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South African Union
Court appeal may be made only to the King s Privy Council. As the representative of the King, the Governor-General is commanderin-chief of the naval and military forces.
The legislative power is vested in a Parliament of South Africa, consisting of a Senate and an Assembly, and in the Governor-General, representing the Crown, who may summon, prorogue, or dissolve Parliament. For ten years, or until a change is made, the Senate runsists of forty members—eight appointed by the Governor-General, and eight elected by the lejislative bodies of each province f.>r a term of ten years. Four of the appointed Senators are chosen because of their special fitness for locking after the interests of the colored races. A Senator must be at least thirty years old, and own real estate worth $2.500. Members of either house must be of European descent, and resident at least five years in the provinces. The Assembly consists of 121 members, chosen directly, by electoral divisions, for a term of five years, at the end of which period a reapportionment is to be made. For the first term, Cape Colony has 51, Natal 17, Orange Free State 17, and Transvaal 36. Though natives are excluded from membership in Parliament, the franchise rights now enjoyed by them in Cape Colony may not be disturbed except by a twothirds vote of each house. Money, revenue, and tax measures originate in the Assembly, but only on recommendation of the GovernorGeneral.
The provinces are divided into administrative districts under resident magistrates. Each province has a provincial council, which deals with elementary education, local institutions, agriculture, etc., levies direct taxation, and may borrow money on the provincial credit. Each province has an administrator appointed by the Governor-General for a term of five years. He is advised by an executive committee of four, chosen by the provincial council from its membership.
No general scheme of defence has as yet oeen made public. Universal military training and liability to service have been discussed as probabilities; and there are many advocates of the establishment of a military college. The strength of the permanent troops of the former colonies was 12,400. Before the Union, Cape Colony and Natal paid an annual contribution of $425,000 to the British Navy, and this obligation was taken over by the Union Government on its formation. It is thought that the permanent arrangement will also consist of a money payment rather than the maintenance of a local navy. The Union, however, will have charge of its local coast defenses.
All real and personal property formerly belonging to the four colonies, and all mineral rights, were transferred to the Union government on its formation. The Union also assumed the burden of the colonial debts. All moneys received by the Union arc at present paid into a Consolidated Revenue Fund, out of which the government is to pay annually to the administrator of each province the amount considered necessary by the Governor-General-in-Council. This scheme is only temporary, a permanent arrangement waiting on the report of a commission appointed to inquire into the financial relations between the Union and the provinces. A general Railway and Harbor Fund is managed by a commission appointed for that purpose. The following table shows the public debt of the Union at the time of its formation (1910):
South African Union
of a draft act of union. As amended by the Convention at Bloemfontein in May, in accordance with suggestions from the four Houses, the Act was accepted by the South African Parliaments, by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and by the King of Great Britain, who gave the royal assent on Sept. 20, 1909. The name of the Orange River Colony was changed to the Orange Free State province, and provision was made for the admission of contiguous British territory, including Rhodesia and the protectorates of Bechuanaland and Basutoland.
The official date for the commencement of the new government was set for May 31, 1910, the anniversary of the Peace of 1902. The Governor-General, Herbert J.Gladstone (q.v.), raised to the peerage as Viscount Gladstone, and the ten ministers forming the Executive
History.—The movement toward the federation of the British Colonies and the Dutch Republics was begun in 1871 on the initiative of Lord Carnarvon, Secretary of State for the Colonies. It was discussed in the Cape Parliament, which appointed a committee to consider the question. In 1877, Lord Carnarvon's bill was passed by the British Parliament and approved by the King. The constitution, modelled largely on that of Canada, provided for a GovernorGeneral, the representative of the King, assisted by a Privy Council; a Legislative Council, representing the divisions of the federation, and a House of Assembly. Each province was to have a chief executive and a legislature. The Union proved ineffective because, imposed from outside, it lacked local support.
After the South African War (q.v.), however, the liberal treatment of the conquered Dutch states produced happy results, and the movement for a federation of the colonies grew rapidly among the colonists themselves. Moreover, long-standing disagreements among the four states concerning customs and railroads seemed most likely to be solved by union. In 1908 the subject was brought to the colonial Parliaments. On their approval of the plan, a National Convention for the adoption of a constitution was assembled, meeting in Durban and Cape Town, in October and November. In February, 1909, the Conventjon submitted to the Parliaments its report in the form
Council, were sworn in on May 31. Candidates for the House of Assembly and the provincial councils were nominated on Aug. 19, and elected on Sept. 9. The first Parliament was opened by the Duke of Connaught, representing the King, in November, 1910.
Political parties in the new Parliament have separated alo_ng lines of race, rather than political creed. The distinction between Briton and Boer is still a living one; and while the feeling is less strong in the younger generation, it is accentuated among'the present leaders by differences of interest and occupation—the English living largely in the cities, the Bolts in the country. An attempt by political leaders, at the time of the election, to combine on the best men in both parties —known as the ' Fresh Start Movement*—proved unsuccessful, and party lines were maintained. The Parliament consists of 07 Nationalists (Dutch interests), -40 Unionists (English interests), 10 Independents, and 4 members in the Labor interest. Some of the problems to be solved are concerned with education, the army, and the adjustment of the complex financial relations between the Union and the provincial governments. Customs are to remain unchanged for the present, the rulings of the Customs Convention of 11HJC, which give a rebate on British manufactured goods, being still in force.
The personnel of the Parliamentary leaders is significant of the diverse elements that constitute the South African War
new federation: General Botha, first prime minister of the Union, and leader of the Nationalist parly, formerly prime minister of the Transvaal and one of the best known of the Boer lighters; Sir Leander S. Jameson; Farrar and Fitzpatrick, who were sentenced to death for complicity ia the Jameson Raid (q.v.); General Smuts, former leader of the Boer forces, and Merriman, one of the leaders of British opposition to the war.
In Pretoria, extensive public works have been authorized bv way of preparation for its importance as the executive scat of government. The improvements include a tramway system that will be one of the finest in South Africa, sewerage works, repaving and widening of streets, new bridges and streets, and the canalization of the Aapies River. The Union Buildings, 1'ost Office, Railway Station, Museum and Library, University College, and government schools are public buildings that will cost the government nearly $7,f)(K),(XX) in the next few years. A National College of Agriculture, with the most extensive grounds in the world Ci,(i87 acres), is to be established near the city.
See Cape Colony; Natal; Orange Free State; Transvaal.
BIBLIOGRAPHY,— Consult Mendelssohn's Soutk Ajriian Bibliography (1910); Ledcrer's EnlwickclHh£ dcr Sudafrikanischen Union (11)10); Brand's Union of South AJrica (1909).
South African War, or Boer War (1H99-190L"). had its origin in the discontent of the Outlander (foreign) population in the South African Republic. These were mostly British subjects, who complained that their share of political rights was denied, while they owned most of the property and had to bear the major part of the taxation. For five years an agitation had been going on with a \iew to securing equal rights for all while races in the Transvaal; but the Yoiksraad, guided by President Kruger, resisted all proposals for reform. Ultimately the British subjects petitioned the imperial government to redress their wrongs, and several months of tedious negotiations followed. Eventually an ultimatum was presented to the British agent at I'rctoria, insisting that all the points in dispute should be settled by arbitration, and demanding that all reinforcements should be withdrawn and that British troops on their wav to South Africa should be recalled. The Orange Free State, despite a guaranty that its territory and independence would be respected in the event of war, cast in its fortunes with the sister republic, and the British colonies were invaded (Oct. 10, 1899). The first efforts of the Boors were directed against the British gar
rison in Ladysmith, Natal, and although they were defeated at Talana Hill, Elandslaagte and Rietfontein, these reverses did not delay their advance. They captured a British force at Nicholson's Nek on October 30, and three days later Ladysmith was invested. Meanwhile the Boers had been active on the western and southern borders of the republics, and had laid siege to Kimberley and Mafeking. The former was defended by a garrison of about 4,000 civilians and military under Colonel Kekcwich, and the latter by a handful of irregulars under Colonel Baden-Powell. Both held out until they were relieved—• Kimberley on February 15, 1900, and Mafeking three months later, on May 17. The history of the war for some months centres in the efforts made to relieve the three beleaguered towns and to thrust the Boers back from Natal and Cape Colony.
After the arrival of British reinforcements in November, General Buller advanced to relieve Ladysmith, Lord Mcthuen was sent to relieve Kimbcrlcy, and Gen. Gatacre started to meet a Boer force marching south by Colesberg, Burghersdorp, and Aliwal North. These attempts met with disaster and defeat. Buller attacked the Boers at Colenso on the Tugela, and was n-putsed with heavy loss. Lord Methuen, although successful in actions at Belmont and Graspan, and partially so at Modder river, met with a severe repulse at Magersfontcin and was compelled to abandon his attempt. General Gatacre, who set out to surprise a force of Orange Free State burghers, was defeated at Storm berg in Cape Colony. These nearly simultaneous failures in December profoundly moved British public opinion and correspondingly elated the Boers. Lord Roberts was made commanderin-chief of ihe British forces, with Lord Kitchener as chief of his staff. A noteworthy feature of the situation was the offer of military assistance from Canada, Australia, and New /raland. The Boers fiercely attacked Ladysmith on January 6, 1900, but failed. Gen. Buller's assaults on the Boer positions on Spion Kop were fruitless.
The arrival of Lord Roberts in South Africa changed the aspect of affairs. Up to this point the Boers had been assailed with frontal attacks, but the new general outmanoeuvred them by his swift and unexpected flanking movements, against which the Boers' trenches and their riflepits were useless. He and Lord Kitchener had organized the troops with special reference to rapid marches. Cavalry and
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mounted infantry henceforth took the chief place in the campaign. The transport service was made adequate. The relief of Kimberley was the object of Lord Roberts's first effort, and it was carried out with admirable secrecy, boldness and dash. Concentrating his army at Ramdam, to the northeast of Belmont, he made a feint on the Boer right, which engaged the attention of General Cronie, and ordered the brilliant cavalry leader, General French, with 5,000 mounted men to make a dash for Kimberley, which was entered on February 15. A series of flanking movements brought Cronie to a halt at Paardeberg, and he took refuge in the bed of the Modder river, where on the morning of February 27, the anniversary of the British defeat on Majuba Hill, he surrendered with 4,000 men. In the meantime Gen Buller had renewed his activity on the Tugela. He took Colenso from the eastern side, turned the Boer position on Pieters Hill, and on February 28 Ladysmith was relieved.
Lord Roberts meanwhile set out for Bloemfontein, which surrendered to him on March 13, Presidents Kruger and Steyn making their escape to the north, after an unavailing appeal to the British government for peace on the basis of a recognition of the independence of the two republics. The Boers in the Colesburg district and the commandoes which had occupied Stormberjj and Aliwal North retired in time to escape being cut off by Lord Roberts in rear, and thus the railway line was clear from Bloemfontein to the Cape. For six weeks Lord Roberts remained at the Free State capital, making his lines of communication secure, and bringing up by rail horses, mules, and stores. All these weeks De Wet gave the army no rest. His object was to delay the British advance on the Vaal river. The wily Boer evaded every attempt to capture him. By an ambush at Sanna's Post, where several hundred British troops were surrounded and taken, he gained possession of the Bloemfontein water-works, cut off the supply and caused thousands of deaths from enteric fever in the army around the city. On May 3 Lorn Roberts's northern advance was resumed. With a front sometimes forty miles in length, the British army set out upon its march of 300 miles to Pretoria, the capital of the Transvaal, sweeping the country clear of the enemy as they went, and bearing down all opposition before them. Botha, wno had succeeded to the post of Boer commander-in-cAief on the death o! Joubert on March 27, had reSouth African War
organized his army, and made elaborate preparations for resistance; but time and again the Boers melted awav from magnificent positions after long-range fighting. From Johannesburg they fled precipitately the moment the pressure of the British columns made itself felt, and on May 30 the town surrendered. A few days later, on June 5, Lord Roberts marched into Pretoria, and liberated 3,000 British prisoners.
Away in the west the little garrison at Mafeking had been holding out since the middle of October, and suffered severely from lack of proper food. The investing Boer force made a final attack on May 12, but Colonel Baden-Powell surrounded and cut off the attacking force when it pot inside the camp. Colonel Mahon, who on May 4 set out from Barkly West with a mounted column, finallyrelieved Mafeking on May 17. Afte'r the fall of Pretoria De Wet began guerilla tactics and prolonged the war for two years. The surrender of Prinsloo, with 4,000 Boers, did not discourage this renewed activity. De Wet foiled all attempts to take him, and on August 4 crossed the Vaal river. In September he was strong enough to attack the town of Ladybrand, but was repulsed. About 'the end of August Lord Roberts left Pretoria, made his final advance and joined hands with Huller at Belfast in Natal.
In December, 1900, Lord Roberts returned to England, and the chief command devolved upon Lord Kitchener. De Wot continued as active as ever. His next move was to cross the Orange river and invade Cape Colony, but in this project he was frustrated through two other Boer leaders, Krit/ingcr and Hertzog, who succeeded in crossing the river and creating unrest for some weeks in the colony. After that De Wet projected an attack upon Cape Town itself, while Botha was to inarch upon Durban; but this bold scheme was likewise defeated, and again De Wet made his escape to the north, leaving many of his wagons in the hands of Colonel Plumer, who pursued him as far as Fauresmith. The vast tracts of country over which they manoeuvred, and the mobility of the Boer forces, enabled them to appear and disappear, to concentrate and disperse, with a suddenness that was almost magical; and as ordinary methods of warfare nroved futile against them. Lord Kitchener set about the establishment of an extensive system of blockhouses along the railway line, each one garrisoned and in communication with its neighbor on either side. Armored trains scouring the line were able to
bring help when called for. De \Vi-t was unable to withstand the new plan. On February 27, 1901, naif his command was captured. As the year 1901 advanced and the blockhouse svstcm was extended, the Boer forces were more and more confined. In the Eastern Transvaal there were several Boer defeats, and General Ben Viljocn was captured. In the Orange River Colony a sweeping movement was organized by Lord Kitchener, which nad for its object the final breaking of the power of De Wet. The 'great drive," as it was called, began early in February, 1902 and so thoroughly was it carried out that the Boer general and his followers were speedily shut into the trap, and their project of another raid into Cape Colony was at an end. The fortune of war, however, was not all on the side of the British even now. They lost nearly all the escort of a convoy near iClerksdorp, and on March 7, Lord Methuen was captured by the Boers, but speedily released. Shortly afterward another 'drive' by Lord Kitchener took place, and this was the last important engagement of the war.
The terms of surrender offered by the British government were accepted by the liocrs at the conference of Vereeniging, which met on May 14, and on May 31 they were duly signed at Pretoria. Thus ended a war which cost the British nation the lives of more than 20,000 men. See L. S. Amery's 'Times' History of the Boer War (1902), Wilkinson's Lessons oj the War (1900), Cunliffc's History 0} the Boer War (1901), Sir A. Conan Doyle's The Great Boer War (1002), The War in South Africa, prepared by the German general staff (trans, by Colonel Du Cane, 1905), and the reports of the U. S. Military Attaches published bv the War Dcnartment. The British official history of the war was in preparation in I90G.
South Amboy, bor., Middlesex cp.. N. J., 22 m. s.w. of New York city, at the mouth of the Karitan R., on Raritan Bay. and on the Cent, of N. J. and the Pa. R. Rs. It is an important coal-shipping port of the latter railroad. The principal manufactories produce terra - cotta, pottery, and asphaltum. F.xtensive deposits of clay and moldingsand are found in the neighborhood. A drawbridge spans the river at this point, connecting South Amboy with Perth Amboy. The town was laid out in 183"> and the borough incorporated in 1898. Pop. illilU) 7,007.
South America is wider in the N. and tapers to the s., forming a somewhat pear-shaj)ed outline. Its extreme southern point is
Cape Horn (more properly Hoorn), in 50° s. The extreme length is 4,500 m. and the breadth about 3,000 m. The continent
is bounded on the w. by the Pacific, and on the E. by the Atlantic Ocean, where Africa approaches within 1,700 m. of Cape San Roque. Its area is 7,700,000 sci. m.. The average elevation of the continent is 2,000 ft.; yet over 40 per cent, lies below 600 ft., a greater proportion than in any other continent except Europe.
Physical Divisions.—S. America is essentially an Atlantic and not a Pacific continent. Extensive highlands exist in the E., divided by the broad valley of the Amazons into the Guiana highlands in the N. and the Brazilian highlands in the s. Communication is also possible by the lowlands of the Orinoco valley in the N.; and by those of the Plate basin in the s. There are thus three great1 gateways to the central lowlands, which are completely shut off from the Pacific by the W. Cordillera area. This is a band of one or more young folded mountain chains, witn plateaus between, and varies in width from a few miles to 500.
The Eastern Highlands.—The Guiana highlands consist of Archa'an rocks, covered in the w., or Venezuelan part, by horizontal layers of sandstone, whose highest parts are Icutu (probably 11,000 ft.) and Roraima (8,000 ft.). In the E. part the highest region lies in the s., and descends sharply to the Amazons basin; the longer rivers to the N. pass from terrace to terrace in great waterfalls. The coast is flat and sandy, formed by ocean currents. The Brazilian highlands are very largely made up of Mesozoic sandstone fringed with Palaeozoic strata; and Archaean masses constitute the plateaus of Matto Grosso, Goyaz, and that between the Sao Francisco valley and the sea. A number of mountain ranges occupy this plateau region with occasional elevations of 5,000 to about 10,000 ft. Italiava, 9,840 ft., in the state of Rio dc Janeiro, and Itajuba in the state of Sao Paulo, 7,800 ft., are among the highest peaks. Granites, schists, and other crystalline rocks prevail as a central foundation, and these are folded and cut by mineral veins dating back to Palaeozoic time. The coast is mainlv low, of Tertiary sediments, and" between the Amazons .and the Parahyba it is bordered by a sandstone reef, revealing a former extension of the continent. This is followed by a steep coast with numerous inlets, the picturesque bay of Rio de Janeiro being the largest. From the tropic to the Plate the coast
plain the shrinkage of Lake Titicaca.
The Western Cordillera area, sometimes collectively known as the Andes, extends over one-sixth of the earth's circumference. In the N. it curves in a great arc from the Caribbean Sea to Arica (18° S.), and is narrowest in the centre opposite the Gulf of Guayaquil, but it spreads out into several ranges, with intermontane plateaus towards each end. At Arica the system is widest (500 m.), and includes the lofty
£lateau of Bolivia, drained to akes Titicaca and Aullagas. These plateaus are of enormous size, 8,000 to 11,000 ft. above the sea, with almost level tracts separated by mountain ranges but not cut by gorges very extensively. The system narrows to the s., and only one main range is prominent lieyond Aconcagua (23,080 ft.), the highest summit. The S. Andes arc heavily glaciated, and alpine glaciers exist on most of the higher peaks even at the equator, such as Antisana, 19,3.35 ft., and Cayamb£, 19,180 ft., in Ecuador. The snow line varies from 14,000 to 17,000 ft., and, as there are many peaks in the Andes from 20,000 to 23,000 ft. in elevation, glaciers of this tjpe are numerous. Several outliers rise above the pampa—e.g. sierras of Cordoba, Tandil, and Ventana —and the Patagonian plateau. A lower coastal chain, separated by a longitudinal valley from the main chain, can be traced from Panama to 0° s., and from Arica to the extreme s. The mountains of N. Venezuela, Trinidad, and Drobably the Sierra de Santa Marta, seem to be distinct from the N. Andes, and may represent the end of the Antillean chain. Active volcanoes are numerous, especially s. of Lake Titicaca and in Ecuador. Cotopaxi, 19,013 ft., Tunguragua, 16,690 ft., and Sangai, 17,464 ft., in Ecuador are the largest active volcanoes in any part of the world. The w. coast is concordant, with few breaks. The most important transverse gulf is that of Guayaquil, except s. of 42° s.. where there is a well-developed fiord coast similar to that of the glaciated portions of other continents.
The only islands of S. America of any importance are the small ones which lie parallel to the concordant coasts of Venezuela and Trinidad; the Falkland Islands, which rise above the continental platform in the extreme s.; and the volcanic Galapagos Island? on the equator, wnich have no physical connection with S. America, although usually considered with that continent.
The oldest part of the continent is the eastern highlands of Brazil