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zine articles. His most important work is a Life of Henry Clay, published in 1887, which presents an admirable survey of the history of American positics in the first half of the 19th century. His Autobiography, which he began to publish in McClure's Magazine in 1906, was left incomplete at the time of his death. Schuyler, city, Neb., co. seat of Colfax co., 584 m. w.N.w.. of Omaha, on the Platte R. and Shell Creek, and on the U. Pac. and the Chi., Burl., and Quin. R. Rs. . It is an important shipping point for hay, manufactures cigars, and has the largest flour mill in the state. It owns and operates water-works and electric-lighting plants. It was first settled in 1856, incorporated as a village in 1870 and as a city in 1887. Pop. (1910) 2,152. Schuyler, EUGENE (1840–90), American diplomat, born , in Ithaca, N. Y. He graduated at Yale in 1859 and at the Columbia Law School in 1853; entered the diplomatic service, and became consul to Moscow in 1867; and while secretary of legation at St. Petersburg travelled in . Central Asia. In 1876 as consul-general to Constantinople and secretary of legation he investigated the Bulgarian massacres. After several transfers he was, during 1882– 84, minister resident and consulgeneral to Greece, Servia, and Roumania. After returning to the United States, he engaged in literary work and lecturing. He ublished: Turkestan, Notes of a ourney, in Russian Turkestan, Khokard, Bokhara, and Kuldja (1876); Peter the Great (2 vols. 1884); and American Diplomacy and the Furtherance of Commerce (1886). He also translated Turgénieff's Fathers and Sons (1867), and Tolstoy's The Cossacks (1878), and edited Porter's Selections !." the Kalevala (1867). In 1901 is essays were collected in Italian Influences and Selected Essays with a Memoir by Evelyn Schuyler Schaeffer. Schuyler, MontgomeRY (1843), American journalist, born in Ithaca, N. Y. He studied at Hobart College, joined the staff of the N. Y. World in 1865, and in 1883 went to the N. Y. Times as an editorial writer. He has devoted especial attention to architecture and the fine arts. His publications include: The Brooklyn Bridge (with W. C. Conant, 1883); and Studies in American Architecture (1892). Schuyler, PHILIP John (1733– 1804), American soldier, son of [ohn Schuyler, born at Albany, . Y. At an early age he inherited the landed estates of his father; received a good education at New Rochelle; and when about the age of twenty acquired

great influence among the Iroquois. He participated as a captain in the battle of Lake George in 1755, and in the following year served as o in Bradstreet’s expedition to Oswego. He resigned from the army in 1757, but re-entered it again in 1758 as major, and acted as deputy commissary to Bradstreet, and in 1760–61 made a trip to England to settle Bradstreet's accounts. In 1764 he was appointed a commissioner to settle the boundary dispute between N. Y. and Mass. Afterwards he also played an active part in the troubles arising over the controversy between N. Y. and N. H. regarding Vt., and gained for himself in New England a dislike that was subsequently to prove a source of great embarrassment. In 1768 he was elected a member of the colonial assembly, and became the leader within it of the patriot party. He was one of the representatives from N. Y. in the second Continental Congress, and shortly after the outbreak of hostilities was appointed one of the four major#o of the patriot forces. e was given command over the Northern Department, and there entered upon the difficult task of allaying jealousies, between the officers, and of raising and equiping an army for the invasion of anada. Owing to ill-health, he was forced to give over the active command of this army to Gen. Montgomery, but was active in endeavoring to forward supplies, and in trying, as Indian commissioner, to counteract the intrigues of the Tory Johnsons among the Iroquois. fter the death of Montgomery before Quebec (Dec. 31, 1775), Congress, partly because of the hostility'feit by New Englanders toward Schuyler, sent Gen. Thomas to take active command, but continued to permit Schuyler at Albany to exercise certain authority and to manage the commissary department. Thomas died within a short time of smallx, and was succeeded by Gen. oratio Gates, (q.v.), who soon came into conflict with Schuyler. Early in 1777 Schuyler was sent to the Continental Congress, but in June returned to meet the invasion under Burgoyne. The first, operations of the campaign resulted very unfavorably for the Americans, and after the loss of Fort Ticonderoga, , Schuyler, whose enemies had all the while been active, was opolo. by Gates in command of the Northern Department. He continued, however, to render all the assistance in his power, and to him, more than to Gates, is due the ultimate success of the Americans and the capture of Burgoyne. In the following year a court-martial found him tioneiss for the loss

of Ticonderoga, but he resigned from the army in April, 1779. He continued, however, to be active in the #. cause, and was one of Washington's most trusted advisers. . During 1779–81 he was a member of the Continental Congress; during 1781–84, 1786–90 and 1792–97, a state senator; and during 1789–91 and 1797–98 one of the U. S. senators from N. Y. In politics Schuyler was a Federalist. His daughter Elizabeth became the wife of Alexander Hamilton. See Lossing's Life (2 vols. 1872), and by Bayard Tuckerman (1903). §o Haven, bor., Schuylkill, co., Pa., 4 m. s. by E. of Pottsville, on the Schuylkill R., and on the Phila and Read., the Pa., and the Leh. Val. R. Rs. . It is . an i: o: coal-shippin point. It has a coal storage yar of one million tons' capacity, coal mines, rolling mills, railroad car. shops, wharves and canal-boat docks, and manufactories of hosiery, underwear, shoes, soap, flour, and paper boxes. Pop. (1910) 4,747. Schuylkill River rises in Schuylkill co., Pa., 10 m. N.E. of Pottsville, hows s.t. to Kitta. tinny or Blue Mt., through which it passes at Port Clinton, takes a S. course to Reading, flows through Berks co., and between Chester and Montgomery counties, and passes through Philaelphia, for which it furnishes a great part of the water supply, to its junction at League Isl. with the Delaware R. Phoenixville and Norristown are on the Schuylkill, and, with the other towns on its banks, obtain from it power for manufacturin purposes. It is about 130 m. long and is navigable by means of locks and dams to the coal mines of Schuylkill co. (Port arbon). Schwab, CHARLEs M. (1862), American capitalist, born at Wil. liamsburg, Pa. He was educated at the village school of Loretto and at St. Francis College; and as a boy was the driver of a stage from Loretto to Cresson. e entered the service of the Carneie Steel Company as a stakeriver in an engineering corps: rose rapidly, became superintendent of the great works at Homestead in 1887, and the president of the Carnegie Steel Company in 1896; and upon the formation of the United States Steel Corporation in 1901 he became its president. He resigned this position in 1903, but continued one of its directors and a member of its finance committee. Schwab, GUSTAv (1792–1850), German poet, born at Stuttgart where he became professor o ancient literature o he also held various ecclesiastical a pointments. He was one of the Schwab

shief representatives of the Swabian school of ts. He wrote an excellent Life of Schil!er (1840); published Gedichte (1828–9; new ed. 1882); edited the collections peohe Wo: bûcher, Fünf Bitcher deutscher Lieder und Gedichte (1835), Die deutsche Prosa (1843), and Hauff's Simmtliche Schriften (1830). See Life, in German, by his son (1883). Schwab, John CHRISTOPHER (1865), American economist, born in New York. He graduated at Yale in 1888, and received the degree of PH.D. from the University of Göttingen, in 1889. In 1893–8 he was assistant professor of economics in Yale, and in 1898 became professor of that science. ublications include: History of the New York. Property Tax (isg0); and . The onjederate States of America (1901). Schwabe, SAMUEl HEINRICH (1789–1875), German astronomer, was born at Dessau; began observing the sun in 1826, and recorded, day by day, for fortytwo years, the spots visible on his surface. Their periodicity in about ten years was provisionally announced by him in 1843; and a tabular statement of his results, published in 1851 in vol. iii. of Humboldt's Kosmos, definitively established the sun-spot cycle. Schwabe, was also a, botanist, and compiled the valuable repertory Flora Anhaltina (2 j 1838–9). Schwäbisch-Hall, See HALL. Schwann, THEopoR (1810–82), German histologist, born at Neuss, near Düsseldorf; was, assistant to Johannes Müller in the anatomical museum of Berlin (1834–8); professor of anatomy at Louvain (1838-48), and at Liège (1848). In 1839 he put forth his famous cell theory (see EMBRYoloGY and EvoLUTION), which marks one of the most important epochs in the development of biclogy. The work in which he maintained his theory was Microscopic Investigations on the Accordance in the Structure of Plants and Animals (1839; Eng. trans. 1847). Schwanthaler, LUDwig voN (1802–48), German sculptor, born in Munich of a family of sculptors. On the suggestion of Cornelius, through whom he was brought to the notice of King Ludwig, he was commissioned to do work for the Glyptothek, Pinakothek, and the Königsbau in Munich. and for the Walhalla near Ratisbon. He became professor at Munich Academy (1835). His works, which suffered from enforced overpoduction, include Bavaria, Goethe, Jean Paul Richfer, and others. schwarz, or SCH wartz, CHRIs TIAN FRIEDRICH (1726–98), German missionary in India, was born

Germany.

27

at Sonnenburg in Brandenburg, and ordained as a missionary 1749) for the Danish mission of ranquebar, India. From Tranquebar he moved (1766) to Trichinopoli. , His goodness and piety gained him great influence, not only with the natives, but also with Europeans. Haidar Ali of Mysore insisted upon his appointment to arrange terms with the British. In 1769 he gained the confidence and friendship of the rajah of Tanjore, in whose capital he resided from 1778 till his death. See Life, by H Pearson (1855). Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt principality, Germany, consists of three portions, on northern face of Thüringian Forest and in the Prussian prov. of Saxony. Area, 363 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 93,059, nearly all Protestants. Agriculture, grazing, forestry, and manufacturing (porcelain and , glass, mathematical and musical instruments, toys, *illio; are the chief occupations. e Kyffhäuser (1,545 ft.), which figures in the §. of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, is in the northern division. Cap. Rudolstadt. Schwarzburg - Sondershausen, principality, Germany, consists of three portions, the largest almost surrounded by Prussian É. of Saxony, the other two arther south in the Thuringian Forest. Area, 333 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 80,898, almost entirel B. estants. In the largest division agriculture predominates; in the two smaller, forestry and manufacturing industry (glass and porcelain, machinery, colors, boots and shoes, linen, and gloves). Cap. Sondershausen. Sc how a rze n be r g, Count VON (o) German statesman, was chief minister (1619) of George William elector of Brandenburg; opposed the Reformation, and refused to join the Protestants during the hirty Years' War.—KARL PHILIPP, PRINCE of ScHwarzENBERG (1771–1820), Austrian field-marshal, was present at Hohenlinden (1800); served under Mack (1805), also against the Turks and the French republic; was ambassador to St. Petersburg (1808); fought at Wagram (1809); negotiated the marriage of Maria Louisa with Napoleon I., in whose army of invasion in Russia (1812) he commanded the Austrian forces. In 1813 he led the allies at Leipzig, and occupied Paris (1814). He was an excellent cavalry leader.—His nephew, FELIX LUDwig Johan N FRIEDRICH (1800–52), Austrian diplomat, was sent to London (1826); became ambassador at Naples (1846–8); distinguished himself in the Italian campaign (1848); and as Austrian premier calle

ADAM,

Schweinfurth

in the aid of Russia against ungary. He was an absolutist in o For Karl Philipp, see s.ife, by Prokesch-Osten (1861); for Felix, Life by Berger (1853). Schwarzwald. ee BLACK For Est. Schwatka, FREDERICK (1849– 92), American explorer, born at Galena, Ill. He graduated at West Point in 1871 as a lieutenant of cavalry, and continued in the army until 1885, when he resigned his commission. In 1878 he conducted an expedition in search of relics of the Sir John Franklin expedition, lost in 1847. In 1879– so he performed the remarkable feat of a journey of over 2,800 miles in sledges from, Chesterfield Inlet to King . William Land, thoroughly exploring the coast line between those points, and on King William Land found six skeletons and many relics of the ill-fated expedition. The party suffered terrible hardships. . In 1883 and 1886 he was engaged in explorations in Alaska, and in 1889 in Mexico. He wrote Nimrod in the North (1885), Alon Alaska's Great River (1885), an Children of the Cold (1886). See Gilder's Schwatka’s Search (1881). Schwegler, ALBERT (1819–57) German, author, theologian, an Fo was born at Michelach in Würtemberg. At Tübingen he came under the influence of Hegel, Strauss, and Baur. The objections raised against his writings led him to abandon theology, and in 1848 he became professor of classical F.o: and later rofessor of history, at Tübingen. is Geschichte der Griechischen soft in which he abandons his early Hegelianism, was published in 1859. His best-known work, Geschichte der Philosophie so was translated into Engh by J. H. Seelye (1856). . Schweidnitz, th:, , prov, Silesia, Prussia, 28 m. by rail s.w. of Breslau. It manufactures woollen goods, leather, needles, gloves, Agricultural implements, and machinery. Its beer was famous as far back as the 16th century. Formerly fortified, the town has been several times captured. In 1807 it was taken by the French. Pop. (1900) 28,439. Schweinfurt, th:, prov. wer Franconia, Bavaria, on r. bk. of Main, 16 m., N.E. of Würzburg. Its town hall dates from 1570. Rückert, the poet, was born here. Machinery, leather, sugar, malt, starch, margarine, vinegar, tobacco, soap, and colors are manufactured. Pop. (1900) 15,302. Schweinfurth, GEORG AUGUST (...) German traveller, was orn at Riga. After arranging the collection of plants brought from the Nile region * on Barnim and Hartmann, he between 1863 and 1888, made many journeys in Egypt, and the adjacent countries, his most important expedition being that of 1868–71, in the Nile-Congo reion, when he discovered the selle, and established the existence of the Akka dwarfs. In 1872 he founded the Egyptian Geographical Society, and in 1880 was appointed director of the . Egyptian museums and collections in Cairo. In 1889 he settled in Berlin. The Heart of Africa, a narrative of the ex§". of 1868–71, was pubished first in English in 1874; Artes Africanae in 1875; an Emin Pascha (1888). He also prepared a series of maps—Aufnahmen in der östlichen Wilste von Aegypten (1899, etc.). Schweinitz, EDMUND ALExANDER DE (1825–87), American Moravian bishop, son of Lewis D. von Schweinitz, was born at Bethlehem, Pa., and graduated at the Bethlehem Moravian Theological Seminary, continuing his studies at Berlin. He was pastor of Moravian churches in Lebanon and other towns and cities of Pa. from 1850 until his consecration as bishop of the Moravian Church in 1870. He was a delegate to the eneral synod of 1857 at Hernhut axony, and president of that of 1879. He founded and edited The Moravian from 1856 to 1866, and from 1867 to 1884 he was resident of the Moravian Theoogical Seminary. His writings include The Moravian Manual §§ The Moravian Episcopate 1865), The Life and Times of avid Zeisberger (1870), and The History of the Church Known as the Unitas Fratrum (1885). See the Memoir published at Bethlehem in 1888. Schweinitz, EMIL ALExANDER DE (1866–1904), American bacteriologist and chemist, born in Salem, N. C. He graduated PH.D. University of North Carolina, 1882, and University of Göttingen, Germany, 1886. In 1894 he received the M.D. degree from the Columbian University, Washington, D. C. In 1890, he was appointed director of the Bioo Laboratory of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and in 1894 became professor of chemistry in Columbian University. He was author of: The Production of Immunity to Swine . Plague (1891); Artificial Media for Bacterial Cultures (1893); Serum for the Treatment of Tuberculosis (1896); War with Microbes (1897); and Further Studies in Tuberculosis (1902). Schweinitz, GEORGE EDMUND DE (1858), American ophthalmologist, born in , Philadelphia, Pa. e graduated M.D. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1881, where he became professor of ophthalmology. He also be

came ophthalmologist to the Orthopedic and Philadelphia hospitals. He edited the American edition of Haab's Ophthalmoscopy and External Diseases of the Eye, and is author of: Diseases of the Eye (4th ed. 1892–1903); Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat (1899); and Tonic Amblyopias (1896). Schweinitz, LEwis DAVID voN (..*. American botanist, rn in Bethlehem, Pa. He was educated in Germany for the ministry of the Moravian Church. He did much original work in fungi, and described more than 1,200 species. He was author of: Conspectus Fungorum Lusatiae so ; Synopsis Fungorus Caroinae Superioris (1818); and Synopsis Fungorum in America Boreali Media Degentium (1832). Schwenkfeld, KASPAR voN 1490–1561), German theologian, orn at Ossig, near Liegnitz, who founded a sect which was called after his name, and who was banished in 1548. In their treatment of the Eucharist the Schwenfeldians transposed the words. This is my body” to ‘My body is this.' Their views on the sacraments were peculiar, and they dispensed altogether with baptism. After Schwenkfeld's death the sect was rsecuted by the Lutheran party, ut increased notwithstanding. In 1725 they moved to Saxony, and in 1733 emigrated to the U. S. and settled in Montgomery and Berks counties in Pennsylvania, where they may still be found at Montgomery. In doctrine, they now much resemble the Friends, or Quakers. Schwenkfeld's views are expounded in Bekenntmiss und Rechenschaft, von den Haupt Punkten des Christlichen Glaubens (1547). See Kadelbach's Ausführliche Geschichte K. von Schwenkfelds und der Schwenkjelder in . . . Amerika (1861). Schwenkfeldians, named from Count Kaspar von Schwenkfeld, a Silesian reformer, holding views respecting... the Lord's, Supper which differed from those of Luther. After the death of the leader they formed a sect which met °E. and rsecution from Protestants and Catholics alike, and were scattered in the eighteenth century, some going to Denmark and thence coming to the U. S. and settling in Pennsylyania. They are Congregational in polity, resemble the Friends in their manner of life, pay little attention to the sacraments, exalt the human nature of Christ, and hold a yearly festival in memory of their arrival in America. They report 3 ministers, 7 churches, and 600 members. Schwerin, th:, cap. of grandduchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Germany, at s.w.. end of lake o Schwerin, 58 m. E.N.E. of Ham

burg. . There are two palaces, a 14th–15th century cathedral, museums, and picture galleries. The town manufactures carriages, colors, varnish, soap, musical instruments, furniture, and bricks. The grand-ducal palace, an early Renaissance edifice, was completed in 1857. Pop. (1900) 38,672. Schwind, MoRitz von (1804– 71), Austrian painter, was born at Vienna. In painting, he sums up the romantic era in Germany, as Schubert represented it in music. He had a #. sense of the magic of the sagas and Northern legends, and depicted them with harmonious grace. If his color technique was unequal, his delicate fancy and aristocratic taste were always of high quality. His finest work can be studied in the Schack Gallery in Munich, esPoio his water-color sketches or his cycle of Fairy Tales, and in the Imperial Opera House, Vienna. See Life, in German, by Pecht (1877). Schwyz, Swiss canton, 350 sq. m. in area, with a population (1900) of 55,385, German-speaking and Roman Čatholic. It gave its name to Switzerland, as it took the lead in the struggle for independence, and was one of the three original cantons. It extends along the N.E. shore of the Lake of Lucerne, and is mainly agricultural and pastoral. Cap. Schwyz (pop. 7,398). Sciacca, th:, prov. Girgenti, Sicily, Italy, 4 m. N.E. of Cape San Marco. Its cathedral dates from the 11th century. ... It has hot mineral springs. The principal exports are sardines ină olives. Pop. (1901) 24,645. Sciatica, pain in the sciatic nerve or in one of the branches into which it divides and subdivides. It may be felt almost i.". on the foot, ankle, le below the knee *†, an the back of the thigh t is sometimes dull and almost continuous, at other times in sharp attacks which last for hours or days, an then departs altogether. Sciatica is, encouraged by a damp, cold climate, and many disorders are thought to be exciting causes— e.g. gout, rheumatism, syphilis, the pressure of tumors on the nerve, nerve |. Treatment must first of all be constitutional. Local treatment is , by repeated hot poultices, blistering, leeching, acupuncture, nerve-stretching, or excision of portions. Lately the injection of air about the painful part has been very often effectual, as also the thermo-cautery, or wet cupping. Scicli (anc. Casmenae, or Sciathus), th: in prov. Syracuse, S.E Sicily, 37 m. s.w. of Syracuse. Pop. 16,277. Sc i e n c e , a term very com

monly used, especially when

Science

standing alone, to denote only the physical, or at any rate the natural, sciences. But it is also applied, with the addition of a qualifying epithet, to studies of a quite different nature, as when we speak of the ‘mental sciences,’ or the “moral sciences,’ or of "political’, or ‘economic science.’ A distinction may be drawn (cf. H. Sidgwick’s $o. of Philosophy, 1902, pp. 6-8) between science or the sciences as dealing with general truths and studies such as history and o which are concerned with particular facts. Even this distinction, however, between “scientific’ and ‘historical’ knowledge may be regarded as falling within a still wider use of the term; for we speak of history as being pursued in a scientific spirit and by a scientific method, and , we can hardly deny to the product of scientific method the title of science. It seems best, therefore, to regard the term as applicable, not merely to a part or division of knowledge, but to all or any knowledge which possesses the character of order, method, ... or system. Science, then, will simply mean systematized knowledge of any kind; and the sciences will be intermediate between the vague, loose, or unsystematized knowledge of the plain, man on the one hand, and philosophy as the scientia scientiarum, or comprehensive system of knowledge, which seeks to embrace the results of the special sciences in a single world-view, on the other. For a scientific man's views about science, see K. Pearson's Grammar of Science (2d ed. 1900). Many attempts have been made to classify the sciences. The most important of these schemes in ancient thought was Aristotle's division of philosophy, which was then used as practically equivalent to our science, into theoretical and practical. The former was subdivided into mathematics, physics, and metaphysics o philosophy or theology in own terminology); the latter into practical science in a narrower sense (ethico- political science), and art or production (this last being subdivided again into useful and fine or imitative). But Aristotle was not merely classifying already existing sciences; he was to a large extent the founder, or at least the organizer, of many of the sciences, whose distinct provinces he recognized and defined. And the leading distinctions which he established have remained as permanent landmarks in the intellectual world. The celebrated classification which, Bacon, at the outset of modern philosophy, proposed in his dvancement of

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Learning, makes three ... fundamental divisions into Holy or science proper (subdivided according as it deals with God, nature, or man), poetry, and history (civil and natural). But this division, apart from matters of detail, was based upon the quite false principle of a division of jas faculties—history being referred to memory, poetry to imagination, and philosophy to reason. Óf the more modern classifications perhaps the best known is that of Comte, who recognizes six fundamental sciences in an ascending order of complexity—viz, mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology. Of these fundamental and abstract sciences the rest are the concreted developments and applications. This scheme depends, however, for its interest on its connection with Comte's general conception of positive philosophy. The main use of a classification is to indicate relationships, and the various departments of knowledge are apt to be related in ways so complex that no single scheme is likely to do |al justice to the various possible and important points of view. , Nor are we likely to obtain much agreement once we go beyond the main groupings of obviously kindred sciences. See Flint's Philosophy as Scientia Scientiarum (1904). Scilla, a genus of Old World bulbous plants belonging to the order Liliaceae. They bear racemes of blue or rosy flowers on articulated dicels, and have more or less linear radical leaves. S. festalis is the wild hyacinth, or bluebell of England. Two of

Scilly Islands

varieties praecox and taurica; and S. sibirica, with its intense, vivid

Scilla. 1, Sepal and stamen; 2, fruit.

blue ... color. Later, larger, and sturdier, though scarcely so valuable, are the light-blue Spanish scilla (S. Hispanica) and the numerous varieties of the wild bluebell (S. nutans). Scillitan Martyrs. Acts of THE, a document giving details of the conviction ind oxecution of twelve Christians of Scilla in Numidia, who were slain at Car

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Scio. See CHIOs.
S c 1 opp i u s , or SCHOPPE,
KASPAR (1576–1649), German
classical scholar, was born at

Neumarkt in the Palatinate. In 1598 he renounced the Protestant religion, and during the remainder of his life bitterly attacked those who held his former faith. Among these were Scaliger the Younger, Henry IV. of France, and James I. of, England. , Lord Digby, English ambassador at Madrid, gave Scioppius a severe castigation, and procured his expulsion from Spain. . He fled to Ingolstadt, from which he issued his ğ Latro (1615), directed against Lord o He passed his later years at Milan and Padua. Among his most valuable books are De Arte Critica (1597), Elementa Philosophiae Stoica, Moralis (1606), Paradoxa Literaria (1628), and Rudi§§ Grammaticae Philosophica: 1628). Scioto River, Ohio, right bk. trib. of the Ohio, which it joins at Portsmouth. Its length is 225 m., of which one-half is navigable. The Ohio and Erie Canal extends along it from Portsmouth to Columbus. Chillicothe and Circleville are on its banks. Scipio, a patrician family cf the Cornelian clan at ancient Rome. In 1780 the family tomb was discovered on the Appian

Way, a quarter of a mile from the gate of St. Sebastian, Rome. (1.) LUCIU's CoRNELIUS SCIPIO BARBATUS was consul in 298 B.C., and fought against the Samnites; in 297 and 295 he served as legate in the war, and again in 293 in the final campaign. He was also censor. (2.) LUCIU's CoRNELIUS SCIPIo, son of Barbatus, was consul in 259 B.C., and expelled the Carthaginians from Sardinia and Corsica. He was censor in 258. (3.) PUBLIUS CoRNELIUS SCIPIO son of the preceding, was consul in the first year of the second Punic War, 218 B.C. It was his task to prevent Hannibal's invasion of Italy, but he reached Gaul too late. However, by creating a diversion in Spain, he made it impossible for the Carthaginians to support Hannibal in Italy. Meanwhile, he himself encountered Hannibal near the river Ticinus, but was defeated and severely wounded. He and his brother Gnaeus kept a hold on Spain until 211 B.C., when their armies were defeated by Hasdrubal, Mago, and #joi. Gisco, and both of them perished. (4.) PUBLIUS CoRNELIUS SCIPIo AFRICANUs MAJOR (234 to about 183 B.C.), was son of the above. He saved his father's life at the battle of the Ticinus. He fought at Cannae, and was one of the few officers who escaped. In 210 B.C. he was given proconsular wer, in Spain; , hē captured ew Carthage, and in three years drove the Šiš. out of Spain, though he failed to prevent Hasdrubal from marching to Italy in 207. In 206 he returned to Rome, and was elected consul for 205. In 204 he invaded Africa and in the followin #. he destroyed the armies o asdrubal Gisco and Syphax by a night attack. Thereupon the ëa. inians recalled Hannibal and Mago. The decisive battle was fought at Zama, Oct. 19, 202 B.C., the result being a, com: Fo victory for Scipio, followed y the surrender of Carthage. In 199 Scipio was censor, and consul again in 194; in 193 he acted as one of three commissioners between Carthage and Masinissa, and in the same year went as ambassador to Antiochus at Ephesus, where he met Hannibal. In 190 he served under his brother Lucius against Antiochus. On their return Lucius, was successfully prosecuted for having been bribed to give Antiochus too easy terms. The success of this prosecution encouraged the accusers to attack Africanus himself. However, on the day of the trial, he reminded the people assembled in the Forum that it was the anniversary of his victory at Zama, and summoned them to accompany

him to the Capitol and return thanks to , the gods. . He afterwards retired to his country estate, and the prosecution was dropped. He claimed to be the favorite of the gods, and declared that his successes were due to their inspiration. He was one of the earliest students of Greek culture; and these studies, with his personal refinement and lux§ distinguished him from the nobles in general and made him loop". Daring, vigor, rapidity of execution, based on careful preparation of his forces, mark his enterprises rather than deep-laid strategy or brilliant manoeuvring. (5.) LUCIU's CoRNELIUS SCIPIO AsiaTICUs was the brother of Africanus, under whom he served in Spain. In 193 he was praetor and in 190 consul, when he commanded the Roman armies against Antiochus in Asia, winning the battle of Magnesia; on his return to Rome he was given the title of Asiaticus, but was condemned for taking bribes. (6.) PUBLIUS Corn ELIUS SCIPIo AZMILIANUs AFRICANUs MINor (from about 185 to 129 B.C.) was a Scipio only by adoption, being in fact a §. son of 'Lucius aulus, the victor of - He accompanied his father Paulus in his Macedonian campaign of 168 B.C., and served in Spain in 151, and again in Africa, during the thir War, in 149. Returning to Rome in 148, he was elected consul and entrusted with the command against Carthage. After his capture of Carthage in 146, that city was utterly o: In 142 he was censor; afterwards he was sent on an embassy to Egypt and Asia, and in his absence was, elected consul for 134, to subdue Numantia in Spain, which had resisted the efforts of Rome for twelve years. Numantia fell in 133, and §§ io returned to Rome, in 132, to find the state divided by Tiberius Graçchus's attempts at reform. Scipio had married Gracchus's sister Sempronia, yet he opposed the execution of his agrarian law. In 129, after a violent altercation with the commissioner appointed to execute the law, he was found dead in bed the next morning. Scipio was famous for his patronage of literature and philosophy; he was a devoted, student o Greek; in this study he was aided by the historian Polybius, his friend and companion for o, years. He was intimate also wit the poets Lucilius and Terence, and with the philosopher Panaetius. His friendship with Laelius became proverbial. Fe was a man of high character, refinement, and ability. (7.) PUBLIUS Cornelius Scipio

Punic

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