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Nasica Sf.rapio belonged to another branch of the family. He was consul in 138 B.C., and in 133 killed Tiberius Gracchus. He became so unpopular for this that, though he was poniitex maximus, and as such forbidden to leave Italy, the senate sent him on a mission to Asia, whence he never ventured to return, but died at Pergamum.
Sclre Facias (Lat. 'That you make known'). The name of a writ and the proceeding commenced thereby, founded upon a public record. It is still employed in some states to revive judgments which are about to exnire, to enforce the forfeiture of charters of corporations, enforce recognizances, etc. It is superseded by statutory' actions in some code states.
Sclron, in ancient Greek legend, was a robber who frequented the frontiers of Attica and Megara. After robbing travellers he compelled them to wash his feet, and while they were so engaged kicked them over the Sciroman cliffs into the sea. Theseus put an end to his career by inflicting on him the same fate.
Scirpus, a genus of water and marsh plants belonging to the order Cyperacea;. The bulrush or bast, S. lacustriSj is the bestknown species. It is much used for mat-making and for the scats
holes being formed out of it without a weld. The 'setting' of the blades is the most important of the thirty processes of scissors-making, as it causes the blades to cut from point to rivet. After 'setting,' the blades are finished, bows and shanks filed smooth and burnished, and then fastened together. Formerly bows and shanks were sometimes decorated in elaborate lace patterns. All this ornamentation was effected with a file, the design being cut out from the solid steel. Tailors' shears consist of a blade of crucible steel welded upon a shank and bows of iron.
Scltamlnacofp, a natural order of herbaceous plants, with creeping rhizomes, which includes plants of economic importance producing ginger, arrowroot, cardamoms, and bananas. Among the genera are Canna, Musa, Maranta, and Zingiber.
Scltiiate, tn., Plymouth co., Mass., 21 m. S.e. of Boston, on the North R. and Massachusetts Bay, and on the N. Y., N. H. and H. R. R. It is a residential town and summer resort. The chief features of interest are a public library, a fine water tower, a lighthouse famous from Revolutionary days, and the ancient First Ch'urch, built on a hill, long a landmark for sailors at sea. It was the birthplace of Samuel Woodworth, the author of the Old Oaken Bucket. The surrounding country has a picturesque rolling surface, the farms being chiefly given to raising vegetables for the Boston market and cranberries. The town was first settled about 1031, and received its present charter in 1036. Pop. (1910) 2.482.
Scleroderma, or Addison's Keloid, a skin disease in which the skin becomes tightly stretched owing to excessive formation of fibrous tissue in and under it. Two well-marked forms are recognized—the circumscribed and the diffuse. The circumscribed form may show in patches, distributed apparently indiscriminately over body and limbs, or following the course of some nerve. In the diffuse form the greater part of the trunk and head may be implicated. The disease may undergo a spontaneous cure, or it may go on to atrophy of underlying parts through pressure, and eventual death either of a part or of the body as a whole. It is more common in women than in men, and is believed to be of a nervous origin. Treatment (not satisfactory) nas until lately been mostly in the direction of inunctions and special attention to general nutrition. Recently good results have been claimed for administration of thyroid gland.
Sclerosis, in medicine, a term which, strictly speaking, may be applied to the induration or hardening of any tissue; but of late it has been reserved more for arterial degeneration or particularly for a diseased condition of the spinal cord, in which certain of its constituents undergo degeneration and hardening by reason of overgrowth of connective tissue. The general tendency is towards increasing paralysis and ultimate death, although the disease may last over many years.
Sclerostomum, a genus of Nematode worms, including 5. armatum, a parasite of the horse. To this genus was formerly referred also the worm which causes 'gapes' in fowls, now known as Syngamus tracheaiis.
Sclerotla, peculiar little, hard, tuber-like bodies produced by certain fungi. These resting forms of mycelium are able to remain for a long time in a dormant state, to withstand the effects of desiccation, and then under favorable conditions to enter on a further course of development. From them are developed the ergot of grasses and other fungus disease of plants.
Sclerotic, in anatomy, the dense coat or layer of fibrous tissue which covers all the back of the eyeball, coming forward to the cornea in front. It is the white of the eye, and is covered outside by the thin glistening conjunctiva, and loosely lined within by the choroid. It is subject to various inflammatory conditions, and may also suffer from bulging, due to intraocular tension, or may be the seat of tumors.
Scodra, or Skodra. See SkuTari.
Scollard, Clinton (1860), American poet, was born at Clinton, N. Y., and graduated (1881) at Hamilton College, continuing his studies at Cambridge University, England. From 1888 to 1893 he was assistant professor of rhetoric at Hamilton College, occupying the chair of English literature from 1893 to 1896. Essentially a lyric poet, his verse is characterized by brightness and sentiment. His numerous books of poems include: Pictures in Song (1884); With Reed and Lyre (1886); Giovio and Giulia (1891); Skenandoa (1896); The Cloistering of Ursula (1902); and Odes and Elegies (1905).
Scolopendrlum. See Hart'sTongue Fern.
Scomberldse, the family to which the mackerel belongs.
Scone, tn., Perthshire, Scotland, on 1. bk. of Tay, 2 m. N. of Perth; has, Ifc m. to the W.n.w., the fine old market cress of the extinct hamlet of Old Scone, the capital of Pictavia in the 8th
century. The abbey of Scone founded by Alexander I. in 1114, stood to trie west of Old Scone. The abbey and the old palace were destroyed by a Perth molj in 1559. The new palace, begun by the Earl of Cowrie, lodged the Chevalier de St. George in 1716, and Prince Charlie in 1746. The present palace of Scone was erected 1803-8. Scone was a royal residence, and a place of coronation for Scottish kings from 1153 to 1488. The Stone of Destiny or coronation seat was removed to London by Edward I. in 1296, and is now underneath the coronation chair in Westminster Abbey.
Scopas, ancient Greek sculptor, was a native of Paros, and nourished in the first half of the 4th century B.C. He was employed to rebuild the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, which was burned in 395 B.c., and he also shared in the decoration of the mausoleum, which was not finished until after 349 B.C. The distinguishing characteristic of his work was nis expression of strong emotion, even of passion. No works, undeniably nis, survive. Fragments of the pediment sculptures at Tegea were discovered in 1879, and works resembling his style, as shown in these, are the Meleager of the Vatican and a statue in the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University.
Score, in music, signifies that the individual parts of a composition are written upon separate staves — all barred alike — and pli-ced one above another in such juxtaposition that they can be read simultaneously. Bass parts are always placed lowest, and, in orchestral music, parts for instruments of the same class are usually set in groups, but these may occupy various positions in the score, according to the method of arrangement favored by the composer. Four-part vocal music is frequently written on two staves, the two higher on the treble, the two lower on the bass, and when so, is said to be in compressed or short score.
Scoresby, William (17891857), English Arctic explorer, was born near Whit by; made his first Greenland voyage at the age of eleven. After 1810 he continued to make the Greenland voyage annually. His interest in the scientific aspects of the Arctic regions having been awakened by Sir Joseph Banks, he published An Account oj the Arctic Regions (2 vols. 1820). In 1822 he abandoned the sea, but still continued his scientific studies, in the interests of which he made a voyage to Australia in 1856. He visited the U. S. in 1844, and made a second tour in Canada and the U. S. in 1848. He published Magneiical Investigations (1839-52). See Life by Scorcsby Jackson (1861).
Scorlce, or Scoria, either the cinder-like masses ejected by volcanoes and known as volcanic ashes, or the ropy, irregular pumiceous crusts usually found on lava flows, especially those of basic character. Pumice is the best-known example.
Scorlflcatlon. Sec MetalLurgy.
Scorpio, the eighth sign of the zodiac (symbol ni), entered by the sun about October 21, and an ancient constellation, now nearly 30-east of the sign. The Greeks followed the Chaldjeans in assigning to it a duplicated zodiacal representation, tne claws occupying the space appropriated to Libra by the Romans. The appearance in it of a comet was said by Pliny to portend a plague of
locusts. The chief star is Antares; the primary of /3, visually triple; as well as (*, a, and A Scor
r, are spectroscopic binaries; A, 2, and 11, are closely double; f Scorpii forms a ternary system; v is quadruple. The 'star of Hipparchus' (134 B.c.), and the Nova which lit up the clrster Mc-.sier £D in 1860, appeared in Scorpio; the adjacent globular cluster Messier 4 and 62 contain fift, -eight variables; and an extensive nebulosity near Antares was photographed by Barnard in 1895.
Scorpion, a name applied to the members of the order Scor;•'••! i'i.* . of the class Arachnida. Scorpions are abundant in all .varrn climates, and numerous species are found round the basin of the Mediterranean. Zoologically scorpions are interesting, not only on account of their antiquity as for-jls, but because of the primitive characters which they display. Thus the abdomen is very distinctly segmented, and bears six
Vol. XI 3
Scorpion, and (enlarged) section 0} Stin~.
N c, Nerve cord; 0 A, caudal artery; A c, alimentary cauiil; A o. anal orince; P 0, polaon glands. (After Newport's dissection.)
the cephalothorax, and a narrow posterior portion, consisting of five segments, and ending in the sting. In front of the strong clr.ws or nippers (or pedipalps) are two small appendages (cheficers), placed close to the minute mouth. Behind the nippers are four pairs of walking legs, like those of spiders. Behind them lie, first, a genital plate, and then a pair of curious 'combs' (pectines), whose use is not known, but which appear to correspond to the anterior ^ill-books of the king-crab. The next four segments bear the openings of the four lung-books, or breathing organs, which development shows to be remains of appendages. The other abdominal segments have no appendages. Scorpions feed upon insects and spiders, whose juices they suck. They are viviparous, and the young at birth resemble the parents. They usually shelter beneath stones in the daytime, emerging at dusk in search of prey. S9me species reach a length of six inches; and in such cases the sting, if rarely fatal, is very painful and troublesome. Common genera are Scorpio and Buthus.
Scorpion Grass, a name sometimes given to the forget-me-not (Myosolis).
Scorzonera, also called black salsify. Scorzonera Hispanica, It is cultivated like salsify as a garden vegetable, the black parsnipshaped root being eaten. It is a perennial, and the roots continue to enlarge if left in the ground more than one season without becoming inedible.
Scot, Michael. See Scott.
Scot, Reginald (.'1538-99), English writer against witchcraft,
was born in Kent. His Discoverii o/ Witchcraft (1584; new ed. 1886), in which he wages war against the popular belief in witches, had great influence in the formation of public opinion. Scotch Terrier. A large, shaggy terrier dog, originating in Scotland. Hardy, persevering, with immense teeth for his size, ears erect, a hard coat, shortlegged and long-bodied, he is able to hold his own anywhere. A keen dog for vermin, he was once much used in hunting foxes in hflly country where hounds could not run. Since his introduction elsewhere he has become a great favorite, and the breeder has been able to add a white coat to his wardrobe. He is classified in two classes at shows—white, and other than white. Points:—Skull of good length, rather inclined to be curved in shape, covered with hair, and showing a drop between the eyes; muzzle very powerful and not too pointed; nose large and black; teeth extremely large; eyes dark, small, piercing in expression, and very bright; ears very small, sharp at the points, and carried erect; neck short and powerful; chest rather wide, and very deep; body only moderately long, and very powerful at the loins; fore-legs straight and short,
and heavy in bone; feet compact and well padded, with hair between the toes; hind-quarters muscular; hocks well bent; tail of fair length, and carried gaily; coat very harsh and weather-resisting; colors, black, dark gray, brindTe, red. wheaten, and white; markings objectionable. Weight from 17 to 20 Ibs.
Scotch Verdict. The verdict of 'not proven,' which juries in criminal trials in Scotland may render. It has the same legal effect as the verdict of 'not guilty,' and is a bar to a second trial of the defendant on the same charge.
Scotch Woodcock, the name jocularly given to a dish of toast and finnan haddock.
Scoter, or Black Duck ((Edtmia, nigra), Velvet Scoteh
the wings in the velvet scoter, and has two patches of white on the head in the surf scoter. This predominance of a black tint is also characteristic of the other two species of the genus. All are confined to the northern hemisphere, and, owing to the oily flesh, are almost uneatable. The American varieties are found in winter off the coasts of New EnglanJ and the middle Atlantic states. The scoters breed in the far north, placing their nests on the ground in marshy places, or on shores. They visit the temperate latitudes on migration spring and fall, and are shot for market in great numbers.
Scotia, vil., Schenectady co., N. Y., 3 m. W.N.W. of Schenectady, on the N. bk. of the Mohawk R., and on the Bost. and Me., and N. Y. C. and H. R. R. Rs. The old Glen-Sanders House contains many relics of the Indians and the early Dutch settlers. The surrounding district is chiefly engaged in dairying. Scotia was first settled in 1058. It was incorporated in 1904. Pop. (1910) 2.957.
Scotia Seminary. An institution at Concord, N. C., founded in 1870 for the education of colored women, under the care of the Presbyterian Board of Missions for Freedmen. Its course includes a normal and scientific grammar school, and preparatory, musical, and industrial training. Its prime object is the elevation of the nome life. In 1906 it had 284 students, 18 instructors, a library of 3,000 volumes, productive funds of 110,000 and an income of $18,000.
Scotlsts. A name applied to those following the philosophy or theology of Duns Scotus. See Duns Scotus. Scholasticism.
Scotland (Gaelic Aiban, for Scotland N. of Central Lowlands; Lat. Caledonia, from Cheviots to riv. Forth) forms, with its islands, the northern section of Great Britain. The total area is 30,405 sq. m.
Proximity and Access to the Sea.—The greatest length is from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, 274 m., and the breadth (narrowest between the estuaries of Clyde and Forth) varies from 24 m. to 146 m. No part of the country is over 40 m. from seawater, and the proximity of the sea, especially on the w., exerts important climatic effects. The coast line, especially on the w., is enormously developed. Of the inlets, the most important are: on the w.. Loch Ryan, Firth of Clyde (the only important commercial inlet). Lochs Fyne, Linnhe, and Broom; on the E., the Moray Firth and the Firths of Tay and Forth, in which last two, facing the Continent, a busy commerce has developed. The Orkneys and Shetlands in the N., and the Hebrides in the w.. are the most important island groups—important chiefly for the fisheries which are carried on round their shores.
Physical Structure.—Scotland consists broadly of (1) the Highlands, cleft by the narrow, lakefilled valley of Glenmore (60 m. long), through which the Caledonian Canal has been cut; (2) a rift valley or Central Lowland; and (3) the Southern Uplands. These have been described structurally and geologically in the article Great Britain. Practically the whole of Scotland is composed of rocks oklcr than the Coal Measures, except for two patches of rock, covering the islands of Skyc and Mull, of recent volcanic origin, and for the Coal Measures belt itself, which constitutes the rift valley or Central Lowland. The southern boundary of the Highlands may be denned by a line drawn from Stonehavcn to the Firth of Clyde. The chief entry into the Highlands is up the Garry valley. A more or less continuous Delt of high ground between Cape Wrath ana Loch Lomond is Scotland's main watershed. Being near the w. coast it throws off the longer rivers on its E. side. These include the Tweed (95 m.), noted for its salmon; the Forth (60 m.), its navigable estuary spanned by the Forth railway bridge; the Tay (105 m.), also spanned bv a railway bridge; the South £sk (40 m.); Dee (87 m.); Don (82 m.); Deveron (62 m.); and Spey
(96 m.), a very rapid and destructive stream. On the w. and s. the chief streams are the Clyde (106 m.), navigable to Glasgow; and the Nith (71 m.), whose valley penetrates the Southern Uplands. The inland lochs or lakes of Scotland lie principally toward the W. Such are Loch Lomond, the largest (27 sq. m.); Loch Katrine, in the Forth basin, which supplies Glasgow with drinking-water; Lochs Earn, Tay, and Rannoch in the Tay basin, all centres for fishermen and tourists; Loch Ericht and Loch Laggan; and, in Sutherland, Loch Shin. All contain trout, especially Loch Leven in Kinross, wnich is a rift-valley, not a Highland, lake.
Character of Surface and Vegetation.— The Central Lowland is a trough, sunk below the hill ranges on either side of it. Its surface is undulating and crossed by ranges of low hills, like the Campsie Fells, Fife hills, etc. The most clearly marked section is Strathmore CGreat Valley'), between the Grampians and the Ochils and Sidlaws. Two other distinctively named sections are the level Carses of Stirling and Gowrie, the latter north of the Firth of Tay. The Central Lowland generally is the agricultural region of Scotland, though the low land extending round from Aberdeen to the Moray Firth is also devoted to agriculture. The Highlands are a tangled mass of mountains, with, however, a general northeasterly and southwesterly tilt. Much of their surface is covered with peat and heather, though the lower slopes afford grazing for sheep. In all Scotland 21.9 per cent, of the surface is totally uncultivable. But even the waste and barren heather-clad districts command high rentals as grouse moors and deer forests. The Southern Uplands, of lower elevation, and grass-grown to their summits, afford excellent sheep pastures, while the plain-land tnat borders them in the w. is the dairy region of Scotland. This western plain is balanced by the fertile valley of the Tweed to the S.E., part of it known as the Merse, which is one of the richest agricultural districts in the country.
Climate.—Scotland, like Great Britain as a whole, is divided by a central belt of uplands into a western windward side, which is equable and moist (as at Stornoway), and an eastern leeward side, which is drier and slightly more extreme (as at Edinburgh and Aberdeen). The rainfall is highest in the w. (annual average at Ben Nevis Observatory, 15 in., as compared with Nairn, 28 in.). The 'rain-shadow' or dryness to the leeward of mounScotland
tain masses is most marked under the hifjh barrier of the Central Grampians round Cairngorm. Ben Macdhui, and Lochnagar. Hence the popularity, as summer resorts, of Braemar and other places in the valley of the Dee, Uon, and Spey. The most marked climatic effect is that agriculture is pursued in the drier E., and grazing in the W. A minor effect is shown in the suitability of the moist western climate for the cotton industry.
Vegetable and Animal Productions.—Oats is the chief cereal, and, indeed, the only one on the moist oceanic border. Wheat is produced in the Lothians, Fife, and the Merse of Berwick, where the average number of bushels to the acre is the largest in Great Tlritain. Barley, potatoes, and roots are other east-coast crops. The average crop of roots in Scotland amounts to half that of England. Important fruit-growing districts are the Carse of Gowrie and round Blairgowrie and Coupar-Angus (small fruit). The mountain pastures of the Southern Uplands (notably in the Cheviots) and the lower Highland hillsides support sheep. Notable breeds of cattle are Ayrshire (dairy), black-polled Aberdeen Angus (beef). West Highlanders or kyloes, and blackpolled Galloways. Clydesdale is the originator of a famous breed of horses. Both the fresh-water and sea fisheries of Scotland are very important, especially in the E. Aberdeen is the chief fishing centre; others are Peterhead, Wick, and, on the w., Stornoway. The chief food-fishes are herring (especially those of Loch Fyne), haddock, flat fish (notably Forth flounders), and cod. The annual value of the sea fisheries amounts to upward of $10,000,000.
Minerals and Manufactures.— The mineralized region of Scotland is the Central Lowland. The total value of the mineral produce was, in 1004. $60,959,686. The largest coal fields lie in Lanarkshire (which produces half the total output), Ayrshire, Fife, the Lothians, and Stirling (total output of all fields, in 1904, 35,453,389 tons, valued at $50,783,396). The iron fields lie near the coal, in the counties of Ayr (the most productive field), Lanark, Linlithgow, Renfrew, Fife, Midlothian, and -Stirling (total output for all fields, in 19O4, 838,104 tons of ore, valued at $1,584,030). Oil shale is mined round Edinburgh and Linlithgow (total output, m 1904, 2,333,062 tons, valued at $2,697,724). Other important mineral products are the red and gray granite of Aberdeenshire; fimestone, found principally m File and Midlothian; slate, m