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coloration being due to minute organisms known as Protococcus nivalis. A yellowish deposit has also been precipitated from snow, which examination has shown to be the pollen of pine trees. Over two-thirds of the land surface of the earth snow never falls: the lowest latitude at which it has been seen to fall at the level of the sea is 23°, at Canton, China. In the southern hemisphere snow has been known to fall in Sydney, Australia, in lat. 34°. In the United States the average annual fall of snow is as much as 8 ft. in Maine and 7 ft. in New York, but on the Sierra Nevada the snowfall in a year ranges from 10 to 30 ft. he heaviest fall of snow recorded is that of Feb. 19–24, 1717, when a depth of 5 to 6 ft. remained over New England. The snow-line, or the limit of perpetual snow, is determined by a temperature which in the warmest portion of the year is at 32°, or only above this value for a short period. Within the tropics, near the equator, the snow-line is at a height of about 18,000 ft. above sea-level. On the north side of the Himalayas it is 19,500 ft. In the Caucasus, as well as in the Rocky Mts., the height of the snow-line is close on 11,000 ft., descending in the Alps to from 7,500 to 9,000 ft. In Iceland, just on the Arctic circle, it is about 3,000 ft., while in Spitzbergen (lat. 78°) it practically corresponds with the level of the sea. Sleet consists of small pellets of frozen rain, or of a mixture of snow and rain. . Snow a few feet deep that lies for a few days becomes granular, and is known as the neve. With still greater accumulation it packs down into solid ice. Such ice may gather in such amount as to cause flow, especially on mountain slopes, and then forms a glacier. Ice of this origin also covers great continental areas, as in Greenland, and in some previous ages has been very much more extensive. Some remarkable work in photographing snow crystals has been done by W. A. Bentley of Jericho, Vt. See Appleton's Popular Science Monthly §. 1898) and Monthly Weather Review (U. S.), May, 1901. Snow, Lorenzo (1814–1901), Mormon elder, born at Mantuá Portage co, O. He attended Oberlin College for a time, and was converted to Mormonism at Kirtland, O. He became a missionary, and in 1840 made a visit to England, and returned in 1843 bringing to Nauvoo, Ill., two hundred and fifty converts. After the expulsion of the Mormons from "Illinois he accom

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panied his people to Utah; was a member of the territorial legislature from 1852 to 1882, and was much of this time president of the council. In is 55 he founded Brigham City, and organized there, a system of cooperation and common ownership of various lines of industry. In 1849 he went to Italy, where he remained three years and translated the Book of Mormon into Italian. In 1864 he made a missionary tour to Italy, and in 1872 another to Europe and Palestine. In 1888 he was chosen a member of the general board of education of the Church. In 1849 he was ordained one of the twelve apostles; in 1889 became president of the ecclesiastical quorum, and in 1893 was chosen president of the famous Salt Lake Temple. In 1886 he was arrested for violating the Edmunds Act against polygamy, and was convicted on three indictments, but after an imprisonment of about a year was released on a technicality. Among his publications are The Only Way to Be Saved (1851, many subsequent editions); The Voice

of Joseph (1852), and The Palesline Tourists (1875). Snowball Tree. A bush (Wi

burnum Opulus) which has maple-like foliage and cymes of white flowers, the outer flowerets being neutral and greatly enlarged. In cultivated varieties, nearly all the flowerets have been rendered sterile and enlarged, so that the mass resembles a ball of bloom, or a miniature hydrangea. The bright red fruits are very acid, and the shrub is also known as ‘cranberry tree." Snowberry, the popular name of the North American shrub, Symphoricarpus racemosus. It bears in late summer loose interrupted spikes of rose - colored flowers, followed by large white berries, which remain on the plant many months. Snow - bird, or JUNCO, a finch (Junco hiemalis), very common and conspicuous in winter throughout the Northern United States, but retiring into Canada, as a rule, to breed. Its head, breast, and upper parts are slategray, and its under parts white. It goes about in small lively flocks, and is justly a general favorite. Several closely related species are known in the West and Northwest. Snow-bunting (Plectrophaens mivalis), one of the circumpolar buntings, which breeds on the Arctic shores, and comes to the northern borders of the United States as a winter visitor. In summer the male is black and white, in autumn the upper parts are tinged with chestnut. The bird is esteemed for the table.

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nedd Llewelyn {*; ft.). The slate quarries of Dinorwic, near Llanberis, detract from the beauty of the scenery. The chief tourist centres are Llanberis on the N., Beddgelert on the s., Capel Curig and Pen-y-Gwryd in the E. Snowdrop, a genus of bulbous plants, well known in grassy lawns or orchards, or grown undisturbed in shrubbery borders. The common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), both the single and the double varieties, is, on the whole, the most important and most valuable; but in light, warm soil the handsome G. Elwesi should be grown, and in any soil the broad -eleaved G. latifolius, and a fragrant hybrid derived from it, G. Alleni, with large flowers, and leaves almost like those of the tulip. Snow-plough, a machine for clearing snow from roads and railway tracks. Formerly it was constructed on the wedge principle, like an ordinary plough; but now a rotary steam shovel has been generally adopted. In this the snow is sliced off by knife blades and fed into a revolving wheel, and through centrifugal force is thrown aside. Snow-shed, a construction placed over certain parts of railroad tracks, especially in the mountainous districts. such as the Rocky Mountains, for the purpose of keeping the line free from snow, and to carry snowslides clear over the track. Snow-shoes, a kind of shoe in vogue in northern latitudes which enables the wearer to pass rapidly over the surface of the snow without sinking therein. The American snow-shoe is broad and flat, and from 3 to 4 ft. long. The Norwegian snow-shoe, or ski, is

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ture in 1806. In 1833 he presented to the nation the collection and the house in which they were displayed, now known as Soane's Museum. He was knighted in 1831. Soap, Savon, Seife, in the common acceptance of the term includes the soda and potash salts of various fatty, acids, notably stearic Co-Hascooh lmitic §.co.H."...o.o. and lauric CnH2C99H, all of which are partly soluble in water. The common oils and fats are the lycerides of these acids, and may É. of animal or plant origin; they are technically known as stearine, palmitine, oleine, laurine, etc. and in the form of tallow and grease, cocoanut, palm, and

caustic soda lye, pickle (i.e. saturated salt solution). The operation proceeds in four stages, as follows: First Stage—Stock Change.— The required amount of melted tallow and grease or oil is run into large, rectangular iron tanks or kettles, which are heated near the bottom by two steam coils, one open, the other closed. A drawoff cock is fitted in the dished bottom of the kettle and about two feet up the side is placed a swing pipe for skimming. Soda lye of 20° Béis now added and the heat supplied by both coils. The first effect o of o followed ually by saponification; from #. to time i. lye is added as needed; as the saponification pro

cuted many of these details in Rubens's interiors. He was also employed by Jordaens. His fame rests chiefly upon his works depicting animals in action, of which several Boar Hunts and a Stag Hunt are well known. An example of his art in animal painting is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York city. Soane, SIR John (1753–1837), English architect, was born at Whitchurch, near Reading. In 1777 he went to Italy, where he spent three years studying the remains of antiquity, and on his return to England was engaged in erecting country houses, but in 1788 he was appointed architect to the Bank of England, which building remains the best instance of his work. He was appointed Academy professor of architec

Snowshoeing in Canada.

cottonseed oils, constitute the soapmakers' stock. Animal fats are ‘tryed out’—in other words the fatty, tissue is hashed an heated with water or steam and allowed to settle, withdrawing the clear fat in a molten condition. Coloring matter ... may be discharged with fuller's earth or other clarifying material. Vegetable oils are mainly obtained from seeds which are ground and pressed. , Hard soaps are made exclusively with soda, and constitute all varieties used for household purposes-laundry, toilet, and kitchen. The following kinds are well known: rosin, perfumed and silicated soaps, and washing powders. The process of making rosin soap requires the following ingredients: tallow or grease, rosin,


ceeds, the open coil is closed. When the mass will run from the blade of the stirring paddle in clear, transparent strings ... the operation is complete, and it is § necessary, to add enough pickle to precipitate or ‘open the soap and allow it to settle. . After a day or two of rest the kettle contents separate into two layers, the impure soap above, below the spent lye containing glycerine, salt, etc. This is drawn off from the bottom cock and used for recovery of salt and glycerine. The o left in the kettle now passes to the Second Stage—Rosin Change.-More strong fresh lye and rosin are added, and the mass boiled until the rosin has, dissolved and incorporated with the soap; pickle is again added and the mass perSoap


mitted to stand and settle, as before; the spent lye drawn off is worked for salt and glycerin. Third Stage—Bo il in g on Strength.-The grain soap is to be first “closed' by boiling with water alone, and then the strong lye is gradually added to the mixed soap and rosin in the kettle, and the whole boiled for two or three hours until the soap appears granular. Heat is then turned off, and the kettle contents allowed to rest until the curd soap separates from the stronglye. Again the lye is drawn off from below, and goes back to start another stock change. Fourth Stage—F in is h.—The open soap is again reheated and closed (i.e., made soluble) by cautious addition of water, and allowed to rest. After a lapse of two to five days the kettle contents separate into three distinct layers under the ‘fob' or froth: uppermost the pure soap; below, an impure, dark soap known as “niger,' and below the niger, lye. The nigers are bleached and sold as second-grade soap, or form the basis for a new boiling. The pure soap is now drawn off by the swing pipe, and either is cast in large moulds, cooled, and cut in bars, or proceeds to an operation known as ‘crutching,' where various ingredients are added, such as carbonate of soda for softening hard water, silicate of soda to harden and prevent too rapid wearing away, perfume, and coloring, The crutching is accomplished in small iron cylinders in which turns a shaft armed with paddle blades. The soap is then cast in moulds or frames, cooled, cut with wire, dried, and pressed. A pure rosin soap made in this way contains about 20 per cent. water. Toilet soaps of the best class are made in similar manner, onnitting the rosin change and crutching. They are then cut in thin slabs and thoroughly dried. The subsequent operations consist of chipping, adding perfume and color, milling or grinding the mass under stone or porcelain rolls, forming the bar in the pugmill, cutting, and pressing. Cheaper grades of toilet soaps are made by the cold process: in this operation the fats, usually containing cocoanut oil, castor oil, or palm oil, are melted at about 180° F.; cold, very strong soda lye (38° Baumé) is slowly added with constant stirring until the mass thickens; it is at once perfumed, colored, and run into frames to harden. Evidently all of the impurities of the original fats and the glycerin remain in the soap. Much of the so-called glycerin soap is made in this way, but


requires a further addition of alcohol and cane sugar to produce the transparent effect. These soaps dissolve rapidly. Scouring or sand soaps are halfboiled products made from cocoanut oil and soda; before hardening, the required amount of quartz ground to the finest flour is added, and the mixture stirred, cast in moulds, and dried. Usually the product contains one-third soap and two-thirds abrasive material. These soaps may be used in hard or soft water, even in salt water. Washing powders are powdered soap, with or without rosin, mixed with varying quantities of dry carbonate of soda, borax, etc. To make the soap for powder, grease is saponified cold with strong lye, and dry carbonate of soda is added so that the mass will harden on cooling; after a few days it is ground, and more soda is added. Liquid soap is a strong solution of soap in water. Its use is recommended for sanitary reasons, particularly in public lavatories. Genuine castile or Marseilles soap, now rarely ccen, is made from pure olive oil and soda lye, having the lye in excess, by boiling down after saponification. The spent lye became so concentrated that the soap separated and could be removed from the kettle. The mottling was done by adding chlorophyll or a solution of copperas. Floating soap is made by remelting white soap and stirring air into the mass, in a machine much like an eggbeater. During this operation the soap increases in bulk. The detersive effect of soap is due to a variety of causes. Slight decomposition sets free a trace of alkali, but the main effect is produced by the emulsifying power of the undecomposed soap. See SODA; GLYCERIN. Consult Hurst's Textile Soaps and Oils (1904); Lamborn's Modern Soaps (1906); Simmons' Handbook of Soap Manufacture (1908). Soap Bark, the inner bark of Quillaja saponaria, a tree common in Chile. The bark is powdered, and when mixed with water forms a soapy lather. Soap Berry, the tropical tree Sapindus utilis, and other species of the genus. The aril surrounding the seeds is rich in saponin (q.v.), and its extract is used instead of soap, especially for cleaning delicate fabrics of silk and linen. Soap Bubbles owe their existence to the surface tension of a film of soap solution acting against the pressure of the air


that is forced into it. They are best blown with a glass pipe from a solution prepared by dissolving one part of fresh sodium oleate in forty parts of cold distilled water, and adding ten parts of glycerin. The clear portion is then siphoned off, a drop or so of ammonia added, and the liquid kept in a stoppered bottle in the dark. Good white soap serves nearly as well as sodium oleate. The pressure inside a bubble varies inversely as the radius of curvature. The colors of soapbubbles are due to the interference of the light-waves reflected from the two surfaces; the blackish appearance seen just before bursting indicates the thinnest film. So a ps to ne, POTSTONE, or STEATITE, a soft rock of somewhat greasy feel, a compact form of talc. The ease with which it may be sawn or otherwise fashioned, with its high resistance to disintegration by fire orchemicals, makes it of economic value. Prehistoric peoples made use of soapstone for many purposes where civilization has furnished more convenient substitutes. It is now used for laundry fittings, stove lining, etc., and in ground form in axle grease and toilet powder. See TALC. Soap Tree. See SOAP BERRY. Soapwort, a name sometimes given to the hardy herbaceous plant Saponaria officinalis, on account of the property which its leaves possess of forming a lather. See SAPONARIA. So bat River, in Egypt, the largest tributary of the White Nile, entering it near Taufikia, about 550 miles above Khartum. It is navigable for steamers to Nasser, 180 miles from its junction with the White Nile. A short distance above Nasser the Sobat receives the river Pibor from the south. The water of the Sobat has a whitish hue, and its large volume in time of flood has given the name to the White Nile. See NILE. Sobbing, a reflex act which, as a rule, is involuntary. It is produced by sudden and spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm, followed usually by a short closure of the glottis. The contraction of the diaphragm brings about a rapid inspiration, and the stream of air passing downward through the respiratory passages produces a voiceless sound. The inspiration is often followed by a forced expiration, which is frequently cut short by closure of the glottis. Sobbing is usually the result of emotional conditions, but it may be a symptom of hysteria. Sobieski. See John III. (of Poland).

So bi e 3 k i-Stuarts. is A.N. Y. Socage. Tenure in free socage is tenure by a certain and determinate service—e.g., by the paying of certain rent to the lord, or ploughing the lord's land on a certain number of days. It is distinguished from other feudal tenures in that it is not military. Burgage was a form of socage in towns. In modern times the payment of rent in respect of socage lands has become obsolete, and free socage practically corresponds to freehold tenure. Soccer. See FOOTBALL. Social Brethren Church, a body the membership of which is in Arkansas, Missouri, and Illinois. It was organized in 1867 by a number of churches originally either of Methodist or of Baptist affiliation. Their discipline affirms belief in the orthodox doctrines of evangelical Christianity. Baptism is by aspersion, effusion, or immersion, The polity and congregational practice combine the forms of Congregationalism and Methodism. In January, 1911, they numbered 15 ministers, 17 congregations, and 2,000 members. Socialism. In his History of Co-operation (1875–7), G. J. Holyoake says that the name socialism first came into use in 1835 during the agitation of Robert Owen. The conditions under which socialism originated are of comparatively recent date. During the eighteenth century men found satisfaction in the assertion of freedom, and of the right of reason to be the supreme judge in matters of belief; and this assertion took the form that it was the individual who had the right and the responsibility of forming his own opinions and of shaping his own career without interference from outside. Such a view of things found dramatic expression in the French Revolution of 1789. But after a period of anarchy and terror, France was glad to see order restored under the military despotism of Napoleon. In the sphere of industry men's first experience of innovation was not much better. The development of mechanical spinning by Arkwright and others, and of the steam engine by James Watt, was the beginning of an industrial revolution which was continued in the invention of the power-loom and the application of steam to locomotion both by sea and land. A machine industry led to the rise of the factory system, in which women and little children passed long hours of hard and monotonous drudgery. The remedy, which was

See AL

sought in strikes after the right of combination was accorded to the workmen in 1824, was often worse than the disease. Socialism was brought forward as a radical and comprehensive cure for the evils of both revolutions—the political and the industrial. In France, in 1817, Saint-Simon and his school began their activity. He maintained that the negations of liberalism should be met by positive and far-reaching measures of social amelioration. The direction of society and of industry should fall to the men of science and the industrial chiefs. But as no real progress was possible so long as the instruments of production were the property of a class, it was proposed that the possession of land and capital should be vested in society or the state, which would delegate to associations the function of using them. With Saint-Simon the state was the central and cardinal conception. In Fourier's system the supreme place is held by a community of his own devising which he called the phalange. The phalange was to consist of about 400 families, or 1,800 persons, living on a square league of land under conditions of perfect freedom. Out of the common gain a comfortable subsistence would be secured to all its members. The remainder would be fairly divided among labor, capital, and talent, private capital being allowed. Work would in every possible way be made attractive; the least attractive work would be best paid. All posts would be elective. It was hoped that the communities would multiply and be freely united in federations that would cover the whole world, with Constantinople as the common capital. Saint-Simon and Fourier had chiefly in view the evils which were made manifest during the French Revolution. No one knew better the evils of the industrial revolution than Robert Owen. He was one of the best organizers of factory labor; but his management was benevolent and original as well as competent. His distinctly socialistic activity began in 1817. The communities which he sought to establish were in some respects very like those of Fourier. As a comprehensive cure for social evils he held that the workers should, by association, become the masters instead of being the slaves of the machine. For this end he proposed that communities numbering from five hundred to three thousand persons should be placed on suitable spaces of land; work and the enjoyment of its

fruits should be in common; work would be made easy through the use of the best machinery; the freest and most pleasant social life would be made possible. Like Fourier, Owen was sanguine enough to believe that his communities, federatively united. would in time cover the world.

The schemes of Saint-Simon. Fourier, and Owen were alike utopian, and the attempts to realize them were failures. On the great questions connected with marriage and the family they were more or less lax and subversive. This is particularly true of Fourier. Religion with Saint-Simon and Fourier may be described as pantheistic. In the agitation of Robert Owen, which was actively continued for a generation, socialism was associated with secularism. It was during the reactionary period after Waterloo that these three early socialists exercised their transient influence. Their theories bore the stamp of such a time, and were therefore not politically revolutionary or democratic. Saint-Simon, in particular, insisted on the rights of authority.

The democratic era of socialism began with Louis Blanc, whose book, The Organization of Labor, was published in 1840. His historic activity as a socialist occurred during the revolution of 1848. He advocated political reform as a means toward social amelioration. It was the prime function of the democratic state to be “the banker of the poor'; the state, therefore, should furnish the means to establish productive associations, which he called ‘social workshops,' that would in time supersede private workshops. But after the workshops were once started the state would leave them to govern and develop themselves. In the early editions of his book he held that the remuneration of the workmen should vary according to capacity; but in the edition of 1848 he proposed that wages should be equal.

Proudhon, who had a stormy career during the revolution of 1848, is known as the earliest exponent of anarchism. . . He held that work can be repaid only by work, and service by service. But the owner of property exacts work or service without giving any in return. Hence his famous paradox, La propriété c'est le tol (‘Property is theft’). By his theory of anarchy he meant that every man should be so ethically advanced as to be a law to himself. In a perfect society, government, being an external interference with the invard freedom of men, was unnecessary and oppressive.


Thence onward the pioneers in socialist speculation and agitation are German and Russian thinkers. In the new Germany which began to emerge under the influence of Bismarck, Lassalle was the first to take the leading place as a social innovator. He demanded a state based on universal suffrage, which would rrant the funds necessary for the establishment of productive associations. He did not bring this forward as a panacea, but merely as the germ, as the organic principle of a long development, through which the social question would be solved. It should specially be noted that Lassalle did not propose to set aside the laws of political economy, but to change the conditions in which these laws are operative. It will be seen, too, that in important points the schemes of Lassalle are simply a reproduction of those of Louis Blanc.

Rodbertus was a Prussian lawyer and landowner, who was averse to political agitation, yet entirely and cordially accepted the social-economic creed of men like Lassalle. He had no faith, however, in productive associations, but believed in a national socialism slowly realized under the guidance of state officials. While landowners and capitalists retained their present share of the national income, the benefit of the increasing production should go to the workingmen, for whom a normal working day and a legal wage, revised according to the increase of production, should be fixed. He held that five centuries of ethical advance would be needed for the full realization of a national socialism.

The phase of socialism that originated with Karl Marx and his friend Friedrich Engels was far more serious and formidable than those which preceded it. It was international in its influence; but the history of England, as the home of the most fully developed modern industry, was taken as the main theme of exposition and illustration. It was the chief aim of Marx ‘to reveal the economic law which moves modern society.' In modern English history two classes have emerged—a capitalist class owning the instruments of production, and a working class, nominally free, who must accept the terms of the capitalist or starve. He held that the wage which the capitalist pays does not represent the full product of the workingman's labor utilized by the capitalist. This, which Marx calls surplus value, is the great attraction for the capitalist in originating and conducting his industrial enterprises, and the


accumulation of it builds up the gigantic fortunes which are made in business. Round this question of surplus value the class war between capitalist and worker is being continually waged in various forms. It was the aim of Karl Marx not only to unfold the law of this great historic process, but to make it clear to the vast class who are chiefly concerned in it—the workers. The rise and strengthening over the civilized world of this classconsciousness, as it is called, is one of the most striking features of recent history. The learned investigations into English industrial history which Marx embodied in Das Capital were really the groundwork and preparation for an agitation which is now rapidly spreading over the globe. Thus his activity as agitator, which to some seems so incompatible with his function as critic and social philosopher, is the perfectly consistent outcome and accompaniment of it. The most notable expression of his agitation was the fiery Manifesto of the Communist Party, the joint work of himself and Engels, published in 1848. The International, founded in 1864, was his greatest effort in revolutionary propaganda. That society was at the outset hardly different from a great trade union, but as an instrument of propaganda its influence, though not easily measured, must be regarded as great and enduring. It did at least sow the seed which has since grown into the large and well-organized socialist parties now active in most countries. The great social-democratic party of Germany was in its earliest form established by Lassalle in 1863 with a very simple programme—the demand for universal suffrage. At his death, in August, 1864, it numbered 4,610. The Lassalle movement was intended to work on national lines. In 1869 a political party which declared its adhesion to the International was founded at Eisenach. The two parties coalesced at Gotha in 1875, and adopted a programme in which the Lassalle demand for productive associations with state help was incorporated. At the first general election after the union, in 1877, the socialist vote amounted to nearly half a million. The rapid growth of socialism and its menacing attitude on many questions led to a condition of alarm which resulted in the antisocialist legislation of 1878. But this had no effect in permanently arresting the spread of socialism: in 1887 the vote was 763,000, and in 1890 it was 1,427,000. The


special laws against socialism lapsed in 1890. In 1891 the party was reorganized at Erfurt with a new programme, from which the Lassalle demand was omitted. In 1893 their vote was 1,786,000; in 1898 it was 2,100,000; and in 1903 it rose to 3,008,000; in 1907 to 3,258,968, being 24.3 per cent. of the entire poll. Their representation in the Reichstag was, however, only 81 out of 397. or about one-fifth. There has not been a redistribution bill since 1869, when Germany was still an agricultural country, and the main strength of socialism is found in the towns, which have grown rapidly since that date. The Commune in Paris in 1871 was a rising of the lower classes, and was only partially socialistic; but it had a disastrous influence on the cause of the workmen. After 1879 socialism, however, began to raise its head, and grew into a strong party in France, as also in Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria. It is a notable feature in France and Italy that recent governments have depended on socialist support, and that the socialists have a majority in many important communes or municipalities. In France the more recent development has been toward what might be called trade-union anarchism, depending more on the general strike than on party politics. In England the British Labor party, which is largely socialistic, elected 42 members to parliament in the last election held in December, 1910. In Belgium socialism is connected with a very active and successful co-operative movement. The disturbances in Russia in 1905 disclosed a most menacing increase of socialistic theory. The Erfurt programme of the German party has been followed by long and elaborate programmes of a similar nature in most other countries of Western and Central Europe. Contemporary socialism will be best explained by a summary of these documents. The main problem for socialists has always been how to put an end to the monopoly in land and capital by a class which they assert to be a result of the industrial revolution. This problem they place in the front of their programmes, and they seek to solve it by the transformation of private property in land and capital into collective property. But they can accomplish such a change only by ‘coming into possession of political power." To prepare the workmen for the great mission before them is the task of the social democracy of all coun

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