomination for the presidency of Horace Grecley. From that time his position was that of an independent in politics. He supported Hayes in 1876, believing that the election of Tilden would endanger the cause of sound money and of civil-service reform. He was appointed secretary of the interior by President Hayes, and effected a thoroughgoing reform of that department. He introduced the merit system of appointment and promotion, and laid the foundations for a liberal and enlightened policy in the treatment of the Indians and in the admin, istration of the public domain. In 1884 he gave his support to Mr. Cleveland because of the latter's steadfast adherence to the principles of civil-service reform. The adoption of a free silver plank by the Democratic party in 1896 forced him to take the field in behalf of the Republican nominee. His speeches in behalf of sound money are recognized as among the ablest ana most effective brought out by the campaign. The expansionist policy adopted by the McKinley administration met with vigorous opposition from Mr. Schur?. Ill health, however, prevented him from taking active part in politics after 1896, though he spoke in the campaign of 1900 against imperialism.

The published writings of Carl Schurz consist for the most part of pamphlets, speeches and maga

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