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of Great Britain (1812–46); and similar works. Sowerby, JAMES DE CARLE (1787-1871), English naturalist and artist, son of the above, was born at Stoke Newington, London, and followed the lines of his father's work. He helped to found, and became secretary of, the Royal Botanic Gardens (1838). Sowerby Bridge, th:, W. Riding, Yorkshire, England, on the Calder, 2% m. s.w.. of Halifax, at termination of Rochdale Canal. The town has woollen mills, cotton factories, and engineering works. Pop. (1911) 11,350. Sowing Machines. See IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINERY. Sow-thistle, a genus of plants belonging to the order Compositae, characterized by all the florets being bisexual and strap-shaped. he flowers have an imbricated involucre, and the fruit is flattened and not beaked. The pappus is hairy. S. oleraceus is the common milk - thistle or sowthistle. S. arvensis, the corn sow-thistle, much resembles the last species, but has an unbranched stem and large flowers. Soy-bean (Glycine hispida), a bushy, leguminous annual growing about 3 feet high and cultivated as a food and forage plant. It is a native of Asia and is largely grown in China and Japan, from whence it was brought to Europe and America. There are numerous cultivated varieties, differing mainly in color and form of seed and in period of growth. In the United States it is principally grown as a forage plant, but it is also largely used for green-manuring and soil improvement generally. Like all other leguminous plants, its growth tends to increase the nitrogen content of the soil. The soy-bean grows well wherever good crops of corn are produced, but it will also give fair yields on lands not so high in fertility, as good corn lands. For forage the crop is broadcasted or closely drilled late enough in the spring to avoid cold weather, and for seed it is grown in rows 3 feet apart and cultivated. When used for hay, soiling, or silage soybeans are cut when in blossom, but when grown for seed the harvest is deferred until the seeds are ripe. When the plant is dead ripe the seeds shatter. Yields of 8 tons of green forage and of 40 bushels of seed per acre are considered satisfactory. The soy-bean is little subject to plant diseases and insect attacks. It has a high feeding value when cut before it gets woody and the leaves fall off. The seed is ground and fed mixed with other feeds, and the whole plant is frequently put into the silo with

corn. The bean is an important article of food in China and Japan. Soyer, ALExis BENoiT (1809– 58), French cook and practical philanthropist, was born at Meaux; went to England in 1830, and eventually became chef at the Reform Club, London (183750), where he made a great reputation. At the time of the Irish famine he was sent by the government to superintend the erection and working of public kitchens for the issue of rations, and he succeeded in reducing the cost by fifty per cent. On the outbreak of the Crimean War he was associated with Florence Nightingale in reorganizing the victualling of the army hospitals. He invented a military cooking wagon, and (in 1849) a magic ccoking stove, and published successful books on cookery—e.g. The Gastronomic Regenerator (1846), The Modern Housewife (1849), and Shilling Cookery Book (1854). See Memoirs by Volant and Warren (1858), and Harper's Magazine, Feb., 1858. Spa, th: and wat.-pl., prov. Liège, Belgium, 20 m. s.e. of Liège. The baths building encloses the Pouhon (chalybeate and carbonaceous), and several other springs are situated within 1} or 2 m. of the town. From this place is derived the generic name for a watering-place. Articles are made of painted wood. Pop. (1900) 8,192. Space. See Psychology; D1MENSIONs; GEOMETRY. Spadix. See SPATHE. Spagnoletto. See RIBERA. Spahi, a Turkish irregular cavalryman. With their almost untamed horses, the spahis were from 1326 a formidable body in the army of the sultan, down to its reorganization by Moltke in 1835. The French gave the name to bodies of native Algerian cavalry organized after 1834. The word is Persian, and is etymologically identical with sepoy. Spahr, CHARLES BARZILLAI (1860 – 1904), American author and editor, was born in Columbus, O., and graduated (1881) at Amherst, continuing his studies at Leipzig and Columbia. He was an associate editor of the Outlook (New York) in 1886– 1904, when he became editor of Current Literature, a position $o. at the time of his death, which occurred during his return from Europe, whither he had gone in search of much-needed rest and recuperation. Besides miscellaneous essays he published The Present Distribution of Wealth in the United States (1896) and America's Working People (1900). Spain (España) occupies, wit the exception of the kingdom of Portugal, the whole of the Iberian peninsula, extending from

the Pyrenees and the Bay of Biscay, on the N. to the Strait of Gibraltar on the s., and from the Atlantic on the w: to the Mediterranean on the E. The area is 194,783 sq. m., of which 64 per cent. is cultivated. The population numbers (1900) 18,618,086, of whom only 30 per gent. are able to read and write. The position of the peninsula at the extreme s.w.. of Europe, its isolation from the rest of the continent, and the broken and mountainous character of its surface, which give it a great diversity of climate, not only preserved the local peculiarities of its various racial inhabitants longer than elsewhere, but endowed the people, when they had become partially, amalgamated, with many of the qualities of both the southern and the northern races. Powerfully imaginative, ardent, and impulsive on the one hand, they are grave, thoughtful, and tenacious on the other. Its climate offers a complete contrast to that of other countries of similar latitude. The N.w:—Galicia, for instance—projecting far into the Atlantic and on a parallel with Marseilles, is wet, and fertile; the s.E., is excessively, dry and torrid, artificial irrigation being necessary for cultivation; and the great central table-land, owing to its elevation, is bleak and arid, alternating between icy winds and parching sunlight. The main natural orographic barriers of the country are: (1) The Pyrenaic system, extending E. and w. from the province of Gerona to that of Galicia, and enclosing the region between that range and the Bay of Biscay. (2) The Iberic system, which branches first toward the S.E. from the aforementioned range at about 4° w. long., and divides the valleys of the Duero (Douro) and Tagus from that of the Ebro; and thence (about 2° w. long.) runs due s. till it merges into the Sierra Nevada at 37° 40' N., and continues s.w. till the range is lost in the sea at Gibraltar, thus dividing the valleys of the Jucar and the Segura from those of the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir. From this N. and s. backbone there branch three nearly parallel ranges running from E. to w.—the first, the adarrama system, separating the valleys of the Duero and Tagus: the second, the Toledo and Estremadura system, those of the Tagus and Guadiana; and the third, the Sierra Morena, those of the Guadiana and Guadalquivir. The first political division of Spain was made by the Romans about 200 b.c.—namely, Hither Spain (Citerior) in the E. with Tarraço (Tarragona) as its capital, and Thither Spain (UlSpain

terior), whose chief town was Cordova; and when the country became more settled Octavian (the future Augustus) in 29 b.c. made a fresh division—namely, Betica, which included Andalusia, Granada, and a portion of Estremadura; Tarraconensis, comprising the whole of the E. and centre of the country ; and Lusitania containing Portugal, Galicia, and Leon. This last province, being the least settled and civilized, was ruled direct by the Roman emperor as a military territory. The principal cities which grew out of the Roman settlements, besides Tarragona, Granada (Elvira). Seville (Hispalis), Cadiz (Gades) and Cordova, were Bada

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dustrial and mining, the whole of the Cantabrian range being especially abundant in minerals. The two main centres of export of minerals from this portion of the country are Bilbao, where an enormous business in hematite iron is done with England, and Oviedo. The centre of the textile industry is Barcelona, where also a large export trade in cork is done. The E. and s. regions are mainly concerned with the production of fruit, wine, and olive oil, the principal ports of export being Valencia, Seville, Malaga, Cadiz, , Alicante, and Almeria. Madrid, almost in the centre of the country, possesses little productive industry, but has grown

Spain

hierarchy consists of nine archbishops—Toledo (primate), Burgos, Granada, Santiago, Saragossa, Seville, Tarragona, Valencia, and Valladolid—and nearly fifty bishops. Protestants and other nonconformists may worship in private only. Primary education is by law compulsory; but the law is not carried out, as the high percentage of illiterates proves. Nevertheless there are universities at Madrid, Salamanca, Barcelona, Granada, Oviedo, Santiago, Saragossa, Seville, Valencia, and Valladolid. The government is that of a constitutional monarchy. The legislative power is vested in the Cortes (parliament) and the king.

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joz (Par Augusta), Merida (Augusta Emerita), Astorga (Asturica Augusta), Braga (Bracara Augusta), Lugo (Lucus Augusti), Leon (Urbs Septima: Legionis), Saragossa (Caesare Augusta), and the former Carthaginian cities of Barcelona, Saguntum (Murviedro), and Cartagena. The provinces were subsequently subdivided for administrative purposes by the Romans; but until the Moorish domination of the peninsula the main plan remained without great change. The N. provinces abound in rich mountain pasture, and produce much maize, and in favored districts good wheat. This region is, however, to a large extent in

Spain—Contours.

rapidly both in population and in amenity during the last thirty years, owing to the railway system centring at that point. By far the greater part of the foreign trade of Spain is carried on with Great Britain and France, the proportions being 38 and 21 per cent. respectively. The total trade in 1904 amounted to $127,646,474 for exports, and $123,289,370 for imports. For the calendar year 1905 the trade of Spain with the United States amounted to $25,682,596, of which $16,167, 176 were imports and $9,515,420 were exports. Fruit, wine, and minerals are the principal exports. Roman Catholicism is the state religion; the

The Cortes consists of a Senate of about 360 members, one-half elected, and of a Congress of 431 deputies, elected in the proportion of one for every 50,000 of the population, with some especially elected. Of her once extensive colonial empire all that now remains to Spain are the Canary Islands and sundry small possessions on the N. and w. coast of Africa, aggregating some 83,400 sq. m., with a population of 650,000. Military serve ice for three years is compulsory. The peace strength of the army is about 95,000 men; estimated war strength, 200,000. See Carrasco's Geografia general de España (1861), Mingote y Tarazona's Geografia de España y sus Colonias (1887), Reclus's Géographie universelle (1879), O'Shea's Guide to Spain and Portugal (1895), Hare's Wanderings in Spain (1904), Baedeker's Spain and Portugal (1901), and Murray's Handbook for Spain (1898). History.—The key to the history and development of Spain as a nation must be sought in the geographical position, physical conformation, , and ethnological phenomena of the country. Situated at the extreme southwestern point of the European continent, almost inaccessible by land except at two points at either extremity of the Pyrenees, the Iberian peninsula received in every case the last wave of the successive influences which in turn invaded Europe from the ancient East. As return was difficult or impossible, each successive racial inundation, each successive type of civilization, had there to stand at bay, to fight, and finally to succumb to the dispensation that supplanted it. The physical conformation of the country (see geographical section) not only retarded racial amalgamation to a very great extent, but perpetuated the influence of primitive characteristics and traditions. The great diversity of climate, moreover, tended to keep distinct, the institutions, the characteristics, and habits of the various regional populations; and all these influences together made Spain, until recent times, a bundle of jealous and unsympathetic units rather than a concrete nationality. The recorded history begins with the establishment by the Phoenicians of the trading colonies on the south coast, especially at Gadeira (Cadiz), about 1100 B.C. Almost simultaneously Greek settlements were founded on the east coast, first at Rhodas (now Rosas) and the Baleares, and later at Emporiae, Dianium (Denia), and Saguntum. The settlers found in possession of the country a short, dark-skinned, hirsute people, organized on tribal lines, and possessing a very strongly marked sense of individuality and local attachment. Whence these Iberians came is disputed. Some authorities claim them as a branch of the great Indo-European family; others believe them to be of cognate origin with the aboriginal North African tribes, whose descendants now inhabit portions of the Atlas region. Long before the arrival of the Phoenicians a great invasion of undoubted Celts took place across the western Pyrenees, and for ages they warred with the Iberian tribes. Eventually the two races (and

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probably a third race of aboriginal cave-dwellers, of which little is known) fused to a great extent on the central table-land; but the Celts remained almost pure in the northwest and west, as the Iberians did in the south and southeast. The influence of the Phoenicians was almost entirely confined to the material and civilizing effects of commerce, while the Greeks to some extent colored the social and religious organization of the people. At length, about 500 b.c., the Phoenicians attempted to push their influence into the interior, and came into inimical contact with the less civilized tribes. The Phoenicians were forced to appeal for help to their kinsmen, the Carthaginians. The latter came to Spain, and repelled the Celtiberian tribesmen.

In the great Punic struggle with Rome, Iberia furnished the best soldiers to the armies of Hamilcar and Hannibal on the one side, and to those of Gnaeus and Scipio Africanus on the other. After the ruin of the Punic i)ower the victorious Romans dominated (205 B.C.) Spain. Under the Carthaginians the coast towns had grown greatly in population, civilization, and wealth ; the Spanish galleys were the finest in the Mediterranean; and the people were eagerly receptive of all innovations which did not run counter to their traditions of local autonomy. But the Romans, true to their system of centralizing bureaucracy, governed the new dependency, as they governed the rest of their dominions, from Rome. But this method of government was utterly opposed to the sentiment of the natives, and large garrisons had to be stationed in the conquered districts in order to enforce Roman law and Roman taxation. Thus in the course of time a considerable mixed Latin-speaking population grew up, who settled in separate colonies, which later became centres of Roman culture. Once a formidable federation of Celtic (Lusitanian) tribes almost wrested independence from the Romans. The leader of the revolt (151-140 B.C.) was Viriatus, a Lusitanian shepherd, who, after !holding out for ten years, and beating all the generals that Rome sent against him, succumbed only to the knife of the hired assassin. With the fall of the heroic city of Numantia and the suicide of its brave Iberian defenders the hope of rescuing any portion of Spain from Roman control came to an end. The revolt of Sertorius (83-72 B.c.)—a Sabine by a Spanish mother—was raised on behalf of the party of Marius, who con

tinued in Spain, then the most influential colony of Rome, the political conflict which shook the metropolis. For a time he was successful, organizing the country with great ability; but he too fell by the dagger. Finally (45 B.C.) r, succeeded not only in trampling down in Spain the party of Pompey, but also in extinguishing the hopes of Iberian, independence. Thenceforward Spain became an integral part of the Roman possessions. Trajan, Spanish born, and emperors such as Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius, gave new life to decadent Rome by introducing into her councils the more vigorous provincial element. Spanish authors—Seneca, Lucan, Martial, Quintilian—brought to Latin letters the exuberance of their race. The advent of Christianity found in Spain a people avid to receive a doctrine which appealed irresistibly to their individualistic instincts. . With the division and corruption of the Roman empire Spain too became divided and corrupt; and when the barbarians swarmed across the Pyrenees at the invitation of one of the Roman claimants to empire (A.D. 409), they overran the country without resistance, softened as it was by Roman luxury and enervated by six centuries or more of Roman protection. Like locusts the Alans, Suevians, and Vandals devastated the land—the Alans spreading down the extreme east and west and on the central table-land, the Suevians establishing themselves in Galicia, and the Vandals, prior to their migration to Africa, settling down for a few years in Betica. But Ataulf the Goth crossed (415) the Pyrenees, ostensibly to reconquer Spain for the decadent empire, and thenceforward the Goth held sway, for the first forty years in the name of the Roman emperor, and afterwards independently, and ruled all Spain, except the Suevian northwest corner, from the Gothic capital of Toulouse. The governing idea of the Goths, or rather the Visigoths, was an elective military monarchy, upheld by landed armed chieftains speaking for themselves and their dependents; but the Visigothic monarchy, although introducing new cohesion and vigor into the chaotic government which had survived the fall of Roman bureaucracy, never succeeded in acclimatizing to any great extent their own governmental traditions in Spain. On the contrary, the Visigothic aristocracy, living apart and not intermarrying with the natives, became themselves to a large extent Latinized. Euric in 466 found that the councils of the Christian bishops,

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meeting usually at Toledo, had assumed the importance almost of a national parliament. The Visigoths, however, were Arians, and for a hundred and twenty years they strove in vain to force their Arian creed upon the mass of the Latin Spaniards. But the bishops and the national feeling were too strong, and in 589 King Recared summoned the famous third Council of Toledo, and solemnly renounced the Unitarian heresy. Thenceforward, until the fall of the Visigothic monarchy, Spain was a theocracy in all but name, with a sovereignty tending to become hereditary, the kings humbly receiving investiture at the hands of the bishops and ruling through the councils. This was resented by the Visigothic military chieftains, who still claimed the right of freely electing the monarch. At length, after the nobles had chosen one of their number, Roderic, king, the representatives of the monarch appointed by the churchmen, unable to withstand alone the force of the Visigothic aristocracy, invited Count Julian, the Eastern Roman emperor's governor of Ceuta, to send across the strait a force of Africans to aid the ecclesiastical Spanish faction. This was one of the great crises of history. The Saracens, under the leadership of Tarik, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar in thousands, and near the junction of the Guadalquivir and the Guadalete Roderic fell, and his Visigothic host melted away (711). The Jews, whom the ecclesiastical councils had persecuted, everywhere made common cause with the invaders, and within two years virtually all Spain bowed beneath the rule of the infidel. The new conquerors left the Spaniards in full enjoyment of their religion, social usages, and local autonomy, and were gentler masters than the Visigoths had been. Almost the only permanent trace left of the domination of the latter in Spain was the code of laws called the Lex Visigothorum, which subsequently became the foundation of the law of Christian Spain. For the first forty years after the Moslem conquest Spain was ruled in the name of the caliph of Damascus by Arab or Saracenic emirs. After the overthrow of the Ommiade dynasty of the caliphs of Damascus by the Abbasides and the transfer of the caliphate to Bagdad, the only surviving prince of the fallen dynasty, AbdurRahman, fled to Spain, and there assumed independent sovereignty (755). Under his vigorous rule Islamic Spain became united and strong. In an attempt to subdue the survivors of the Visigothic force the Arabs were crushingly

defeated in 718 at the semilegendary battle of the cave of Covadonga, and the tiny mountain principality of which Pelayo then became the head was the nucleus out of which the Christian kingdom of Asturias was subsequently organized. On the east of the Pyrenees another Christian advance was made almost at the same time by a powerful force from Aquitaine. Catalonia having been conquered (800-801), was held, first as tributary to Aquitaine, and subsequently (after 811) as an independent dominion by its own counts. For the next two centuries Spain may be roughly divided into two portions. All north of the Ebro–the Guadarrama mountains and the range that separates the valleys of the Douro and the agus — was Christian; south of that line was Moslem. There was as yet no persecution on the Moslem side; Imarriage between the races was common; the skill, wealth, and elegance of the Arabs were agreeable to the Christians among whom they lived ; and the mass of the population was prosperous. But the priests and leaders of the Asturian kingdom fomented the religious mysticism and zeal of the Christians. The body of the apostle Santiago was opportunely discovered early in the 9th century; saints and angels were declared to have led the Christian bands to victory. Fanaticism on the one side was answered by fanaticism on the other. The over-refinement and luxury of the Arab capital, Cordova, under the successors of the first Ommiade caliph, aroused the scorn of the bigoted African Moslems. The Christians deliberately sought martyrdom by insulting the faith of Islam (850); and thus gradually religious fanaticism and persecution embittered the situation. Racial disaffection and discontent drove the Moslems into revolt, until the Caliph Abdur-Rahman III. (912961) temporarily subdued all the jarring elements, and once more unified Islam. Meanwhile in the kingdom of Asturias the priests had not been able to re-establish the purely theocratic system. But the sovereigns of the Frankish state of Catalonia and the little Basque mountain kingdom of Navarre were political chiefs, elected by their peers with strictly limited powers, and with no trace or pretence of divine warrant or sacerdotal privilege. These growing obstacles to ultimate Christian unity were increased by the elective traditions of the Visigothic monarchy, which led successive kings to bequeath separate realms to their several sons, and so to weaken the Christian cause

by division and regional jealousy. Thus when Alphonso III., king of Asturias, , abdicated in 909, he divided his realm into three; and this subsequently allowed the great. Moslem minister Almansor to drive the Christian power back again to its original mountain stronghold, to lay waste Leon and Galicia, and to make the Asturian king a vassal of the Moor (981). Even Barcelona fell before Aimansor (985). The taste for culture and elegance in Cordova became a craze both with the Arabs and with the Jews and Mozarabes (Spaniards of Christian faith and descent living in Arab territories); and although this tendency contributed largely to the ruin of the Moslem cali. phate in that city, , it rendered priceless service to civilization by keeping alive in translations the works of the Greek philosophers, and afterwards by transmitting the culture and science of the ancients to the modern world. The anarchy that followed the death of Almansor enabled the Christians again to advance their borders, and the period is marked by the assembly (1020) in Leon, then the premier kingdom, for the first time of a great legislative

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Catalonia and Navarre (and later of Aragon) had been bound to summon their nobles to conference; but this legislative assembly of Leon may be regarded as the direct successor of the ecclesiastical councils which had been paramount during the last years of Roman Visigothic rule. The con. stant division and reintegration of the petty kingdoms, the jealousies engendered by diversity of racial traditions and systems, and the topographical causes already referred to kept the Christian realms constantly at war with one another. The border nobles, especially the counts of Castile, upon whom the lion's share of the fighting fell, were impatient of the control of the central sovereign in Leon, and in order to strengthen themselves they accorded charters of great liberality to the vassal towns which sprang up in the conquered territory, or which remained peacefully under Christian rule when the Moors were driven back. Thus the autonomy of the towns—always a cherished tradition of the Iberian race—grew stronger and stronger. The murder of the last count of Castile in 1027 enabled Sancho the Great of Navarre to seize the country in right of his wife, a Castilian princess; and on the death of Sancho (1035), Castile, in future a kingdom, fell to his second son, Fernando I., who succeeded two years after

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