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end to their raids. The Arabs have always proved themselves inveterate slaveholders, and their African slave trade was only suppressed towards the close of the 19th century by means of British victories in Egypt and the Sudan, and by the vigilance of British cruisers.

The system of 'indented servants,' which, under proper management, is identical with that under which tradesmen's apprentices used to serve, has frequently been abused to an extent which rendered it practically slavery. At various times questions have arisen with regard to the treatment, under this system, of imported Indian, Chinese, and Polynesian laborers.

See Clarkson, History of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade (1834); Olmsted. A Journey in the Seaboard Slave Stales (1859); Cairnes. The Slm'e Pmcer (1862): Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (1872-77); Spear, The American Slm'e Trade (1900); Smith, A Political History of Slavery (1903); Hume. The Abolitionists (1905).

Slavonla. See CroatiaSlavonia.

Slavs, one of the chief divisions of the Aryan race of mankind. They have been divided into two leading families, the eastern and the western. The eas'ern family aTMain may be subdivided into—(1.) Russians. These include—(a) Great Russians, numbering about forty-two millions; they stretch as far north as to Vologda and Novgorod, south to Kiev, and east to Penza; (A) Little or Malo Russians, amounting to nearly seventeen millions; they are found in the southern governments of Russia, and include the Ruthenians or Red Russians in Galicia, and the Boiki and Guzules in Hukovina; and (c) White Russians, who amount to about four millions in the western provinces of Russia. (2.) The Bulgarians, the majority of whom inhabit the principality; they amount to more than five millions. (3.) The Scrbo-Croats, among whom are included the Serbs or Servians, the Montenegrins, part of the population of S. Hungary, and a few in Russia. They amount to nearly ten millions. (4.) The Slovenes, in Carinthia, Carniola, and part of Styria, amounting to more than one million.

The western family includes— (I.) Poles, divided between Russia, Austria, Prussia, and amounting to nearly twelve millions. With these must be grouped the Kashubes or Kassubes, who are found near Danzig, and number less than 200,000. (2.) Czechs (Bohemians) and Moravians, amount

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ing to nearly five millions; and to them may be added the Slovaks in Hungary, numbering more than two millions. (3.) Lusatian Wends or Sorbs, divided into Upper and Lower, the former '96,000) in Saxony, the latter (40,000) in Prussia.

When the Slavs first appear in history we find them in parts of Europe where at the present time almost all traces of them have disappeared. The most generally accepted theory is that the original home of the Slavs was in Volhynia and White Russia.

The Slavonic languages fall naturally into an eastern and western group, distinguished from each other by marked characteristics. The oldest form of Slavonic known is thes9-called Church or Palreoslavonic, into which the Bible or portions of it were translated by Cyril and Methodius, the apostles of the Slavs, in the 9th century. Various opinions have been held as to the characteristics and original home of this language. Some scholars (e.g. Schleicher, Safarik, J. Schmidt, and Lcskien) consider it to be old Bulgarian, whereas Miklosich, Kopitar. and Jagic have held it to be old Sloven'an. The older forms of all the languages show a greater resemblance to one another. The two alphabets employed are the Glagolitic and Cyrillic. As to the relative antiquity of these most scholars arc now agreed in assigning the

S-iority to Glagolitic. We find lagolitic underlying Cyrillic palimpsests, but never the reverse. The two alphabets are certainly connected: the letters are almost entirely in the same order, and there is the same deficiency in expressing the praiotized vowels. Both are derived from the Greek, the Cyrillic from the uncial and the Glagolitic probably from the cursive form of writing. The Glagolitic was not entirely confined to sacred subjects: thus in it was written the Statute of Vinodoal, so called from a district in Dalniatia, one of the most interesting monuments of early Slavonic Taw. In some Mss. we find Cyrillic and Glagolitic together, as in the Psalter of Bologna (12th century). For modern Slav languages and literatures, see Russia, Servia. and so forth.

Slavyansk, tn., Kharkov gov., S. Russia, 100 m. S.e. of Kharkov. It has tanneries, brick works, iron and tallow foundries, coopers' sheds, and manufactures soap, candles, and salt. There are salt mud baths. Pop. (1897) 15,644.

Sledge. See Sleioh.

Sleep, a natural condition of insensibility, more or less complete, rt-curring normally (for the adult) with each night, and lasting for from six to eight or nine hours. The infant may sleep

Sleep

twenty hours out of each twentyfour; tne growing child may take twelve hours at a stretch. After middle age sleep tends to become lighter—i.e. more easily broken, and of shorter duration. The cause of sleep is undetermined, but is supposed to depend upon the production of sedative agents during our waking activities, which ultimately clog the higher functions of the brain. It is believed that the brain is comparatively bloodless " during normal healthy sleep. Sleep of a sort may, however, occur with a considerably congested brain, as under the effects of alcohol. The necessary amount of sleep varies greatlv with the individual, and also with the occupation of the waking hours. Manual occupation out of doors is among the surest inducers of sleep; but over-fatigue, whether bodily or mental, may produce insomnia, or, in a lesser degree, broken sleep or frequent dreams. Experiment is said to show that the healthy individual sleeps deeply for the first two hours or so; then the sleep becomes lighter for a while, and then heavier again. The ideal sleep is dreamless; but there is good reason to believe that absolutely dreamless sleep is comparatively rare, dreams tending to be forgotten if followed by deep sleep, and the vividly remembered dreams being those which occur just before waking.

Sleep is a physiological necessity, and the average individual suffers considerably after fortyeight hours of absolute sleeplessness. A legal punishment among the Chinese is death by deprivation of sleep, and is reported to come in a few days. In natural deep sleep all the higher braincentres are more or less out of action, together with the senses of sight, touch, taste, smell and hearing, though in varying degrees. The vital functions are lowered; respiration and the heart's action are slower. More oxygen is inspired, less carbon dioxide is expired. It is suggested that in this way those products of activity which have produced sleep become oxygenated, and waking is the result. Sleep becomes exaggerated in manv idiots, and in many 'hysterical' cases, when it may become trance, lasting for days or weeks; and it is the prominent characteristic in sleeping sickness. Sleeplessness, besides being caused by cerebral stimulants, such as tea, coffee, and cocoa, accompanies rise of temperature, frequently precedes delirium tremcns, may be caused by small dobes of opium, and occurs in the opium-eater or the morphinomaniac when the usual dose is denied. Many drugs will produce sleep, but they must be Sleeping Sickness

used with great caution. General aids to sleep are a well-ventilated, quiet, darkened room, and a fairly hard bed. See Insomnia.

Sleeping Sickness, or Negro Letiiaruy, is an African disease communicated to man by the bite of the tse-tse fly, Glossina palpalis. and due to a protozoan blood parasite, Trypanosoma gambiensr. The tse-tse fly is believed to pl;vv a similar role in Sleeping Sickness to that of the mosquito in malaria and yellow fever. The disease seems to nave been originally confined to certain circumscribed districts of the west coast of Africa, but is now found in parts of Uganda, German East Africa, and elsewhere. In the Uganda protectorate alone the deaths ranged from 20,000 to 30,OOO a year up to 1908, when vigorous measures were taken to control the disease. Since then the mortality has decreased to 2,000, with few new cases. Large segregation camps were established, the inhabitants removed from 'fly belts,' the shores of lakes and streams cleared of vegetation, and the breeding places of the flies destroyed. It is said that clearing a strip 30 yards wide along the banks of a stream will banish the Glossina from this strip and also from the country behind it. The disease begins with a dulness of the faculties, and a general apathy and loss of mental and muscular energy, which gradually increases. The disease generally takes some years to run its course to a fatal termination, though sometimes it is only a matter of months. It seems specifically a cerebral disorder, there being little sign of organic mischief elsewhere, except such as follows secondarily from the nervous disorganization. Occasionally there are tits of delirium. The sufferer has no disorder of digestion, and the appetite is unimpaired, but the increasing tendency to sleep overrules everything, even the inclination for food. The invalid sleep* more and more, until he sinks into a stupor, from which he cannot be roused, and at last dies of exhaustion, the only obvious physical signs being those of malnutrition. The disease is practically confined to negroes, but cases do occur in Europeans. Atoxyl, a derivative of arsenic, is the only drug as yet found to be of any value in treatment, and even this is unsatisfactory. The excellent bulletins issued by the Sleeping Sickness Bureau, London, contai i the most advanced information on the subject. See Manson's Tropical Diseases (1906).

Sleepyeye, city, Brown co., Minn., 88 m. s.w. by \v. of Minneapolis, on the Sleepyeye Lake, £nd\>n the Chi. and l5 -\V. R. R.

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It manufactures lumber and large quantities of flour. The city has a

Eublic library, the Uyckman Lirary, and a public park. It owns and operates the waterworks and electric-lighting plant. The first settlement was made here in 1801; the place was incorporated in 1871 and the present charter was granted in 1903. Pop. (19101 2.247.

Sleepy Hollow, a small picturesque valley near Tarrytown. N. Y., the scene of 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" in Irvmg's Sketch Book. See Tarrytown.

Sleeve, in machinery, is a hollow piece, shaped like a cylinder, that is slipped over shafts to hold them together, or to hold something in contact with one so that it may be made to revolve. For sleeve in dressmaking, see DressMaking.

si.•Miami-, Johannes (150656), German historian, whose real name was Philippson, was boi.i at Schleidcn. He is chiefly known by his Dc Statu Religionis et Reipublicce Carolo Quinto Casare Commentarii (1555), and Dc Qualuor Summis Imperils (1559). He also epitomized and translated into Latin the histories of Froissart and Philippe de Comines. See Life by Baumgarten (1878).

Sles'wlck. bee 6CHLESW1G.

Sleigh, or Sledge, a conveyance without wheels, chiefly used for travelling on snow and ice. Sleighs are sometimes—a very primitive and rude form—used in the backwoods when heavy loads have to be carried over rough ground. Some sleighs are made to move on runners; but many, such as the sharp-beaked, boat-shaped sledge of the Laplander (drawn by reindeer) and the majority of those used in Russia, glide along on iron or strong wood-protected bottoms. In Arctic regions dogs are generally used as draugnt animals.

S11 c e r , Thomas Roberts (1847), American clergyman, was born in Washington, ~D. C., and was educated in Baltimore, Md. He served as a Methodist minister in Maryland and other states until 1881, when he entered the Unitarian ministry. From 1881 to 1897 he was pastor of Unitarian churches in Providence, R. I., and Buffalo, N. Y., and was then called to the Church of All Souls in New York city. During 1878-9 he was literary editor of the Christian Union. Among his books are Doctrine o) the Unity of God in the First Three Centuries (1893), The Great Affirmations o) Religion (1898), The Power and Promise of the Liberal Faith (1900), and ShelleyAn Appreciation (1904).

Sllckensldes, the wall-faces of veins and fault-fissures in rocks which have been smoothed by

Slide Rule

mutual attrition and marked with fine striations. The appearance is due to slow movement of the sides of the fissure on one another. It bears some resemblance to glacial striation, except that the markings are vertical, or nearly so, and are found underground.

Slldell. John (1793-1871), American politician, born in New York city, and graduated at Columbia College in 1810. He studied law, settled in New Orleans in 1819, became U. S. district attorney in 1829, and was elected to trie Twenty-eighth Congress (1843-5) as a states' rights Democrat. In 1845 he was appointed minister to Mexico, but that state, because of the annexation of Texas, refused to receive him. He became a member of the U. S. Senate in 1853, but withdrew from that body on February 4, 1861, after the withdrawal pi La. from the Union. Later in the same year he was appointed Confederate commissioner to France, ran the blockade to Havana, and from thence sailed with James M. Mason for Europe on trie English mail steamer Trent. On the open sea the vessel was stopped Dy the U. S. vessel San Jacinto, and Mason and he were taken prisoners, carried to Boston and imprisoned in Ft. Warren. Representations, however, were immediately made by Great Britain to our government with the result that the prisoners were released. Slidell reached Paris in February, 1862, but beyond securing some money and buying a small iron-clad, the Stone-null, which did not reach American waters until the war was over, he did not succeed in accomplishing much of importance. The remainder of his life was spent in England. For his negotiations in France see Bigelow's France and the Confederate Navy (1888).

Slide Rule, or Calculating Rule, an instrument for multiplying and dividing by adding and subtracting logarithms mechanically. The first modern calculating rule based upon scientific principles was produced (1020) by Edmund Guntcr, professor at Gresham College in London. This consisted of one scale, and compasses were needed for calculation. The present form, consisting of two parts, was brought out by Wingate in 1(120; while the cursor or runner was devised by Mannheim of the Paris Poly

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technique in 1851. If the line BC be added to the line AB, the result is Ac. Now if Aa' and Bb' are both uniformly graduated from A to A' and from B to B', Ab Slides

represents the number at B on the upper scale and BC the number at c on the lower scale; hence the result of the addition AB + BC is the number at c on the upper scale. I*et Aa' and Bn' Ix- graduated with the numbers Irom I to 10O at the distances corresponding, not to the numbers, but to their logarithms. Then on adding the lengths Ab and BC wt add their logarithms; hence AC, the sum of these logarithms, is the logarithm of the product; and owing to the graduation this product is the number read off at C on the upper scale. This explains multiplication. To divide one number by another, bring the divisor read on the lower scale immediately below the dividend read on the upper scale. The answer is shown on the upper scale aliove the 1 on the lower scale, and is obtained by reversing the above process—i.e. by subtracting the logarithms. Modern small slide rules are about 10 in. long, and consist of two such pairs of scales, with a cursor and hair-line for accurate reading. The top and bottom scales give for any position of the hair-line the corresponding numbers and their squares, or conversely numbers and their square roots. The moving portion of the rule is called the slide, and on the back of it there are three distinct scales, giving sines, tangents, and logarithms. The results can be read to three significant figures with a 10-in. rule. These instruments are made in many forms: one is a watch-shaped calculator, and another is a cylindrical slide scale, which is sometimes constructed as large as 12 in. long and 3 in. diameter, and is equal to a rule 83 ft. long. These long forms cannot be absolutely relied on, as the expansion and contraction of the material during construction sometimes introduces a slight error. The scale of this last may be read clearly to four significant figures.

Slides, Guides, or Slide Bars, in engines, are bars to guide the movement of anything—e.g. crossheads. See Steam-engine.

Slide Valve. See SteamEngine.

slit". (1.) Maritime CO., Connaught, Ireland. Its coast is broken by Sligo and Killala bays. Sea and salmon fishing are important. The rivers -are short. The interior is mainly well wooded and pastoral (King's Mt. 1,950 ft.). Area, 707 sq. m. Coarse woollen and linen are manufactured. Pop. (1911) 78.850. (2.) Capital and seaport of above, on Sligo Bay, 34 m. s.w. of Enniskillen; is a fishing centre, and has steamship communication with Glasgow and Liverpool. It has a Roman Catholic cathedral

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and the ruins of a 13th-century abbey. Pop. (1911) 11.163.

Slip, the loss of efficiency (measured as a percentage) caused by a driving belt slipping on the pulleys, or from a propeljer slipping through the water. The term is also applied to a water-space between two piers, as a ferry-slip.

siivrii, Slivno, or Selimnia, tn., E. Roumelia, Bulgaria, 70 m. N.e. of Adrianople; is a place of great strategic importance. It has a government factory for military clothing, and is noted for its black wine. Pop. (1900) 24,448.

Sloane, Sir Hans (1660-1753), Irish physician and naturalist, was born in Co. Down, and became in 1685 a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1687 he went to Jamaica as physician to the governor, and made a large collection of plants, of which he published a catalogue in 1696. Meantime he had settled in London to practise his profession. In 1707 he published vol. i. of A Voyage to the Islands of Madeira . . . and Jamaica, with the Natural Hislory of the Last. He became president of the Royal Society in 1727, and was court physician to Queen Anne and the first two Georges. He bequeathed his collections to the nation, and with them and the Cottonian collection the British Museum was founded in 1754. He was one of the promoters of the colony of Georgia in 1732.

Sloane, Thomas O'CoNOR J1851), American scientist, born in New York. He graduated at St. Francis Xavier College in 1869, and at the Columbia School of Mines in 1872. For several years he was professor of natural sciences in Seton Hall College. South Orange, N. J. He invented a recording photometer and other scientific instruments. He translated Algave and Boulard's Electric Light (1884), and has published: Home Experiments in Science (1888), Arithmetic of Electricity (1891), Standard Electrical Dictionary (1892), Liquid A ir and the Liquefaction of Cases (1899), and The Electrician's Handy Book (1905).

Sloane, William Milligan (1850), American educator and author, was born at Richmond, O., and graduated (1868) at Columbia College. From 1868 to 1872 he was an instructor at the Newell school in Pittsburg, Pa., and from 1873 to 1875 was secretary to George Bancroft, the historian, at Berlin, Germany, then following historical studies under Mommsen and Droysen, and receiving the PH.D. degree at Leipzig in 1876. From 1883 to 1896 he was professor of history at Princeton, and in 1896 he accepted the same chair at Columbia. He was editor of the

Slocum

Princeton Review from 1886 to 1889. Prof. Sloane published Life and Work of James Renu'ick Sloane, his fathcf (1888), The French War and the Revolution (1898), Napoleon Bonaparte: a History (4 vols. 1895-7). Lite of James McCosh (1896), and The French Revolution and Religious Reform (1900).

Sloat, John Drake (17SO1867), American naval officer, born in New York city. During 1800-01 he was a midshipman in the navy; re-entered the service in 1812 and participated in the capture of the frigate Macedonian by the United States; and during 1823-25 saw active service once more against the West Indian pirates. During 1844-46 he commanded the Pacific squadron, and, at time of the outbreak of the Mexican War, believing that the English had designs on California, he occupied Monterey and San Francisco. While the war was in progress he was relieved by Commodore Stockton. He was retired in 1861, but was given the rank of rear-admiral in 1866.

Slobodskol, tn., Viatka gov., N.E.Russia, 21 m.E.N.e. of Viatka city. It is an episcopal see. Tanning and leather-dressing and manufacture of fur garments, matches, soap, and a bell-metal foundry are the chief industries. Pop. (1897) 10,052.

Slocum, Henry Warner (1827-94), American soldier, born at Delphi, Onondaga county, N. Y. He graduated at West Point in 1852; resigned from the army in 1852 and became a lawyer at Syracuse in 1856, and in 1859 was elected to the lower house of the legislature. He became colonel of the 27th New York volunteers in May, 1861; was severely wounded at the battle of Bull Run, and was promoted brigadiergeneral of volunteers in August. He fought in the Peninsula campaign under McClellan: was promoted major-general of volunteers in July, 1862; fought at Manassas, South Mountain, Antietam, and Chancellorsville, and commanded the right wing at Gettysburg. He was then transferred to the West; participated in the operations against Atlanta as commander of the 20th Army Corps; and commanded the Army of the Cumberland in 'the marcn to the sea" and in the campaign through the Carolinas. Resigning from the army in September, 1865, he was in the same year Democratic candidate for secretary of state of N. Y., but was defeated. He was elected to Congress in 1868, 1870, and 1884, and in 1876 was chosen president of the Brooklyn board of city works.

Slocum, Joshua (1844), American sailor, born in Wilmot Slocum Disaster

township, Nova Scotia. He became a sailor in boyhood, and commanded trading vessels plying to various parts of the worlds When the Brazilian navy rebelled against the republic he was put in command of the Destroyer, a vessel equipped with dynamite guns, ana navigated her to Brazilian waters, but did not engage in any actual fighting. In 1892 he built at Fairhaven, Mass., a sloop of nine tons called the Spray, and in her made a voyage around the world alone. He has contributed to periodicals and has published: The Voyage of the Liberdade' from Brazil to Ntw York (1891); Sailing Alone around the World (1900); and The Voyage of the Destroyer (pamphlet, 1894).

Slocum Disaster. On June 15, 19O4, the large steamboat Central Slocum left her pier in the East River, New York city, having on board about 1,800 persons, chiefly members of St. Mark's Lutheran Church of that city, bound for a day's outing. When the vessel had gone about three miles up the nvcr a fire was discovered on the lower deck. A panic at once ensued among the passengers, a great part of whom were women and children. The fire spread with great rapidity, and before the Boat could De beached many hundreds had leaped into the water. The vessel was finally rounded near North Brother sland; but even then, on account of the worthlessness of the life-preservers, the lack of discipline among the crew and officers, and the condition of panic on board, hundreds more were drowned. According to the U. S. Steamboat Inspection Service, 938 persons perished, while the New York police authorities estimated the number at 1,031. In the investigation that followed it was shown that the official inspection of the boat had been merely casual; that the life-preservers were nearly worthless, and that there had been little or no attempt to train the officers or crew for emergencies. The captain, William H. Van Schaick, was tried for criminal negligence in the United States District Court in 1906, and was found guilty and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment, but the attempt to fasten legal responsibility upon the officials of the concern which operated the steamboat failed. Sloe. See Blackthorn. Sliiiiliu, tn., Grodno gov., W. Russia, 75 m. S.e. of Grodno city. It has distilleries, tanneries, potteries, brick fields, and factories for woollen and linen cloth. Pop. (1897) 2,983, mostly Jews.

Sloop, a small fore-and-aftrigged vessel with one mast and

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fixed bowsprit. Before the advent of steam a sloop of war

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[graphic]

Sloop.

was a vessel of ship-rig smaller than a frigate, and carrying guns on the upper deck only.

Sloth, a S. American edentate of the family Bradypodida;, and a purely arboreal animal. Its structure indicates that it is the specialized relict of a primitivegroup. The fore limbs arv, greatly elongated (a common character of arboreal animals), and terminate in hook - like digits, never more than three in number, by means of which the sluggish creature clings to the branches. The hind limbs terminate in similar hooks. The tail is rudimentary, the head short and rounded, the ears very small, and the hair long and coarse. In the natural habitat the hair has a greenish color, due to a covering of algae, which

[graphic][merged small]

Slough

general characters as in other edentates. The stomach is complex—in keeping with the diet of vegetable matter. There are only two teats, and but one young is produced at a birth. Sloths appear rarely, if ever, voluntarily to quit the trees. Their movements are slow and deliberate, and they have no power of leaping. Two genera are known, both confined to the forest region of Central and South America. In the genus Bradypus there are thiee toes on both fore and hind feet. The species are not very well defined; but the type form is B. tridactyluSt remarkable in having nine in place of the ordinary seven cervical vertebras. The two-toed sloths (Cholapus) have two toes on the fore foot and three on the hind. In one species at least (C. Hofjmanni) there are only six cervical vertebra. See Ingersoll's Life of Mammals (1906).

Sloth-bear (Melursus ursinus), a carnivore peculiar to India, which differs both in structure and habits from the typical bears, and is in consequence placed in a separate genus. The incisor teeth are reduced in number, and the cheek teeth are small and weak. On the other hand, the daws are exceedingly well developed and very powerful. The

[graphic]

Sloth-bear.

snout is elongated and very mobile, while the palate is deeply arched. The animal lives upon ants, termites, and similar forms, and only rarely eats flesh, though it is exceedingly fond of fruit and honey. It also cats beetles and their larva:. Both size and bulk are notably less than in the brown bear, the oody-length being usually from four and a half to five and a half feet. The fur is long and coarse, and is black, save for a white horseshoe on the chest. The tip of the long muzzle is gray. Though generally inoffensive, this bear has been known to attack man. when its strong claws inflict terrible wounds.

Slough, dead soft tissue, which results from gangrene and low inflammations. Sloughing may take place from the living tissues as a whole, or it may come away in shreds. Sloughing phagedena or hospital gangrene was common in surgical wards before the use Slough

of antiseptics, but is now very rarely seen.

Slough, mrkt. tn.. Bucks, England, 2 m. N.k. of Windsor; has the Leopold Institute, in memory of the Duke of Albany, and the British Orphan Asylum. Sir William Herschel did much of his astronomical work here, and it was here that he discovered the planet Uranus. The Stoke Poges and the Burnhaiv Beeches are in the vicinity. In 1906 the name was changed to Upton Royal. Pop. (191! i 14.985.

Slovaks, a people belonging to the w. branch of the S'.^f family, principally located in N. w. Hungary and Moravia, but also found in Lower Austria, Slavonia, and Bukovina. Threefourths of them are Roman Catholics. Their language was a dialectal form of Czech, and Czech was employed in all their writings till the close of the 18th century, when the Slovak dialect supplanted it as the literary form of expression. The Slovaks are agriculturists and wood-cutters. They number over two millions.

Slovenes, a Slav race, chiefly inhabiting the Austrian provinces of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and portions of the Coast Lands, and Hungary. Slovenish is a language closely akin to SerboCroatian. Among chief writers are the poets Vodnik (1758-1819) and Preseren (1800-49).

Slow-match. See Fuse.

Slow-worm. See BlindWorm.

Sloyd (Swed. Slojd), a system of manual training practised in Finland and Sweden simultaneously with book learning, and also used in manual training in other countries. It includes instruction in carpentry, ironwork, stonework, and the like. Unp Cygnoeus, the Finland educational reformer, was the first to secure it a prominent place in the school curriculum. The idea subsequently took root in Sweden and in Denmark through the efforts of Dr. Salomon and Dr. Nieffert. In Sweden there has been established a large seminary at Naas (founded in 1872), twenty miles from Gothenburg, for instructing teachers in these arts. In Great Britain and the U. S. many of the recent developments in technical education approximate to sloyd teaching.

Slnir, in popular language any air-breathing (pulmonate) gasteropod in which the shell is rudimentary or absent. As, however, the shell has been lost independently in various families of pulmonates, the term has no welldefined zoological significance. Commonly they belong to the family Limacidae. The members of this family are mostly elongated, always very contrac

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Small Holdings Aet

estuary of W. Scheldt. Off the place, on June 24. 1340, an English fleet, under the command ul Edward in., crushingly defeated a French fleet. In 1492 an English squadron, under Sir Edward Poynings, co-operated with the elector of Saxony in reducing Sluis. In 1794 Sluis held out against the besieging French.

Slutsk, tn., Minsk gov., W. Russia, 62 m. s. of Minsk city. It is an episcopal see, and has a cathedral, and tanneries, brickfields, potteries, and tobacco manufacture. Pop. (1897) 14,180.

Smack, a fishing vessel, either under sail or steam, having a well amidships in which the fish are kept alive.

Smaland, division of Sweden, comprising the counties of Kalmar (minus Oland), Kronobcrg, and Jonkoping.

Smalcald. See Schmalkaldejj.

Small Arms. See Arms; Guns; Rifle; Revolver.

Small Arms Competition. Under the rifle practice and militia bill passed by the Congress of 1906, $2,000,000 is appropriated annually, at least 25 per cent. of which must be spent for riflepractice purposes in the several states. The National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice, with the approval of the War Department, formulates rules and regulations for annual competitions. The matches of 1906 were held at the Sea Girt (N.J.) Range. In the National Team match won by the Army, the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and 37 states were represented. The National Individual rifle match had 747 entries. The first prize was $1,000, and no entrance fee was charged. In the National Pistol match there were over 230 competitors. The regulations governing the competition may be found in Small Arms Firing Regulations, U. S. A.

Smalley, George Washburn (1833), American journalist, born at Franklin, Mass. He graduated at Yale in 1853, studied law and practised for a while (185661) in Boston. In 1861 he became war correspondent for the New York Tribune, and afterwards went to Europe to report upon the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. He settled in London, where he represented the Tribune until 1895, when he returned to the U. S. as correspondent of th'. London Times. His publications include two volumes of his newspaper letters, London Letters (1890), and Studies a/ Men (1895).

Small Holdings Act. In Great Britain, under an act of 1892, a county council may, if there is a demand for small agricultural holdings, and if it thinks it will not lose money on the transaction, acquire or lease land, and adapt it for small holdings

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