صور الصفحة

for friendship with England and hereditary enmity with France; but with a Protestant England, ruled by an excommunicated queen, it was difficult for him to be friendly as against Catholic France. The revolt of the Dutch Protestants against him, and the aid given to them by Elizabeth, increased the difficulty. The whole of his long reign (1556– 98) was occupied in endeavoring to reconcile this national difficulty; and he exhausted every expedient, from marriage (to Mary Tudor, 1554) to murder (Babington conspiracy, 1586), to make England a Catholic ally of Spain. The defeat of the Armada (1588) marked the first disillusionment of the Spanish nation in its belief in its sacred mission. Industry had been crushed by foolish attempts to keep down prices, by the burden of constant wars, by unwise fiscal measures, and by the relegation of labor to descendants of Moors and Jews, while the pureblooded Catholics flocked to the political wars which they regarded as crusades. Fields were untilled, towns deserted, whole populations starving, and the king himself (Philip III.) was forced to send officers from door to door in his capital to beg for means to maintain his own household. With this universal penury there existed an overpowering craze for extravagance and display on the part of all classes, and a determination to live if possible by the efforts of others. Philip III. (1598-1621) was dominated, by , greedy favorites and worldly churchmen; his people were vain and ignorant; and in the general belief that the poverty of the country arose from the frugality and laboriousness of the only people who worked— the descendants of the Mozarabes and Moors—a decree was issued (1609-10) expelling from Spain all people of known Moorish descent. Half a million of the best citizens of the country were hounded out, their property being confiscated to the idle classes; and from this blow the country never fully recovered. Thenceforward to the end of the century the decadence was rapid and unchecked. , Philip Iv. (1621–65), the poet, dilettante, and profligate, whom Velasquez painted from youth to age, was powerless to stay the decline. The Cortes of Castile was now effete. The peoples of the various autonomous states had lost the bond that had for a time held them together, and attempts by the king's favorite, Olivares, to assimilate the institutions of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, and Portugal (which had been cap

tured by Philip II. in 1580) with

those of Castile caused a series of devastating civil wars, in which the independence of Portugal was regained (1640). Notwithstanding her decadence, Spain was fighting with France in Central Europe and with Flanders during the whole of the Thirty Years' War; and the treaty (1648) of Münster (Westphalia), by which Spain recognized Dutch independence and that of the Pyrenees (1659), left Spain stripped of power, prestige, and resources. During the whole of the wretched reign of Charles II. (1665-1700) the decline continued unabated.

he king was a semi-idiot, and died of senile decay at thirtyseven. Around his deathbed there raged endless intrigues for the succession, claimed respectively by Austrian and French princes as descendants of the female branches. In the Seven Years' War of the Spanish Succession, which ensued upon the king's death, all Europe took part (England on the side of the Austrian claimant), and Spain itself was swept from end to end by civil war. At length, by the treaties (1713–14) of Utrecht and Rastadt, Philip v., the grandson of Louis xiv. of France and great-grandson of Philip Iv. of Spain, was recognized as king of Spain. Everything was changed by the introduction of French culture, modern finance, and vigorous administration, and for a time Spain appeared renascent. Unfortunately Philip v. married as his second wife the ambitious Elizabeth Farnese (1714), who was allowed to keep Spain at war continually for many years in order to win Italian sovereignties for her sons. Philip was succeeded (1746) by his only surviving son by his first wife, Fernando vi., who brought peace and some measure of prosperity to Spain. But the country was still ignorant and in many respects a century behind the rest of Europe. The autonomous Aragonese parliaments had all disappeared in the great, war of succession (1714); the town councils, though now mainly nominative, were the only surviving framework of the ancient popular governments. On the death of Fernando VI. (1759). Charles III., king of Naples, the eldest son of Philip v. by Elizabeth Farnese, ascended the Spanish throne. He was a man of vast energy, enlightened mind, and an education tinged by the prevailing philosophic French thought of the time. Shocked at the backward condition of his people, he used his despotic power freely to force reform and enlightenment upon them. They were loyal and submissiye; but the old tradition of Spanish superiority

over the rest of the world remained, and though at the king's bidding the outer face of the country was changed, his reforms never penetrated beneath the surface. Public works, roads, canals, subsidized factories, academies, and institutions sprang uo all over Spain ; a great edifice of public credit was devised to pay the vast sums needed; but when the king died (1788) reaction set in, and under his weak, uxorious successor, Charles Iv., collapse came, and the oldfashioned Spaniards, ignorant and vain as ever, gloried in the failure. The wife of Charles Iv. (Maria Louisa of Naples) imposed upon her husband an ignorant, foolish young man with whom she was in fo. Manuel Godoy (afterward Prince of the Peace), as prime minister and generalissimo of the army and navy. Godoy was beguiled by Napoleon, by a promise of principalities for himself, to allow the French army to march through Spain (1808) to conquer England's ally Portugal. When it was too late the Spanish people saw how they had been tricked, and the Peninsular War ensued, Charles Iv. abdicating at Napoleon's bidding in 1808. While Charles's son and heir Fernando was a prisoner in France and foreign armies covered the country, a Cortes of extreme politicians met at Cadiz (1812) and devised a new constitution, completely at variance with old Spanish traditions. This Fernando v11. repudiated on his return to Spain in 1814; and though he was forced by a revolution to accept it in 1821, he reasserted his despotic power by the aid of French bayonets in 1823. When he died, in 1833, ne left his infant daughter Isabel II., under the regency of his wife Maria . Cristina of Naples, the injunction to maintain intact all the old regal prerogatives. It was almost impossible for her to do this, because the whole Conservative party had rallied to Don Carlos, the late king's brother, who claimed under the Salic law. and the queen could only hope to, reign by the support of the Liberals whom Fernando VII. had persecuted and banished. A long civil war ensued, in which Don Carlos was beaten ; but the impossibility of reconciling the despotic leanings of the queen with the democratic views of the party which upheld her produced a period of turbulence, military fronunciamientos, and civil revolts, which culminated with Prim and Serrano's successful revolution of 1868, and the flight of Isabel II. to France. After six years of violent experiment, a limited monarchy under Amadeus of Savoy (1870–3), Duke of Spain

Aosta, three different types of republic, and a military dictatorship, the only son of Isabel II. was restored in 1875 as Alfonso XII. A new moderate constitution was adopted, which with some reform still exists (1911). The death of Alfonsoxii. in 1885 placed upon his widow, Maria Christina of Austria, the burden of the regency till 1902, when her son, Alfonso XIII., became King. Duri her regency the material progress o the nation was considerable. Unwise action in Cuba, however, led to a revolt in that colony, ending in the loss to Spain of her colonial empire. (See SPANIsh-AMERICAN WAR.) Internal dissatisfaction is stro at present (1911). The radica elements are waging a fierce fight against, the clerical and conservative influence. The King's life has twice been attempted by anarchist bombs, once in Paris (June 1, 1905) and again in Madrid oy 1, 1906), immediately after his marriage with Princess Victoria of Battenberg. Terrorist, plots have been frequent, particularly in Barcelona in 1907, 1908, and 1909. Dissatisfaction with the government's o in sending troops to Morocco (q.v.), to protect the mining interests there, led to riots in 1909, when for three days (July 27–29) the rioters controlled Barcelona. , Francisco Ferrer (q.v.), anarchist leader, was tried before a court-martial on the charge of inciting the riots, was found guilty, and executed Oct. 13, in spite of a storm of European protests. The Portuguese revolution produced sympathetic mutter: ings from the radical press; but oie Alfonso maintains his present policy, it is thought that no demon; stration against the throne would obtain general support from the army or the people. o Spanish pretender, Don Qarlos, died July 18, and his son, DQn Jaimé, announced that he would not try to gain the throne by force; but in 1910 the Carlists joined in the protest of the Vatican against the "f of Premier Canalejas q.v.). This policy looks to the reuction of łł. privileges of the religious orders, and has increased the privileges of Protestants. Consult Marden's. Travels...in Spain (1903); "...; Spain (1909); itz-Gerald's, Rambles, in Spain {}}: Shaw's Spain from Within 1910); Browne's Spain. (1910); ensusan's, Home Life. in , Spain, {}}: Holland's Spanish Journal 1910); Gallichan's Moorish Cities in Spain (1910 and Things, Soen in Spain 1911); Chapman and Buck's Unexplored Spain (1911). LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.Of the language spoken by the Iberian and Celto-Iberian tribes in Spain prior to the Roman domination there remain only a few.undeciherable inscriptions on coins, curF. toward, the end of the Greek and Carthaginian periods. After the


downfall of the Punic power left the Romans, masters of . Iberia, they speedily impressed their speech as well as their manners and dress upon the subject races. The Roman patrician city of Cordova was famous for its school of poets. The two Senecas, Lucan, Martial, Quintilian, Columella, and Pomponius Mela were all Spaniards. The barbarians who swarmed over the Pyrenees and spread through Spain (409) left no linguistic, traces, ... and the Goths adopted the Latin speech. The Latin - Spanish churchmen, St. Isidore and others, who monopolized the culture of their day and country, continued the linguistic debasement of the medium in which they wrote. But after , the Arab domination , it looked for a time as if Arabic was destined to be the speech of Spain. The desire for the culture of learning and letters dominated the caliphate of Cordova. Libraries, unrivalled elsewhere in the world, gave opportunities for the acquirement of learning to Arab, Jew, and Christian alike: and before the end of the 9th century Arabic, at that time a far more flexible and complete language than the bastard Spanish-Latin of the churchmen, became the common speech of the Christians living in Moorish Spain. But under the influence of the Christian priests Spanish - Latin gained ground again, though it acquired features of pronunciation, construction, and etymology distinct from the original Spanish form spoken by the population of the Christian kingdom in the northwest (Galicia), and from the Romance form of

tin, which had become the speech of the reconquered northeastern principality (Catalan). For four centuries literature flourished exceedingly in Moslem Spain. Jews and Arabs vied with each other in philosophy, poetry, and science. Avicebron the Jew in the 11th, and Judah ben-Samuel the Levite in the 12th century, were famous as poets throughout Europe ; and the Arabs Avempace (d. 1138) and Averrhoës (d. 1198) handed down to modern Europe adaptations of ancient philosophy which held the field until the time of Luther. The Spanish Aristotle, the Cordovan Jew Maimonides (d. 1204), led the way to rationalistic interpreta'ion of the Scriptures (esDecially, of the Talmud); and all the sciences, from agriculture to astronomy, were cultivated by Moors and Jews of Spanish birth. The Eastern fashion of casting philosophical and other books into the shape of didactic apologues, which Spain transferred to the rest of mediaeval Europe, came from her Moslem scholars.


On the spoken language itself the Arabic influence was limited to the introduction of a considerable group of words, mainly technological, legal, and official. With the great forward movements, both from Aragon and Castile, in the 13th century the Latin languages became supreme. The final struggle was between the three Latin dialects themselves. In the Castilian kingdom, until the end of the 13th century, Galician was the polite and literary tongue; while in Aragon the Catalan, or the more literary form of Romance called Lemousi (Limousin), was the usual speech (as it still remains in Catalonia and Valencia). The great incursion of French troubadours and jongleurs into Spain—especially in Aragon—in the 12th and 13th centuries not only acclimatized the Provençal chansons de geste, but also made Lemousi the fashionable literary language, which for a time, even in Castile and Leon, threatened the supremacy of Galician. In the latter idiom Alfonso the Learned wrote his Hymns to the Virgin and other early verse; but before the end of his life (1284) he had finally adopted the Latin dialect of the Mozarabes, which had already been employed in the Poem of the Cid, and by St. Ferdinand in a decree to the conquered Cordovans. The host of books, poems, translations, chron: icles, scientific treatises, and above all the national code of laws, the Siete Partidas, which issued from the study of the king and his learned colleagues, converted a rude dialect into a noble and cultured language, Castilian. Thenceforward pure Galician and its sister, Portuguese receded, to provincial idioms, while Catalan or Lemousi remained confined to the peoples of Romance or Provençal descent on both sides of the Gulf of Lions. The form adopted for composition up to the early 14th century was mainly the proverb and apologue, either in, prose or in verse. new influence in literature was felt about 1340 with the satirical works of the Rabelaisian archpriest of Hita, Juan Ruiz, whose glib, abundant ...verse, cynical, immoral, and witty, threw somewhat into the shade the didactic apologues that had preceded them. A Castilian prince of the royal house, Juan Manuel (1282– 1347), followed with tales of Count Lucanor, which mark the transition from the sententious maxim to the story of adventure. These short tales served as a model for similar writing for many years afterward, and Boccaccio, Chaucer, and even Shakespeare borrowed some of the plots. Nevertheless his contemporary, the Jewish rabbi Sem Tob, produced endless quatrains of Moral Proverbs of Éastern or Biblical origin. Pedro Lopez de Ayala, the chronicler of Pedro the Cruel and his brother (1332 – 1407), turned the dry chronicle into moving history; and the craze for writing history and adventure which seized upon Spain in the 15th century was largely due to this new departure. The same writer showed his originality in another direction, in Rimado de Palacio, a savage satire upon the social vices of the age. The influence of Dante and Petrarch began also to be felt in Spain. Enrique de Villena (1384–1434), the Marquis de Santillana (1398-1458), and Juan de Mena (1411–56) widened the scope; and though their writing continued pedantic and didactic, the folk-story, the popular episode, the witty retort, gradually overshadowed the moral they were supposed to enforce. The writing of true chronicles soon degenerated into the relation of exaggerated adventure as the personal element was magnified. From this to the inflated tales of chivalry was but a step. Some time in the 14th century a Portuguese, João de Lobeira, or another, had written the tale Amadis of Gaul, and by the middle of the 15th century this had gained in Spain a popularity which bore all before it. A perfect deluge of imitations was the result, each more extravagant than its predecessor, until the immortal satire of Cervantes swept away the whole brood in inextinguishable laughter. But while the vogue lasted it profoundly influenced Spanish life and thought—made men impracticable visionaries, inflated personal pride, promoted display, and left profound traces upon the national character. While this vicious course was being followed by chronicle, the more healthy influences of Italian verse continued to grow, and social satires, such as the anonymous Coplas of Mingo Revulgo and the Coplas of Jorge Manrique (141291), foreshadowed the coming supremacy of Spanish tramatic presentation of incident. The introduction of printing into Spain (1474) gave a further impetus to the literary revival, and thanks to Boscan (? 14901542), Garcilaso de la Vega (1503–36), and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (1503–75), the graceful Italian forms of verse, flexible and elegant, ended by routing completely the stiffer Castilian eight-syllable line. Thenceforward for sixty years a flood of brilliant, glib, facile verse flowed from Spanish pens — pastorals, odes, sonnets, lyrics, and, above

all, dramas—and Spanish poetry reached its highest excellence. The bent of the people had always been dramatic. The representation of sacred dramas in churches had, as early as the time of Alfonso the Learned, become so popular and irreverent as to cause scandal. Then came the representation of simple episodes, eclogues, or proverbs, and the playing of masques in courts and palaces. But simple eclogues or dramatic novels, like the famous Celestina (c. 1490), gave way to true dramas under the Italianate influence. Early in the 16th century Torres Naharro popularized the regular Spanish comedy, first in Naples and then in Spain. The new amusement suited the people, and writing for the stage in verse became the fashion. Lope de Rueda (d. c. 1566) brought wit and culture to the task, and the audiences grew wider and better. Then came Cervantes (15471616), the prodigious Lope de Vega (1562–1635) with his plays numbering nearly two thousand, Tirso de Molina (1571 - 1648),

Calderon (1600-81), Quevedo (1580–1645), and their crowd of followers. At the same time

Diego de Mendoza, the great Italianate, or another, produced in 1554 the first picaresque novel, or tale of roguery. It consisted of a string of episodes connected with a humble person, offering a fit vehicle for the pungent wit that Spaniards love, and the dramatic presentation of many events. It was called Lazarillo de Tormes, and its keen satire, ready fun, and clear, nervous style hit the public taste. From it the novel of peripatetic adventure was born ; and through Gugman de Aljarache, Don Quixote, El Diablo Cojuelo, El Gran Tacano (by Quevedo), and Gil Blas the descent is clear to Robinson Crusoe, Tom Jones, and Pickwick. But the over-fertility of Spanish literature killed it. By the middle of the 17th century each writer sought to attract attention by eccentricity and precocity. Gongora, a poet of real Tower (1561–1627), first showed the way. Moratin (1737–80) kept alive some good traditions of the Spanish stage; but with the exception of a few didactic writers, drawing their ideas from France, the whole of the 18th century and the first thirty years of the 19th century were a blank for Spanish letters. The revival in the middle of the 19th century showed two distinct currents. Those writers who had lived through their exile in England— Saavedra (Duke of Rivas), Trueba, Valera, Espronceda the poet, and others—came home to Spain filled with Scott and Byron,

while others who had fled to France were enamored of the romantic picturesque school of French novelists. But soon a more national note was struck, and, curiously enough, by three writers of German descent—Fernan Caballero (pseudonym of Cecilia Faber), the novelist; Hartzenbusch, the dramatist and critic; and Adolfo Becquer, who gave a fresh natural and Spanish tone to all they wrote. Then followed a school of truly Spanish authors, who, unfortunately, were...often politicians as well. Zorrilla (1817-93) wrote novels on purely Spanish themes, many of which will live; Lopez de Ayala (1829–79); Pedro Alarcon (1833-91), with his charming Sombrero de Tres Picos : Juan Valera (1824-1905), whose novels, Comendador Mendoza and Pepita Jimenes, are worthy of the best Spanish traditions; the prolific novelist Perez Galdos (b. 1845), with his long series of episodical historical novels of the 19th century; and Echegaray, the dramatist, whose gloomy works are known throughout Europe. As scientific men of letters Spain may boast of Pascual de Gayangos and Juan Riaño, Marcelino Menendez Pelayo, who as a biblic phile has few superiors in Europe, and Father Fita, whose historical researches have made him famous. See Ticknor's Histary of , Spanish. Literature (1849); Baist's Die spanische Litteratur in Gröber's Grundriss der romanischen Philologie (1894–7); Fitzmaurice-Kelly's A History of Spanish Literature (1898); and Lemcke's Handbuch der spanischen Literatur (1856). Spalato, or ASPALATHos (anc. Salona), thi, Dalmatia, Austria, on a peninsula, 40 m. s.E. of Sebenico. The town has the largest shipping trade of Dalmatia, notably in wine. Here are the palace of Diocletian, and a cathedral dating from 650. Pop. (1900) 27,198. Spalding, John (fl. 1650), Scottish, historian, was born probably in Aberdeen, and was for many years clerk to the consistorial court of the diocese. He was a fervent loyalist and Episcopalian; but his History of the Troubles and Memorable Transactions in Scotland between 1624 and 1645 is fairly impartial. It was first published in 1792, and later (1829) for the Bannatyne Club; and in 1850 for the Spalding Club, founded to commemorate his name (1839). The new Spalding Club was founded in 1886. Spald in g, JoHN FRANKLIN (1828 – 1902), American P. E. relate, was born at Belgrade, e., , and graduated (1853) at Bowdoin, and at the General very like the Clumber, but shorter in body. It is distinguished by its color, which is black, liver, and yellow, more or less mixed with white. -

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

at Mt. St. Mary's College, Md., at the University of Louvain, Belgium, and at Rome. He was

ordained a priest, in 1863, and in 1865 was appointed secretary to the Bishop. of . Louisville, becoming chancellor of the diocese in 1871. He was stationed in New York from 1872 to 1877, when he was consecrated Bishop of Peoria. He became prominent as an adjuster of labor disFo and in 1902 was appointed y President Roosevelt one of the arbitrators for the settlement of the anthracite coal strike. A so and forcible writer on oth sacred and secular subjects, his many publications include America, and Other Poems (1885), Education and the Higher Life (1891), Education and the Future §§ (1900), Socialism and bor, and Other Arguments (1902), and Religion and Art, and Other Essays (1905). Spalding, MARTIN JoHN (1810– 72), American R. C. prelate, was born near Lebanon, Ky., and was educated at St. Mary's Seminary, Ky., at St. Joseph's Seminary, , Ky., and at Rome. He was ordained a priest in 1834, and held various charges in Ky. until 1844, when he was appointed vicar-general of i.o.” He became. Coadjutor - Bishop of Louisville in 1848, Bishop of the same diocese in 1850, and Arch

bishop of Baltimore in 1864. Archbishop Spalding was a founder of and writer for the Catholic Advocate, and published

among other works Sketches of the Early Catholic Missions in Kentucky (1846) and . History of the Protestant Reformation 1860). See Life by his nephew, ishop J. L. Spalding (1872). Spallanzani, LAzzARO (1729– 99), Italian physiologist, was born at Scandiano (Modena); taught logic and Greek at Reggio (1754). but deserted Homer for science, though he still taught Greek at Modena (1760). He combated the theory of sponta

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][graphic]

(4.) The Sussex spaniel is smaller than the Clumber, and weighs from 35 to 40 lbs. It is 1.crhaps the oldest variety of the breed. It is now rare, its place having been taken by the Clum


(5.) The Cocker, spaniel is a much smaller dog than the varieties previously noticed. scaling from 18 to 25 lbs. They hunt nearly mute, but whimper slightly on a scent, and, when well broken, distinguish each kind of game by the note they

orange star must appear. The toy spaniel was brought into favor by the Stewarts. The

modern toy spaniel scales between 4 and 10 lbs. The colors in all should be brilliant; dull color is a great defect. (8.) Foreign toy spaniels. There are two varieties, the Pekinese and the Japanese; but both are probably the same breed. They were first imported into England toward the close of the 19th century, and fabulous sums were paid for fancy specimens. Later they began to be seen in New York. The Japanese spaniel, sometimes called the ‘sleeve dog.' is black and white or lemon and white in color; coat massive

Maine, while in Havana harbor, was blown up, with a loss of 266 of her officers and crew. This catastrophe vastly intensified the feeling in the United States against Spain. After exhausting the resources of diplomacy, President McKinley on April 1 i sent a message to Congress saying that “In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests . . . the war in Cuba must stop.” Eight days later Congress passed a joint resolution declaring that the people of Cuba “are, and of right olight to be, free and independent, demanding that Spain at once, relinquish fie: authority in the island, and directing the

give out. Their proper quarry is the woodcock. (6.) The Water spaniel. There are two varieties, the English and the Irish, but the former is seldom seen, and its purity of strain is doubtful. The Irish water spaniel is admirable as a retriever. Its height is about 22 in., and weight 40 lbs. (7.) Toy spaniels have for many years been drawing-room dogs. There are four varieties, distinguishable by color only. The King Charles is black and tan; the Prince Charles, black, tan, and white; the ruby, rich red; and the Blenheim, orange and white, with a blaze on its forehead, in the centre of which an

San Juan Hill, from “Bloody Bend.” (Copyright, 1901, by Detroit Photographic Co.)

and very silky; tail tightly curled over §. with flowing plume; very diminutive, some specimens weighirg under 4 lbs.; face short; ears small, but well feathered. Consult books mentioned under DoG.

Spanish - American War, a conflict fought in 1898 between the United States and Spain. In 1895 a revolt against Spanish authority broke out in Cuba, and much sympathy was felt in the United States for the insurgents, particularly after the Spanish government adopted a ‘reconcentration’ Poio that brought suffering and death to thousands of the inhabitants of both sexes and of every age. On Feb. 15, 1898, the United States battleship

President to use the land and naval forces to accomplish that result. On April 21 the President sent a copy of this resolution to the Spanish minister, and he thereupon asked for his passports. The ultimatum was also cabled to the American minister at Madrid, Gen. Stewart, L. Woodford, but before he had an opportunity to present it to the Spanish government he was given his passports. On the same day the American fleet at Key West was ordered to blockade Havana; on the 23d the Nashville of this fleet captured a Spanish merchant vessel; and on the , 25th Congress, formally declared that, a state of war had existed since April 21.

« السابقةمتابعة »