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NASICA SERAPIQ belonged to another branch of the family. He was consul in 138 B.C., and in 133 killed Tiberius Gracchus. He became so unpopular for this that, though he was pontifex maximus, and as such forbidden to leave Italy, the senate sent - on a mission to Asia, whence he never ventured to return, but died at Pergamum. Scire Facias (Lat. ‘That you make known”). The name of a writ and the proceeding commenced thereby, founded upon a public record. it is still employed in some states to revive judgments which are about to expire, to enforce the forfeiture of charters of corporations, enforce recognizances, etc. seded by statutory actions in some code states. Sciron, in ancient Greek legend, was a robber who frequented the frontiers of Attica and Me. gara. After robbing travellers he compelled them to wash his feet and while they were so engaged kicked them over the Scironian cliffs into the sea. Theseus put an end to his career by inflicting on him the same fate. Scirpus, a genus of water and marsh d. oloog to the order Cyperaceae. . The bulrush or bast, S. lacustris, is the bestknown species. It is much used for mat-making and for the seats
Scirpus 1, Flower spike; 2, bract; 3, flower; 4, fruit (achene); 5, section.
of chairs. This of rush growing 9 ft. high, and called *tulé,” is an important plant in the economy of the southwestern
It is, super- .
holes being formed out of it without a weld. . The “setting’ of the blades is the most important of the thirty processes of scissors-making, as it causes the blades to cut from point to rivet. After “setting,' the blades are finished, bows and shanks filed smooth and burnished, and then fastened together. Formerly bows and shanks were sometimes decorated in elaborate lace patterns. All this ornamentation was effected with a file, the design being cut out from the solid steel. Tailors' shears consist of a blade of crucible steel welded upon a shank and bows of iron.
Scitaminaceae, a natural order of herbaceous plants, with creeping rhizomes, which includes plants of economic importance producing ginger, arrowroot, cardamoms, and bananas. Among the genera are Canna, Musa, Maranta, and Zingiber.
Scituate, thi., Plymouth co., Mass., 21 m. S.E. of Boston, on the North R. and Massachusetts Bay, and on the N. Y., N. H. and H. R. It is a residential town and summer resort. The chief features of interest are a public library, a fine water tower, a lighthouse famous from Revolutionary days, and the ancient First Church, built on a hill, long a landmark for sailors at sea. It was the birthplace of Samuel Woodworth, the author of the Old Oaken Bucket. The surrounding country, has a picturesque rolling surface, the farms being chiefly given to raising vegetables for the Boston market and cranberries. The town was first settled about 1631, and received its present charter in 1636. Pop. (1910) 2,482.
Scleroderma, , or ADDISQN's KELoID, a skin disease in which the skin becomes tightly stretched owing to excessive formation of fibrous tissue in and under it. Two well-marked forms are recognized—the circumscribed and the diffuse. The circumscribed form may show in patches, distributed apparently, indiscriminately over body and limbs, or following the course of some nerve. In the diffuse form the greater part of the trunk ...and head may be implicated. The disease may undergo a spontaneous cure or it may go on to atrophy of underlying parts through pressure, and eventual death either of a part or of the body as a whole. It is more common in women than in men, and is believed to be of a nervous §: Treatment (not satisfactory) has until lately been mostly, in the direction of inunctions and special attention to general nutrition. Recently good results have been claimed for administration of thyroid gland.
Sclerosis, in medicine, a term which, strictly speaking, may applied to the induration or hardening of any tissue; but of late it has been reserved more for arterial o or particularly , for a diseased condition of the spinal cord, in which certain of its constituents undergo degeneration and hardening by reason of overgrowth of connective tissue. The general tendency is towards increasing F. sis and ultimate death, although the disease may last over many years. Sclerostomum, a genus of Nematode worms, including S. armatum, a parasite of the horse. To this genus was formerly referred also the worm which causes ‘gapes’ in fowls, now known as Syngamus trachealis. S c 1 erotia, peculiar little hard, tuber-like bodies produce by certain fungi. These resting forms of mycelium are able to remain for a long time in , a dormant state, to withstand the effects of desiccation, and then under favorable conditions to enter on a further course of development. From them are developed, the ergot of grasses and other fungus disease of plants. Sclerotic, in anatomy, the dense coat or layer of fibrous tissue which covers all the back of the eyeball, coming forward to the cornea in front. It is the white of the eye, and is covered outside by the thin o o, and loosely line within by the choroid. It is subject to various inflammatory conditions, and may also suffer from bulging, due to intraocular tension, or may be the seat of tumors. Scodra, or SkodRA. See SkuTARI. S collard, CLINToN (1860), American poet, was born at Clinton, N. Y., and graduated (1881) at Hamilton Co j continuing his studies at Cambridge University, England. From 1888 to 1893 he was assistant professor of rhetoric at Hamilton College, occupying the chair of English
literature, from 1893 to 1896. Essentially a lyric t; his verse is characterized brightness
and sentiment. is numerous books of ms include: Pictures in Song (1884); With Reed and Lyre (1886); Giovio and Giulia (1891); Skenandoa (1896); The Cloistering of Ursula go and Odes and Elegies (1905). Scolopendrium. See HART'sTONGUE FERN. Scomberidae, the family to which the mackerel belongs. Scone, tr., Perthshire, Scotland, on 1. bk. of Tay, 2 m. N. of ferth: has, 1% m. to the w.N.w., the fine old market cross of the extinct hamlet of Old Scone, the capital of Pictavia in the 8th
century. . The abbey of Scone founded by Alexander I. in 1114, stood to the west of Old Scone. The abbey and the old palace were o by a Perth mob in 1559. The new palace, beun by , the Earl of Gowrie, odged the Chevalier de St. George in 1716, and Prince Charlie in 1746. The present palace of Scone was erected 1803–8. Scone, was a royal residence, and a place of coronation for Scottish kings from 1153 to 1488. The Stone of Destiny or Coronation seat was removed to London by Edward I. in 1296, and is now underneath the coronation chair in Westminster Aby. Scopas, ancient Greek sculptor, was a native of Paros, and flourished in the first half of the 4th century B.C. He was emloyed to rebuild the temple of thena Alea at Tegea, which was burned in 395 B.C., and he also shared in the decoration of the mausoleum, which was not finished until after 349 B.C., The distinguishing characteristic of his work was his expression of strong emotion, even of passion. No works, undeniably his, survive. Fragments of the pediment sculptures at Tegea were discovered in 1879, and works resembling his style, as shown in these, are the Meleager of the Vatican and a statue in the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University. Score, in music, signifies that the individual parts of a composition are written upon separate staves—all barred alike — and placed one above another in such juxtaposition that they can be read simultaneously. ass parts are always placed lowest, and, in orchestral music, parts for instruments of the same class are usually set in groups, but these may occupy various positions in the score, according to the method of arrangement favored by the composer. Four-part vocal music is frequently written on two stayes, the two higher on the treble, the two lower on the bass, and when so, is said to be in compressed or short score. Sc or es by, WILLIAM (1789– o English ...Arctic explorer, was born near Whitby; made his first Greenland voyage at the age of eleven. After 1810 he continued to make the Greenland voyage annually. His interest in the scientific aspects of the Arctic regions having been awakened Sir Joseph Banks, he joi An Account of the Arctic Regions (2 vols. 1820). In 1822 he abandoned the sea, but still continued his scientific studies, in the interests of which he made a voyage to Australia in 1856. He visited the U. S. in 1844, and made a second tour in Scoriae
Canada...and, the U.S. in 1848. He published Magnetical Investi§. (1839–52). See Life by coresby Jackson (1861). Scoriae, or ScoRIA, either the cinder-like masses ejected by volcanoes and known as volcanic ashes, or the ropy, irregular pumiceous crusts usually found on lava flows, especially those of basic character. Pumice is the best-known example. Scorification. See Lurgy. he eighth sign of th Scorpio, the eighth sign o e zodiac (symbol m), entered by the sun about October 21, and an ancient constellation, now nearly 30° east of the sign. The Grceks followed the Chaldaeans in assigning to it a duplicated zodiacal representation, the claws occupying the *: appropriated to Libra by the Romans. The ap: arance in it of a comet was said y Pliny to portend a plague of
locusts. The chief star is Antares; the primary of 8, , visually triple; as well as i, o, and A Scorii, are spectroscopic binaries; , A, 2, and 11, are closely double; 5 Scorpii forms a ternary system; *... is quadruple. The ‘star of Hipparchus’ so B.C.), and the Nova which lit up the cluster McEsier 80 in 1860, appeared in Scorpio; the adjacent globular cluster Messier 4, and 62 contain fift -eight variables; and an extensive nebulosity near Antares, was photographed by Barnard in 1895. Scorpion, a name applied to the members, of the order, Scor§. of the class Arachnida. corpions are abundant in all warm climates, and numerous species are found round the basin of the Mediterranean. Zoologically scorpions are interesting, not. only on account of their antiquity as fooils, but because of the primitive characters which they display. Thus the abdomen is very distinctly segmented, and bears six
the cephalothorax, and a narrow sterior portion, consisting of ve segments, and ending in the sting. In front of the stron claws or o: (or pedipal § are two small appendages o 1cerae), placed close to the minute mouth. . Behind the nippers are four pairs of walking legs, like those of spiders. Behind , them lie, first, a genital plate, and then a pair of curious “combs' (pectines), whose usc is not known but which appear, to corres nd to the anterior gill-books P. king-crab. The next four segments bear the openings of the four lo or breathing organs, which development shows to be remaios of appendages. The other abdominas segments have no appendages. Scorpions feed upon insects and spiders, whose juices they suck. They are viviparous, and the young at birth resemble the parents. ey usually shelter beneath stones in the daytime, emerging at dusk in search of Fo Some species reach a length of six inches; and in such cases the sting, if rarely fatal, is very painful and troublesome. Common genera are Scorpio and Buthus. Scorpion Grass, a name sometimes given to the forget-me-not (Myosotis). Scorzonera, also called black salsify, Scorzonera Hispanica. It is custivated like salsify as a garden vegetable, the black parsnipshaped root being, eaten. It is a perennial, and the roots continue to enlarge if left in the ground more than one season without becoming inedible. Scot, MICHAEL. See Scott. Scot, REGINALD (*1538–99), English writer against witchcraft,
was born in Kent. His Discoverić of Witchcraft (1584; new ed. 1886), in , which he wages war against the popular belief in witches, had great influence in the formation of public opinion. Scotch Terrier. . A large, sha terrier dog, originating in §. Hardy, so with immense teeth for his size, ears erect, , a, hard coat, shortlegged and long-bodied, he is able to hold his own, anywhere. A keen dog for vermin, he was once much used in hunting foxes in hilly ong where hounds could not run. Since his introduction elsewhere he has become a so favorite, and the breeder has en able to add a white coat to wardrobe. He is classified in two classes at shows—white, and other than white. Points:—Skull of good length, rather inclined to be curved in shape, covered with hair, and showing a drop between the eyes; muzzle very powerful and not too pointed; nose large and black; teeth extremely large; eyes dark, small, piercing in expression, and very bright; ears ...} small, sharp at the points and carried erect; neck short an powerful; chest rather wide, and very deep; body only moderately long, and very powerful at the loins; fore-legs straight and short,
and heavy in bone; feet compact and well padded, with hair between , the toes; hind-quarters muscular; hocks well bent; tail of fair length, and carried gaily; coat very harsh and weather-resisting; colors, black, dark gray, brindle, red, wheaten, and white; markings objectionable. Weight from 17 to 20 lbs. Scotch Verdict. The verdict of ‘not proven,” which juries in criminal trials in Scotland may render. It has the same legal effect as the verdict of ‘not f. ,’ and is a bar to a second trial of the defendant on the same charge. Scotch Woodcock, the name jocularly given to a dish of toast and finnan haddock. S coter, or BLACK DUCK (GEdemia nigra), WELVET Scoter (CE. fusca), and SURF Scoter (QE. perspicillata), a group of species of duck which are marine in their habits, and are distinguished by their large beaks, which are swollen or tuberculated at the base, and have the tip depressed and covered by a flat nais. The male is entirely black in the common scoter, has a white bar on
the wings in the velvet scoter, and has two patches of white on the head in the surf scoter. This predominance of a black tint is also characteristic of the other two species of the genus. All are confined to the northern hemisphere, and, owing to the oily flesh, are almost uneatable. The American varieties are found in winter off the coasts of New England and the middle Atlantic states. The scoters breed in the far north, placing, their nests on the ground in marshy places, or on shores. They visit the temperate latitudes on ho spring and fall, and are shot for market in great numbers. Scotia, vil., Schenectady co., . Y., 3 m. w.N.w.. of Schenectady, on the N. bk, of the Mohawk R., and on the Bost. and Me., and N. Y. C. and H. R. R. Rs. The old Glen-Sanders House contains many relics of the Indians and the early Dutch settlers. The surrounding district is chiefly engaged in dairying. Scotia was first settled in 1658. It was incorporated in 1904. Pop. (1910) 2,957. Scotia Seminary. An institution at Concord, N. C., founded in 1870 for the education of colored women, under the care of the Presbyterian Board of Missions for Freedmen. Its course includes a normal and scientific grammar school, and preparatory, musical, and industrial training. Its prime object is the elevation of the home life. In 1906 it had 284 students, 18, instructors, a library of 3,000 volumes, productive funds of $10,000 and an income of $18,000.
Scotists. . A name applied to those following the philosophy or theology of Duns Scotus. See DUNS SCOTUS. SCHOLASTICISM. Scotland §: Auban, for Scotland N. of Central Lowlands; Lat., Caledonia, from Cheviots to riv. Forth) forms, with its islands, the northern section of Great Britain. 30,405 sq. m. Proximity and Access to the Sea.—The o length is from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, 274 m., and the breadth (narrowest between the estuaries of Clyde and Forth) varies from 24 m. to 146 m. No part of the country is, over 40 m. from seawater, and the proximity of the sea, especially on the W., exerts important climatic effects. The coast line, especially on the w. is enormously developed. Of the inlets, , the most important are: on the w-, Loch Ryan, Firth of Clyde o only important commercial inlet), Lochs Fyne, Linnhe, and Broom; on the E., the Moray Firth and the Firths of Tay and Forth, in which last two, facing the Continent, a busy commerce has developed. e Orkneys and Shetlands in the N., and the Hebrides in the w. are the most important island o: chiefly for the sheries which are carried on round their shores. Physical Structure.—Scotland consists broadly of (1) the Highlands, cleft by the narrow, lakefilled valley of Glenmore (60 m. long), through which the Caledonian Canal has been cut; (2) a rift, valley, or Central Lowland; and (3) the Southern Uplands. These have been described structurally and geologically in the article GREAT BRITAIN. Practically the whole of Scotland is composed of rocks older than the Coas Measures, except for two patches of rock, covering, the islands of Skye and Mull, of recent volcanic origin, and for the Coal Measures belt itself, which constitutes the rift valley or Central, Lowland. The southern boundary of the Highlands may be defined by a line drawn from Stonehaven to the Firth of Clyde. The chief entry into the Highlands is up the Garry .*. A more or less continuous belt of high ground between Cape Wrath and Loch Lomond is Scotland's main watershed. Being near the w. coast it throws, off the longer rivers on its E. side. These include the Tweed (95 m.), noted for its salmon; the Forth (60 m.), its losio. estuary spanned by the Forth railway bridge; the Tay (105 m.), also spanned by a raisway bridge; the South Esk (40 m.); Dee (87 m.); Don (82 m.); Deveron (62 m.); and Spey
The total area is
(96 m.), a very rapid and destructive stream. On the w- and s. the chief streams are the Clyde (106 m.),...navigable to Glasgow; and the Nith (71 # whose yalley §. the Southern Uplands. he inland lochs or lakes of Scotland lie principally toward the w. Such are Loch Lomond, the #. (27 sq. m.); Loch Katrine, in the Forth basin, which supplies Glasgow with drinking-water; Lochs Earn, Tay, and Rannoch in the Tay basin, all centres for fishermen and tourists; Loch Ericht and Loch Laggan; and, in Sutherland, Loch Shin. All contain trout, especially Loch Leven in Kinross, which is a rift-valley, not a Highland, lake. Character of Surface and Vegetation. — The Central Lowland is a trough, sunk below the hill ranges on either side of it. Its surface is undulating and crossed by ranges of low hills, like the Campsie Fells, Fife hills, etc. e most clearly marked section is Strathmore ‘Great Valley'), between the rampians and the Ochils, and Sidlaws. Two other distinctively named sections are the level Carses of Stirling and Gowrie, the latter north of the Firth of Tay. The Central Lowland generally, is , the agricultural region of Scotland, though the low land extending round from Aberdeen to the Moray Firth is also devoted to agriculture. The Highlands are a tangled mass of mountains, with, however, a general northeasterly and southwesterly tilt. Much of their surface, is covered with peat, and heather, though the lower slopes afford grazing for sheep. In all Scotland 21.9 per cent. of the surface is totally uncultivable. But even the waste and barren heather-clad districts command high rentals as grouse moors and deer forests. he Southern Uplands, of lower elevation, and grass-grown, to their summits, afford excellent, sheep pastures, while the plain-land that borders them in the w. is the dairy region of Scotland. . This western plain is balanced by the fertile valley of the Tweed to the s.E., part of it known as the Merse, which is one of the richest agricultural districts in the country. Climate.—Scotland, like Great Britain as a whole, is divided by a central belt of uplands into a western windward side, which is equable and moist (as at Stornoway), and an eastern leeward side, which is drier and ; more extreme (as at Edinburg and Aberdeen). The rainfall is highest in the w. (annual average at Ben Nevis Observatory, 15 in.., , as compared, with , Nairn, 28 in.). The “rain-shadow' or dryness to the leeward of mounScotland
tain masses is most marked under the high barrier of , the Central Solo, round Cairngorm, Ben Macdhui, and Lochnagar. Hence the popularity, as summer resorts, of Braemar and other \laces in the valley of the Dee,
Jon, and S The most marked climatic effect is that agriculture is pursued in the
drier, E., and grazing in the W. A minor effect is shown in the suitability of the moist western climate for the cotton industry. Vegetable and . Animal Productions.—Oats is the chief cereal, and, indeed, the only one on the moist oceanic border. Wheat is ... produced in the Lothians, Fife, and the Merse of Berwick, where the average number of bushels to the acre is the largest in Great, Pritain. Barley, potatoes, and roots are other east-coast crops. The average op of roots in Scotland amounts to half that of England. , Important fruit-growing districts are the Carse of Gowrie and round o and Coupar-Angus (small fruit). The mountain pastures of , the Southern Uplands (notably in the Cheviots) and the lower Highland hillsides support sheep. otable breeds of cattle are R orshire (dairy), black-polled Aberdeen Angus (beef), West jo. or kyloes, and blackpolled Galloways. Clydesdale is the originator of a famous breed of horses. Both the fresh-water and sea fisheries of o i. very important, especially in the yo. is the chief fishin centre; others are Peterhead, Wick, and, on the w., Stornoway. The chief food-fishes are herring (especially those of Loch o: » . flat fish (notably Fort flounders), and cod. The annual value of the sea fisheries amounts to upward of $10,000,000. Minerals and Manufactures.— The mineralized region of Scotland is the Central Lowland. The total value of the mineral roduce was, in 1904, $60,959,686. H. iargest coal fields”fic in Lanarkshire (which roduces half the total output), Ayrshire, Fife, the Lothians, and Stirling (total output of fields, in 1904, 35,453,389 tons, valued at $50,783,396). The iron fields lie near the coal, in the counties of . Ayr (the most productive field), Lanark, Linlithgow, Renfrew, Fife, Midlothian and Stirling (total output for aii fields, in 1904, 838,104 tons of ore, valued at $1,584,030). Oil shale is mined round Edinburgh and Linlithgow (total output, in 1904, 2,333,062 tons, valued at $2,697,724). Other important mineral products are, the red, and y granite of Aberdeenshire; imestone, found . principally in Fife and Midlothian; slate, in