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. Saxophone, a brass musical instrument invented by Adolphe Sax. It consists of a conical brass tube, curved forward and upwards at the bottom, and haying a short section bent backward at the P. upon which a mouthpiece and reed resembling those of the clarinet are fitted. The instrument contains twenty lateral holes, which are covered by keys and studs, and manipulated by the first three fingers of each hand of the player. Saxophones, like saxhorns, are made in a variety of keys and sizes, but all are fingered in a similar man: ner. Saxophones are seldom used in the orchestra; but in many

brass bands their rich and tello tone is employed with great effect

Saxton, Joseph (1799–1873), American inventor, born in Huntingdon, Pa. In 1817 he established a watch-making business in Philadelphia, , and invented machinery for making the wheels and gearing of watches. In 1828 he went to London, and met several scientists connected with the Royal Institution, before whom, in 1833, he demonstrated the operation of his magnetoelectric machine. In 1834 he received the Scott medal of the

VOL. XI.

Franklin Institute for his reflecting pyrometer. In 1837 he was appointed curator of the standard weighing apparatus of the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia, and superintendent of construction of i. ances and apparatus for branch mints. He also invented a dee sea thermometer used by the U.S. Coast Survey. Say, JEAN BAPTISTE (1767– 1832), French writer_on political economy, born...at , Lyons. He Poio political economy in rance, and was a disciple of Adam Smith, whose method he closely adopted. . In 1799 he was given a seat in the tribunate, but retired when Napoleon assumed the throne. His works are as follows: Traité d’Economie Politique (1802; Eng. trans. 1821); atéchisme d’Economie Politique |*; Eng. trans., 1816); Letters Malthus sur. Différents Sujets d’Economie folio; (1820; }; trans. 1821); ours Complet d’Economie Pol itique Pratique (6 vols. 1829). He also wrote De l'Angleterre et des Anglais (1815; Eng. trans. 1816). say, Léon (1826–96), French financier, grandson of the above, was born at Paris, and elected a member of the National Assembly in 1871. He became minister of finance in 1872, in 1876, in 1877, and 1879. In 1878 he was president of the French International Monetary Conference. He was president of the Senate in 1880–81, and minister of finance in 1882. Among his works are Turgot §§ trans. 1888); Economie ociale (1891); Contre le Socialisme (1896); and Les Finances de la France sous la Troisième République. (4 vols. , 1898–1901). He also edited Dictionnaire des Finances (2 vols. op and Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Economie Politique (2 vols. 1891–2). S a y, THoMAs (1787-1834), American naturalist, born in Philadelphia. He was one of the founders of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1812). After a short explorin visit through Georgia, he joine Stephen Long's Rocky Mountain expedition, as geologist in 1819. In the following year he accom

F. Long as ; : and tanist on his exploring trip to the sources of tojo He was author of American Entomology (3 vols., 1824–8), , and American Conchology (completed and edited by W. G. Binney, 1858). Sayana, or SYANA, a Hindu schoir of the 14th century. . In conjunction with his brother, Madhaya or Madhavacharya, he is noted for a commentary on the Rigveda, which has been much discussed, the result being de; structive of its authoritative and its representative character. o some writers Sayana and Madhava are regarded as one person, identical with the latter. Saybrook, th:, Middlesex co., Conn., 29 m. E. of New Haven, on the Connecticut R. and about 7 m. from Long Island Sound. It is on the N. Y., N. H. and H. R. R. It manufactures small metal articles, ivory goods, augers gimlets, and boxes. . Its town hail contains in its archives the early records of the original settlement established in 1635 by the younger John Winthrop at Saybrook Point and named in honor of the Puritan noblemen, Lord Say and Lord Brooke. The town was united with the colony of Connecticut in 1644. It was the seat of the Collegiate School of Connecticut, now Yale University, , from 1701 to 1716. . The Saybrook Platform was adopted here in 1708 by a synod of the Congregational hurch. Saybrook was originally on both river and sound, and included also Chester, Old Saybrook, Essex, and Westbroo Pop. (1910) 1,907. Say ce, ...ARCHIBALD, HENRY (1846), English philologist, born at Shirehampton, near Bristol. In 1870 he became tutor of Queen's College, Oxford, and in 1876 deputy professor of comparative philo o in the University of Oxford; professor of Assyriology in 1891. He was on the committee for the revision of the Old Testament (1874-84). Among his many works are: The Principles of Comparative Philology (1875); Introduction, to the Science of Language (4th ed. 1900); The Monuments of the Hittites (1881); Herodotus (1883); The Ancient Empires of the East (o; the Hibbert Lectures on “Babylonian Religion’ 1887); The Hittites (1889); The igher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Records of the Past (1874–77, 1888–92); Egyptian and Babylonian Religions (1903); Archaeology of Cuneiform Inscriptions (1907). Sayre, bor, Bradford co., Pa., 17 m. s. E. of Elmira, N. Y., on the N. branch of the Susquehanna R., and on the Leh. Val. and the D., L. and W. R.Rs. It is located in an agricultural, region adjacent to the coal fields. It possesses the Robert Packer Hospital and two parks. Its industries include the Leh. Val. railway shops, stamping works, machine shops, metal works, and manufac. tories of car wheels and stove fixtures. There is a trade in lumber and coal, and in the cereals, dairy products, vegetables, and poultry raised in the surrounding district. The place was first j in 1876. Pop. (1910) 6,426. Sayre, LEwis ALBERT (1820– 1900), American surgeon, born in Madison, N. J. He graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in 1842, began to practise in New York, and in 1853–73, was surgeon to Bellevue Hospital. He was one of the founders of the Bellevue Hospital Medical School (1861), and was a member of the faculty until 1898, when the school became a Foot of New York University. e was also founder of the New York Ao. of Medicine and the New York Pathological Society, and one of the founders of the American Medical Association. He was a specialist in diseases of the hip and spine, and invented many instruments to deal with them. He was one of the first surgeons to use plaster of Paris in spinal complaints. He published: On the Mechanical Treatment of Chronic Inflammation of the Joints of the Lower Extremities (1865); Practical Manual for the Treatment of ClubFoot (1869); Lectures on Orthopedic Surgery and Diseases of the Joints (1876, new edition, 1883); and Spinal Curvature and its Treatment (1877). Sayre, STEPHEN (1734–1818), American patriot, born at Southampton, Long Island, N. Y. He graduated at Princeton in 1757, and became a banker in London, England, of which city he was sheriff in 1773–74. Owing to his outspoken sympathy for the revolted colonies, he was, shortly after the beginning of the war, accused of treason and was imrisoned for a time in the Tower. pon his release, he became active as a self-appointed agent in enScala Santani's The Scandinavian Question (1905). Sc and in avian Mythology. See MYTHology—Northern. Scandium, Sc., 44.1, is a metal of the “rare earths.” It has not +een isolated in the elementary state, but forms colorless salts, derived from an oxide SczO3, that do not exhibit an absorption spectrum. Scania, anc. prov. of Sweden, now comprised in the counties of Malmöhus and Kristianstad. Scapegoat. See AzAZEL. Scaphoid Bones exist one in each wrist and one in each ankle. The former lie in the upper row of carpal bones; the latter are situated at the inner side of the ankle-joint, between the astraalus behind and the cuneiform ones in front. . Scapula, or SHOULDER BLADE, is one of the two bones, the other being the clavicle, which form

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deavoring to secure assistance for the colonies, and also acted for a short time as secretary to Arthur Lee when Lee visited Berlin, and

vainly , endeavored to persuade

Frederick, the Great, to recognize the colonies. For his services in this capacity he obtained partial Fo from Congress. In 1783 e returned to America; was later engaged for a time in business in Havre, France; acted as an agent of the Revolutionists in 1792; and returning to America once more was an active opponent of Washington's administration. He published The English Deceived §so , and a Memorial setting orth his claims to Congress (1808).

Sayreville, thi, Middlesex co., N. J., 6 m. from New Brunswick, on the Raritan R. It has water and electric railway communication with New Brunswick and South Amboy. It is located in the rich clay fields, and has manufactures of bricks, soda water, cigars, and powder. Pop. (1910)

5,783. Sbarretti, DoNATUs (1856), Roman Catholic prelate born in Montefranco, Italy; took his theological course at the College of St. Appollinaris, Rome; was for yeo years professor of speculative and moral philosophy at the College of the Propaganda, Rome; was ordained (1879) while holder of that chair; had charge at the Propaganda of Affairs of the Church in the United States; became private chamberlain to Pope Leo XIII., first auditor of the apostolic legation in the United States (1893–1900), bishop of Havana (1900), apostolic delegate extraordinary to the Philipines and titular archbishop of phesus (1901), and apostolic delegate to Canada (1902). Sc. (scilicet), namely; understood. Scab. See SHEEP-Diseases of. Scabies. See ITCH. scabious, a genus, of hardy herbaceous plants book.” the order Dipsaceae. They bear terminal heads of white, rosy purple, or yellowish flowers; an many are desirable garden plants. S. succisa, the primrose scabious, is a common European plant, which bears purplish-blue flowers. The sweet scabious (S. atropurpurea) is a common garden plant, with quaint flowers of many tints on tall stems. Scad, a name for the common horse-mackerel. . Scaevola, a family of the Mucian clan at ancient Rome. , (1.) GAIUS MUCIU's ScAEvola, who is said to have won, the name Scaevola (‘left-handed') by his attempt to murder Porsena, in which he lost his right hand. For the story, see PorsèNA. (2.) QUINTUS MUcIU's ScAEvola, known as the augur, was praetor and governor

of Asia in 121 B.C., and consul in 117. He lived to about 88 B.C., and Cicero was his pupil in law. (3.) QUINTUS MUCIUS SCAEyola, son of No. 2, was consul in 95 B.C., and afterwards governed Asia with great justice. Eventually he became pontifex maximus; but he was murdered in 82 B.C., after being proscribed by the Marians. He was famous for his equity, his eloquence, and his knowledge of law; he first made a system of the civil law. Sca Fell, mt., Cumberland, England, near head of . Wast Water. Its summit, Scafell Pike (3,210 ft.), is the highest eminence in England. - - - - Scagliola, stucco, or imitation stonework, for interior decoration, columns, pilasters, invented in Italy (1600–50), is formed by a combination of pure white plaster and glue applied to a prepared surface. ypsum, finely pow dered and calcined, is mixed with glue and isinglass to imitate the whiteness of marble, the veinin being reproduced by coloring o metallic oxides, and the whole polished with pumice-stone; with tripoli, charcoal, and linen; with felt, tripoli, and oil; and finally with pure oil, till a perfect surface has been formed. Breccias ranite, porphyries are imitated É cutting into the stucco and filling, the cavities with appropriately colored paste.

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rial right in Verona. The family attained its greatest height under Can Grande della Scala, who was the (imperialist) Ghibellines's greatest general, and his nephew Mastino, whose epoch embraced the first half of the 14th century. The decay of the house began immediately after the death of the latter, and in 1387 their ruin was finally accomR." by Gian Galeazzo of ilan. he Scali were munificent friends of literature, Can Grande being the patron of ilante. See Sismondi's #. of the Italian Republics, Symonds's Renaissance in Italy (1875–86). Scala Santa. See SANTA SCALA. Scalchi, SoFIA (1850), Italian contralto singer, born in Turin, and a pupil of Boccabadati. She made 5. début at Mantua in 1866, and sang afterwards with

reat success in London, St. etersburg, Vienna, and other European capitals. . In 1883 she

came to the United States with the Mapleson company, and for the next ten or twelve years was exceedingly popular. er voice was of a peculiar clarinet-like quality, and of exceptional ran and power. She was famous for her performance of the leading contralto parts in Mignon, Semiramide, Faust, The Huguenots, Aida, Linda, and Martha. She retired from the stage in 1898 to teach singing in Paris. Scalds. See BURNS AND SCALDs. Scale, in music. See MUSIC. Scale Insects. See Coccus INszcts. Scales are outgrowths of the skin especially characteristic of reptiles and fishes. The scales of reptiles are folds of the epidermis, which correspond to the feathers of birds and the hairs of mammals. Such scales also occur on the legs of birds, on the tail of the rat, and over the body of the pangolins. The scales of fishes, on the other hand, belon to the dermis, or deeper layer o the skin. In elasmobranchs there is a special type, with a basis of bone, known as dermal denticles or placoid scales. Scales, weighing - machines. See BALANCE. Scaliger, the name of two of the greatest classical scholars Europe has produced. JULIUS CAESAR ScALIGER (1484–1558), Italian humanist, was born in the castle of Riva on Lake Garda, Italy, a descendant of the Veronese fella Scala family. Other accounts, cited % Scioppius in his Scaliger Hypobolimatus (1607), state that he was the son of an obscure sign - painter. He devoted himself to the ... study of the classics and medicine, and n-actised the latter at Agen, in Guienne (152S). His first notable

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works were two orations in reply to the Ciceronianus of Erasmus, full of venomous abuse. Scaliger was a yo or. and was perpetually engaged in controversy, his c.; works being De Causis Lingua Latinae, Poetices Libri Septem ad Sylvium, Commentarii de Causis Plantarum Theophrasti, Aristotelis Historia de Animalibus, Commentarii in Hippocratis Librum de Insomniis. See Lives by Laffore (1860) and Magen (1880).-Joseph JusTUs ScALIGER (1540–1609), French scholar, son of the above, born at Agen. After a stay of four years in Paris he proceeded on a tour through Europe, as companion to the Sieur de la Roche-Pozay, and remained under the protection of that family for many years. ... By his editions of the classical authors and his De Emendatione Temfo (1583), wherein he once or all fixed the chronology of many of the leading , events in the ancient world, he placed himself in the front rank of Euroan scholars. Summoned to the niversity of Leyden in 1593 as the successor of Justus Lipsius, for the next sixteen years he labored there; but during his last years he became embroiled with the Jesuits, and by his overbearing insolence brought down on himself the invectives of Scioppius. Besides his recensions of the Roman poets, he edited Eusebius (1606), Manilius (1579), and other works, in a style unsurpassed for critical acumen and practical sagacity. , His love of truth was a passion, but he sometimes was obstinately dogmatic in the defence of positions afterwards discovered to be untenable. See Life by Bernays (1855), and article by Mark Pattison in Quarterly Review, vol. cviii. Scallop. Šee FECTEN. Scalp is o: of (1) the skin over the vault of the cranium; § the underlying subcutaneous atty tissue; and (3), the occipitofrontalis muscle and its aponeurosis. From the pericranium, or periosteum of the skull, it is separated by a layer of loose connective tissue, whic, , allows of free mobility. The skin of the human scalp is thicker than that of any other part of the body. to its great recuperative power, arge flaps of the scalp may be separated from the periosteum below without a tendency to slough. Scalping, a practice known to most tribes of N. American Indians in which a trophy of victory was secured by removing a part or all of the Šiš from the head of a fallen foe. This trophy usually served two purposes: (a) it was a guarantee that the bearer killed or was present at the killing of an enemy; (b) and it was the

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scalping, the motives being the same "Seo Clark's inj.“s. Language (1884). Scamander, river of antiquity, flows from Mt. Ida through the plain of Troy, and after uniting with the Simois falls into the sea at the entrance of the Hellespont. It is now called the Menderez. Scammon, city, Cherokee co., Kan., 8 m. N. of Columbus, on the San Francisco R. R. it is also a terminus of the Pittsburg and Scammon Interurban ectric line. It is a coal-mining town. Pop. (1910) 2,238. Scammony is obtained from the root of Convolvulus scammonia, found in Syria and Asia Minor. The root is either dried, when it occurs in shrivelled, cylindrical, brownish portions, with a pale fibrous fracture and faint odor, or is incised when growing, when a brittle gum resin exudes, of dark-brown color and peculiar odor. Scammony resin, which is extracted by alcohol and precipitated by water, is used in medicine as a powerful purgative, and for the destruction of worms. Scandalum Magnatum, defamatory words spoken of peers judges, and other great officers o the realm, formerly punishable in England, even in cases when the words would not be actionable as slander if spoken of other persons. The statutes dealin with this offence were rol: in 1887. S can der be g—i.e. Iskander §."o Beg – originall EoRGE CASTRIoT (1407–67), Albanian chieftain, was taken to Constantinople as a hostage at seven years of age. Forced to embrace Mohammedanism and enter the Turkish army he became a favorite of Mura

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the ... pectoral arch or shoulder irdle. It is embedded, apex ownwards, in the muscles of the back, and its mobility allows of corresponding freedom in the movements of the arm and the shoulder. In its glenoid cavity the head of the humerus is received. The clavicle articulates with the acromion process. Scarab, or SCARABA:Us, a beetle held as sacred by the angient Egyptians, and reproduced by them as amulets, which were worn as a protection against the evil eye. s. (amulets) were also placed upon the breast of the dead. . They were made of stone, and in the true scarab amulet the insect original is reproduced with faithful and often beautiful detail; but a number of these amulets (‘scarabaeoids’) only faintly suggest a beetle, and bear other designs. Scarabs were also used as seals. See W. M. Flinders Petrie's Historical Scarabs (1389), and Newberry's Egyptian Seals and Signet Rings o S carabaeus (zoological), a enus of dung-eating lamellicorn etles. The most famous species

is S. sacer, the sacred beetle of the Egyptians (see SCARAB), which also occurs in S. Europe. According to Fabre, the female detaches a portion of the droppings of cattle or other animals, and rolls it up into a ball. This is then dropped into a hole which the beetle excavates. She then buries herself with the ball, and remains buried until the dung is completely consumed, when she again emerges in search of a fresh supply. . It was this emergence after a period of quiescence underground which apparently led, the Egyptians to regard, the beetle as a type of immortality. It apparent 3. remains entirely quiescent underground through the hot weather, emerging, again, in autumn. The , egg is laid in the middle of the dung in the autumn and the chamber carefully closed. The American dung-beetles are of numerous species and similar habits. Scarborough, munic. and parl. bor. and fashionable wateringlace, N. Riding, Yorkshire, EngF. 21 m. N.E. of Malton. The town is divided into two F. g a bold promontory called the “Scaur’ (300 ft.), on which are the castle garth and ruins of the ancient fortress. Seaward are recipitous cliffs, and on the and side a narrow causeway across the moat leads to the platform. The old town rises in tiers below the castle, and is bounded s. by a picturesque ravine, the Ramsdale valley, crossed by two ornamental bridges, affording

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1. Stone scarab with wings, sun, and asps of silver. 2. The sacred beetle (scaraboeus sacer). 3. Scarab (British Museum). 4. Scarab seal from the tomb of Maket (time of Thothmes III.). 5, 6. Scarabs from monuments.

communication with the fashionable and rapidly growing district beyond, where also are the Holbeck Gardens. The steep slopes of the cliff have been converted into ornamental grounds, and at the foot is the Spa, now servin chiefly as a lounge for visitors an a centre of amusements. The resent buildings were opened in 1880. A fine promenade over

looks the sea. South of the castl is , the , harbor, frequented by fishing boats. The part of th town N. of the castle is frontec o the North Cliff, on the slopes of which are the Clarence Gar dens; and along the base extend the Royal Albert Drive, continued around the foot of the castle romontory by the new Marine xtension Drive. The church o St. Mary is ancient; a new town hall, adapted from St. Nicholas Mansion, was opened in 1903 Pop. (1911) 37,204. Scarlatti, ALESSANDRO (16591725), Italian musical composer born at o in Sicily. Fol some years he was attached to the court of Christiana, queen o Sweden, at Rome, and in 169. was, appointed musical directo to the viceroy of Naples. Subse hol. he became a teacher in three of the four conservatorie in Naples. He was the founde of the modern school of Italial opera, and a prolific composer i nearly every branch of music The compositions of his so Domenico (1683–1757), one of th first composers, for the harpsi chord, did much to develop th technique of pianoforte-playing See }}. by E. J. Dent (i905). Scarlet Fever, or SCARLATINA an acute contagious fever, whic may attack, individuals at an age aboye infancy, but is com monest in young children. Th risk is dependent upon the stat of health or fatigué at the mo ment of peril. he onset of typical attack o: many attack are not typical) is shown by eneral malaise—sore throat, chil eadache, and vomiting. Som of these symptoms will most likel show themselves within a fe' hours, up to five days after ir fection; and in the typical cas within twenty-four hours of th preliminary symptoms, the will be a rash, bog as scarlet flush over the chest an inner sides of the thighs, sprea ing over the arms and legs, b coming punctiform, rarely show ing on the head, or face, thoug the latter is flushed with a hig temperature. The throat is re. dened, and often a patient wi show the trouble in the thro only, o if an adult. Th glands below the ears are mo or less tender and swollen. Ti tongue is heavily furred, wi bright red spots (white stray berry tongue) where the papill Fo ater the tongue is ery red (red strawberry tongue when the fur clears. he ra. Holly lasts for four or fi ays, and fades away from d ferent parts in the order that appeared on them. After thi desquamation or peeling begin Temperature rises almost at on with the onset of other sympton Scarlet Runner

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reaching 103° or 104°, keeping that height for e or tour days, then gradually falling, and reaches the o generally in eight or ten days, unless complications or after-effects, such as suppuration, keep it raised. Treatment—The first precaution is to isolate both patient and suspected so. the latter for ten days. Six weeks from the onset is t minimum time for the risk of infection to have disappeared. The rooms used by a patient, must be thoroughly, disinfected, together with all clothing, and the walls scraped and fresh papered or whitewashed. Obviously, therefore, the fewer articles of dress and furniture there are in a sick-room the better. Milk is one of the most dreaded sources of infection, and where scarlet fever is prevalent the milk should always boiled before use. The most infectious pool is generally supposed to during desquamation, though there are some who dispute that scarlet, fever is conveyed by the skin shed. he body must be anointed with oil or vaseline during desquamation. Women in childbed are particularly, susceptible to scarlet fever, and take it in a very virulent form. Diet must be very light. Milk and vichy water or soda water (half and half) constitute the safest food while the fever is high, with jellies, beef-tea, and arrowroot, and a generous supply of fluid in the form of cold water, sipped slowly, barley-water, and lemonade. Temperature in young children is best brought down by cold sponging and wet packs, the latter ifiducing perspiration. Sedatives in small doses are sometimes needed- The throat must be kept clean by gargles, and the mouth & sponges dipped in boracic acid. ommon complications, are supFo of glands (which must then *. .."; of the throat and consequent difficulty of breathing, albuminuria, and diphtheria. In convalescence all risk of chill must most carefully avoided. Protozoa, termed cyclasters, found, in the blood and urine, are believed to be the cause of the disease. Recently a new curative serum has been reK. # Dr. Paul Moser of St. Anne's Hospital, Vienna. Scarpa, ANTONIO (1747–1832), Italian anatomist and surgeon, born at Motta, near Treviso; became professor of anatomy at Modena #!'; and at Pavia (1784). e acquired a European reputation by his researches and treatises on the anatomy of the ear, the organs of smell, and the nerves of the heart. He was appointed surgeon to Napoleon

(1804). Scarpanto (anc. Carpathus),

mountainous Turkish isl. in the AEgean Sea, N.E. of Crete. The chief town is Aperi. Pop. 5,000. S carr on, PAUL (1610–60), French dramatist, poet, and novelist, born in Paris; became an abbé, and received a benefice at Le Mans, but lived at Rome (1634) in the wildest debaucheries, which left him a helpless and deformed cripple. Having lost his benefice he returned to Paris (1646), and an a literary career. He at: t d himself to Mazarin and the queen-mother, Anne of Austria, during the minority of Louis xIv. His house was the rendezvous of all the wits and literati of the age, for Scarron was a most brilliant talker. A beautiful young girl, Françoise (or Francine) d'Aubigné, fell in love with the talent of the crippled dramatist and married him (1652); this lady was later on the famous Madame de Maintenon. Scarron wrote comedies in verse, one of which, L'Héritier Ridicule, so charmed Louis XIV. that he insisted on having it at once repeated, on the performance coming to an end. In burlesque poetry his Typhon o is even #. readable, and his Virgile Travesti (1648–53) was exceedingly popular in its day. His prose nouvelles had enormous vogue, particularly the , Roman Comique (1651–7), while his dramatic burlesques proper created a jurore in Paris. His epigrams and jeux d'esprit were innumerable. His Works were collected in 1737, and by Baumet (2 vols: 1877). An English translation of his works appeared in 1892. See Life, in French, by Morillot (1888). Scartazzini, GIovaNNI ANDREA (1837–1901), Swiss author and Dante scholar, was born at Bondo in canton Grisons, and labored as a pastor at various laces. Among his books are A andbook to Dante (Eng. trans. 1887), A Companion to Dante (Eng. trans. 1893), and Enciclofolio Dantesca (2 vols., 1895-8). e edited La Divina Commedia (text and commentary, 4 vols. 1874–90; new ed. 1900), Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata { 1871), and Petrarch's Canzoniere (1883). Scattery, isl., Co. Clare, Ireland, in mouth of Shannon, 2 m. S.w.. of Kilrush. It has a round tower, ruins of six churches, and a modern fort. An abbey was founded here in the 6th century St. Senan. The remarkable bell shrine was formerly held in great veneration. Pup. %) 96. Scaup (Fuliguia mariula), a duck which is a winter visitor to the United States and southern Europe. Its food consists of marine animals and plants. In the drake the head, neck, and chest are , greenish black," the back marked with black and white, the

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Scepticism, the philosophical doctrine that the human mind is incapable of attaining true knowledge. Agnosticism is generally used to denote that form of partial scepticism which relates to religious knowledge, and phenomenalism, is that, form of partial scepticism which denies our knowledge of anything outside the circle of phenomena. But scepticism is usually understood in the broader sense of doubt as to the possibility, or validity of human knowledge generally. Of sceptical philosophers in this sense the most notable was Pyrrho of Elis. According to him man could never penetrate beyond the subjective affections which things produced in him to the true nature of the things themselves: his true attitude was one of indifference to all that happened. To justify this extreme doctrine, one of the later Pyrrhonists—Sextus Empiricus— made a collection of all the arguments which had been employed against , the validity of human knowledge. A milder form of scepticism, which recognized various degrees of probability available for the o guidance of life, prevailed during that, period of the Platonic school which is known as the Middle Academy. This milder scepticism found a famous exponent in the Roman Cicero, though his importance is literary, rather, than philosophical, and through him it long after exercised an influence at the time of the revival of classical learning over humanists like Montaigne. In modern times scepticism has been of the partial rather than of the universal kind. One characteristic modern type has been that which depreciates the claims of scientific knowledge in order to favor, those of religious faith and revelation—a type of which Pascal is an early representative. It has its anti-religious counterpart in the sceptical doctrine of the twofold truth, which had already been enunciated in the

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