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Scotland

in the United Kingdom, (over 500,000 tons annually). The industry is also pursued, to a smaller extent, in the eastin Dundee, Kirkcaldy, Grangemouth, and other towns round the Firth of Forth and Fifeshire coast. (3.) A special quality in the water has in each case assisted in developing paper-manu

important industry of Turkeyre §3. The connection of the Clyde with the New World has developed a * sugarrefining industry at Greenock, and a manufacture of tobacco at Glasgow; and Edinburgh, Glasow, and Leith have important rewing and distilling industries. Communications.—Railway

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easy. Northward. connection from Glasgow" and Edinburgh

is provided by (1) the North British, which crosses the Forth and Tay by two magnificent bridges, and runs along the flat coastal sill to Aberdeen, whence the Great North of Scotland Railway carries it on to Elgin and to Inverness; (2) by the Caledonian, which enters Strathmore through the gap , between the Campsie Fells and Ochils, and continues, through Perth and Forfar, to the coast at Montrose, whence it runs on to Aberdeen. The Highland Railway from Perth penetrates up the valley of the Tay and of the Garry to Inverness, whence it continues north to Wick and Thurso. Soot. land possesses three canals. The Caledonian Canal connects the 1.early continuous line of lochs which fill Glenmore, and is used principally for tourist traffic, as is the Crinan Canal across the peninsula of Kintyre. A deep depression secured the construction of the Forth and Clyde Canal (cut 1790) between Bowsing and Grangemouth. branch extends from near Falkirk to Edinburgh. Commerce.—The indented coast of Scotland, and its deep inrunning, estuaries have greatly favored the development of commerce, as has the fact that the F.; areas on the Central owland are either, actually on or quite close to, the maritime outlets. The western ports trade chiefly with America, the west of England, and Ireland; the eastern ports chiefly with the Low Countries, Hamburg, and the Baltic. The commercial conne. tion with Ireland and the West is shown by a large import into the Clyde ports of bacon, hams, grain and flour, tobacco, living animals, leather, lard, and timber; and one of the iargest imports of all is iron ore for the metal industries of the west. Representative foreign imports in the eastern ports are butter, grain and flour, eggs, linen yarn, and timber ail principally from Russia and other Baltic coun. tries. The exports in either case are identical in character with British exports generally. . The annual value of the trade of Scotland is about $360,000,000, of which $195,000,000 represents the

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opulation.--The steadily, in: creasing population of Scotland was at the 1911 census 4,759,445 (160 inhabitants per sq. m.). Of these 3,139,824 (65.97 per cent.) lived in towns; 561,543 (11.79 per cent.) in villages; 1,619,621 (34.02 per cent.) in rural districts. The capital is Edinburgh, though Glasgow is much the largest town. Many of the Scotland

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Scottish counties are: still known by their old territorial names— e.g. Midlothian (Edinburgh), East Lothian (Haddington), and West Lothian (Linlithgow), Gallowa (Kirkcudbright and Wi §§ Angus #: arshire), the Mearns Kincardine), Moray (Elgin). See

ume Brown's Earty Travellers in Scotland, 1295–1689 (1891); Geikie's Scenery of Scotland viewed in Connection with its Physical Geography {:}; Lauder's Scottish Rivers (1874); Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland (1791–9); Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by Shairp, 1874); Macgibbon and Toss's Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland (1886–92); , and . The Highlands and Islands of Scotland, painted by W. Smith, jun., and described

by A. R. Hope, Moncrieff (1906). History.—The recorded history of Scotland begins with the

invasion in 80 A.D. of the Roman general Julius Agricola, who subdued all the country to the south of the Forth, and by a reat victory at a spot called Mons Grampius, the precise site of which is uncertain, broke the power of the Caledonians, a tribe inhabiting the territory north of the same river. As a check on these northern tribes, he constructed (81 A.D.), a chain of forts between the firths of Forth and Clyde. The military occupation of N. Britain, as the district north of the Cheviots was termed by the Romans, was maintained intermittently till 410 A.D., and about a century and a half after the departure of the Romans we find the land mainly in the o of four peoples —the Picts, the Scots, the #. ons, and the Angles. The Picts whose origin is still matter of dispute, occupied the region to the north of the Forth, and the Britons (Brythonic § the district, known as Strathclyde, extending from their fortress of Dumbarton along, the valley of the Clyde, and as far south as the river #. in Cumberland. The Scots had begun to arrive from Ireland early in the new era. Later came the Koi... so under their leader Ida, an

founded a kingdom on the E. coast. From the eventual fusion of these four peoples, modern Scotland arose. " The introduction of Christianity by St. Columba in 563 and later by St. Mungo or Kentigern did much to unite them. In the first quarter of the 8th centu sll four had acknowledged the supremacy of Rome. In succeeding struggles the Picts profited most by the conflicts of the three other kingdoms, and eventually took the leadership; and at length, Malcolm II., king of the united Picts

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and Scots won at Carham on Tweed (1018), a victory which made him ruler over nearly the whole of what is known as 'modern Scotland. This was the most decisive event in early Scottish histo The consolidation of the different into however, was succeeded by dynastic quarrels and revolts, and }. invasions from Norway. §§ uncan (1034–40) was defeate by one of the Norwegian invaders, and Macbeth, taking advantage of his weakness, revolted, slew him, and made himself king. The next sovereign of Scotland to stand forth with marked individuality was Malcolm III. (Canmore). In his reign the kingdom of England came into active relations with Scotland, both dynastically and by , the settlement of English subjects in the , latter country. Malcolm married Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling; and his queen, who was a vigorous and capable adviser, began a religious policy which was continued by her, descendants, and which, with the introduction of feudalism, gave, to Scotland, a framework like that of the other Christian kingdoms of Europe. After Malcolm's death the fierce struggles between his relatives and the sons of Margaret for the throne, during which the kingdom was divided for a time under two rulers, resulted in Edgar (1097-1107) again, uniting the two kingdoms under his sway, and they were never again separated. David I., one of his younger brothers, was a powerful ruler 1124–53). He spent most of is reign in English invasions, but administered the government so firmly that the kingdom was unified on lines which it was destined to follow for many years. His fame is, due chiefly to his domestic policy. He assimilated the national religion to the Roman model, and gave so many and so large grants of land to men of Norman, Scottish, and Danish birth and descent that the governing race of the country was changed. He likewise gave an impetus to the development of burghs, and under him Scotland flourished, and excited the rivalry of England. England had good reason to regard with alarm , the increasing resources of its neighbor kingdom, and the English kings adopted a deliberate policy of reducing the power of their Scottish contemporaries... One of David's successors, William the Lion (1165-1214), was captured while invading Northumberland, and was forced to acknowledge Henry II. as lord paramount of Scotland; but the English suzerainty was relinquished in 1189.

Scotland

Under Alexander II. and Alexander III. (1214–85) Scotland made steady o along all the lines of national development. Under the latter notable achievements were won. Alexander III. defeated Haco, King of Norway, at the battle of Largo (1263), and the Hebrides and the Isle of Man were added to Scotland. Throughout the period of disaster and misery that followed the death of Alexander his reign came to be regarded as the golden age of the Scottish people. At his death Alexander III.'s only living representative was his granddaughter Margaret, the ‘Maid of Norway.’ By the regency o to manage the affairs of the kingdom it was arranged that she should be married to the heir of Edward I. of England, but on her way home she died in the Orkney łs. For the vacant throne there were no fewer than twelve candidates, of whom only three, however, could be considered as possessing serious claims. These were John Baliol, grandson of the eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion; Robert Bruce, son of the second daughter; and Hen Hastings, the son of the third. With the consent of the claimants, the award of the Scottish crown was referred to Edward I., he being acknowledged by all as the lord-paramount of Scotland. In the castle of Berwick (Nov. 17, 1292) Edward #. his judgment in favor of Baliol, the award join}, the suzerainty of England. aliol fretted under the conditions of his vassalage, rebelled, was defeated, and forced to demit his crown (1296). His conqueror decided that thenceforth there should be no king of Scots, and appointed a governor, a treasurer, and a justiciary to administer, the affairs of the country. This arrangement had not lasted a year when, under the leadership of William Wallace, the Scots rose in revolt, and § a decisive victory over the nglish forces at Stirling (1297). The , following year Edward entered Scotland in person, broke the power of Wallace at faikirk and once more made himsel master of the country, securing the domination by garrisoning the , most important strongholds. Another deliverer arose in Robert Bruce, grandson of the claimant. In 1306, in circumstances not well ascertained, Bruce, slew John Comyn in the chapel of the Minorite convent at Dumfries. Comyn Pool the interests of England, and Bruce was thus force n the path he had #!"; Ong contennplated. He had himself crowned at Scone (1306), and began that career which was to result in the iopeo independence of Scotland. His work was facilitated by the death of Edward I. (1307) and the feeble character of his successor. By 1313, the only important, stronghold in possession of the invader was the castle of Stirling, and Bruce's triumphant yictory at Bannockburn the following year decided at once the fate of Stirling and the fate of the kingdom. The country being now cleared, Bruce began a policy of retaliation by systematic invasions of England, his two righthand men, the ‘Good' Sir James Douglas and Thomas Randolph (afterwards. Earl of Moray), especially distinguishing, themselves in a peculiarly Scottish mode of warfare. As another blow at England, Edward Bruce, brother of §.it carried his arms into Ireland, of which he was ". Fo king (1316), , thoug e was slain two years later in battle with the English at Dundalk. England was at length constrained to acknowledge the independence of Scotland in the Treaty of . Northampton (1328). Bruce died the , folsoving year. To his reign, also belongs the most outstanding fact in the constitutional history of Scotland. In 1326 there met at Cambuskenneth the first Scottish Parliament in name and in reality. Hitherto only the greater barons and the higher clergy had composed the deliberative assembly of the nation, but at Cambuskenneth, for the first time, representatives from the burghs took part in its proceedings. Robert I: was succeeded by his son David II. (1329–71). Edward III. of England, takin o: of the youth of Davi , succeeded for a time in placing Edward Baliol, son of John Baliol, on his father's throne as a vassal king. Baliol was, eventually, cast off; but in an 'invasion of England David was defeated and taken prisoner at Neville's Cross (1346), and recovered his liberty eleven years later only on the payment of a ransom which overtaxed the resources of his kingdom. On his return to Scotland he dishonored himself as the son of his father by entering into a secret treaty with England, by which any son of Edward III., except the eldest, was to succeed him as king of Scots. It was owing to the indignant protest of the Scottish Parliament that this compact did not take effect, and at David's death Scotland still maintained the independence it had gained by the treaty of Northampton. A new line of Scottish kings begins with Robert II, son of Mojo: daughter of Bruce: The office of high steward, had been hereditary in the family of

the new king, and the , official designation, became the dynastic name of Stewart. During his reign (1371–90) Scotland warred with England and received direct aid from France. The FrancoScottish league then begun was broken only when, at the Reformation, Scotland accepted Protestantism as the national religion. In this reign also took place the battle of Otterbourne (Chevy Chase), in which the Douglases defeated the English Percies. The outstanding individuality for many years was the Duke of Albany, ..". brother of Robert III., who became regent after the latter's death and ruled the country until 1420. Soon the power of the nobles, who had seldom been kept firmly subdued, caused serious opposition in which the crown determined to increase its power. The struggle lasted during 1424–1500. It began in the reign of James I. (1424–37). He systematized the statute law and established the court of session. The long minority of his son ensued, but in 1449 James II. took up the reins of government and subdued the powerful family of Douglas who o ed him. He was killed accidentally, in 1460, and his death was followed by another orio until James III. came of age. his king had fayorites who excited the jealousy of his younger brothers, and a quarrel between them and the King resulted in the latter's imprisonment and the execution of the favorites. The nobles united against the King because they were excluded from his councils, made open war upon him, and defeated and slew him in battle at Sauchieburn in 1488. James Iv. (1488–1513), who managed to govern without exciting the hostility of the nobles, was mainly concerned about his relations with England, and made war with that country by supporting, the claims, of the imposter Perkin Warbeck, with an invad§ army. , James's marriage to

argaret, daughter of Henry VII., brought about peace, and eventually assured the union of England and Scotland under James v1. (1489) o the existing government, which was speedily crushed. In 1344 the chiefs of the great clan of Macdonald had established a lordship over the whole western islands, which they virtually ruled as independent sovereigns, permanently inimical to the kings of Scots. Thus during the minority of James III., John Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles, entered into a secret treaty with Edward Iv., the object of which was the expulsion of the Stewart dynasty and the dismemberment of their kingdom. It was in the person of this same John that the great lordship

came to an end. In his advanced age he entrusted his authority to his nephew, Alexander of Lochalsh, who, resenting the submission his uncle had made to James III., unsuccessfully sought to reassert the former powers of the lordship. In 1493 the Scottish Parliament passed a sentence of forfeiture on the Lord of the Isles, which John was in no position, to contest. But the strength of the clan was still sufficient to tax all the resources of James Iv. and his successor to crush it. This king, unlike his predecessors, had no difficulties with the nobles. He o: summoned a meetin of the Estates, and governe through his Privy Council. From first to last the main preoccupation of James was his relation to England. Espousing the cause of the impostór Perkin Warbeck, he led a o army across the Border, which, however, received no support from the English people. Fortunately for James, the king of England was the peaceful Henry VII. By the marriage of his daughter Margaret to the Scottish king (1502) Henry secured peace, between the two kingdoms during the remainder of his reign, and assured their eventful union under James v1. of Scotland. When (1509) Henry yIII; ascended the throne of England, there was friction between him , and James, from .the first. Border troubles led to misunderstandings; and, as the ally of France, james considered himself bound in honor to invade England when , Henry declared war against Louis XII. The result was his defeat at Flodden (1513), the greatest disaster that ever befell the Scottish arms. James himself fell, and every family of consequence had its representative among the slain: , Apart from the disaster of Flodden, James had proved himself a vigorous and successful ruler, and energetic in the administration of justice. The western Highlands and islands were reduced to a state of law and order such as they had never known before. The construction of a Scottish navy, the foundation of the University of Glasgow (1495), and the introduction of printing (1507), are further distinctions of one of the most popular of Scottish reigns. At James's death his son and heir, James v. (1513–42), was but a child, and the government was laced in the hands of his mother, argaret of England, whose vagaries disturbed the country almost to the close of the reign From the first she was opposed by a powerful party, who called to the regenc ohn, Duke of lbany, son of that Albany who had given so, much trouble to James III. Albany arrived from

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France in 1513, and retained the regency till 1525. Now for the first time a party, arose in Scotland more favorable to England than to France, and when Alban sought to make war in England, he found the majority of , the nobles unwilling to follow him. Accordingly it was as a baffled man that he demitted the regency and finally quitted the country. In 1528 James took the government into his own hands. His first task was to deal with the Earl of Angus, the second husband of the floo and the head of the family of Douglas. Though supported by the interest of Fongland, Angus was **i. crushed and driven into exile. James gave further proof of his resolution by restoring order in the islands and the Borders. Like his father, however, he found his most formidable enemy in Henry v111. England had now broken with the Church of Rome, and Henry was more eager than ever to have Scotland as his , ally. But no solicitations could detach James from either his inherited faith or the ancient alliance with France. To the indignation of Henry he successively married two French wives—Madeleine, daughter of Francis I., and Mary of Lorraine. At length war broke out between the two countries. But when James assembled an army for the invasion of England, the nobles refused to follow him, on the round that he was acting in the interest of France and not of his own kingdom. The ignominious rout of his forces at Solway Moss §§o broke James's heart, and a ew weeks later he died at Falkland, leaving as his successor the infant Mary Stewart. He had been an even more popular king than his father, but he does not rank with him as a successful administrator. One act of his reign however, is specially worthy o note—the foundation of the College of Justice (1532) on the model of the Parlement of Paris. Since the Stewart dynasty, had come to the throne, the dominating fact in the history of Scotland had been the struggle between the crown and the nobles. With the accession of Mary Stewart (1542–67) new principles of division Fo to appear in the evolution of the kingdom. On the one hand, there arose a party that favored Protestantism and com: mon action with o: on the other, there was at first the great bulk of the nation, that wished to retain the old religion and the ancient alliance with France The appointment of the Earl of Arran as governor encouraged Henry VIII. to propose a marriage between his son Edward and the infant queen of Scotland; and through the agency

of Arran, who had both English and Protestant leanings, a marriage treaty was actually concluded at Greenwich (1543). To the majority of Scotsmen, however, the o was distasteful; and in Cardinal Beaton, the chief representative of the old religion, they had a champion whose interests both as a man and as an ecclesiastic were bound up with the existing order. Through the efforts of Beaton the English treaty was abrogated, Arran deprived of all real power in the country, and the French alliance renewed and assiduously cultivated. By successive invasions Henry endeavored to wrest by force what he had failed to obtain by diplomacy, but under the direction of Beaton Scotland continued obstinate. In 1546 Beaton was assassinated in the Castle of St. Andrews, partly out of revenge for his execution of the Protestant martyr, George Wishart., Henry himself died the following year; but the protector Somerset continued his policy of seeking the Scottish alliance at all costs. The death of Beaton, however, only strengthened the ties with France. Between Arran and the queen-mother Mary of Lorraine there ensued a contest for the first place in the coun#. and the latter triumphed. The young queen , was sent to France; a French force brought to Scotland drove out the English garrison which Somerset had planted in the country; and in 1554 Mary of Lorraine was made regent, Arran being solaced with the dukedom of Châtelherault. It now seemed as if Scotland were about to become a dependency of France—a contingency which was rendered still more likely by the marriage of Mary Stewart to the dauphin of France (1558). But the sight of French garrisons in the chief Scottish strongholds, and of French statesmen in important public offices, gradually roused against France a feelin as fierce as the hereditary hatre against England. With this feeling was now conjoined a growing dissatisfaction with the ancient church, which by its wealth, its abuses, and the degradation of many of its clergy had become ethically and economically, in the eyes of many (not always disinterested observers) an impossible institution. The doctrines of Protestantism steadily gained ground, especially among the middle classes of the larger towns. Headed by a few nobles, notable among whom were the Lord James Stewart (subsequently the regent Moray), the Earl of Glencairn, and Lord Lorn, the Protestant party openly revolted against the régent, and sought and gained the assistance of England,

now ruled by trie Protestant Elizabeth. Besieged in Leith by the combined Scottish and , English forces, the French were driven to accept a treaty which virtually established Protestantism as the national religion—a consummation which was formally sanctioned by a meeting of the Scottish Estates §§ 1560). Mary of Lorraine had died in the course of the struggle, and it was not till August, 1561, that her daughter, having lost her husband, Francis II., returned to her native country. The first four years of her actual reign were comparatively uneventful, the crushing of the great Earl of Huntly ijëi. its main incident. . Mary accepted the reliious situation as she found it, though reserving the right to herself and her servants of havin mass celebrated in the chapel o Holyrood. It was on this point that she came into conflict with John Knox, who had been the great popular leader in the overthrow of the old religion. The two chief advisers of Mary, the Lord James Stewart (made Earl of Moray in 1562) and William Maitland of Lethington, breaking away from their former confederate, adopted a policy of their own for securing the new religious settlement. his policy was to persuade Elizabeth to recognize Mary as her successor to the English throne, whereupon Mary would have excellent reasons for identifying herself with the religion, now established in both countries. Elizabeth would not be persuaded to designate a successor, and Mary married (1565) her cousin Darnley, who after herself was the nearest heir to the English crown, and thus reinforced her own claim. Passion, however, soon made sad work of policy. Jealous of the attentions which Mary ostentatiously showed, to her Italian secretary, David Rizzio, Darnley entered into a o of the leadin Protestant nobles for cutting o the favorite. The murder of Rizzio (1566) in Holyrood Palace made the final breach between the royal pair. . The conduct of Darnley after the deed left him without a friend in the country. With Moray and Maitland, whom she had cast off when they had striven to hinder her marriage with Darnley, Mary could no longer work in concert. The new counsellor she chose was James, Earl of Bothwell, who, not content only to share her counsels, determined likewise to share her throne. Darnley stood in the way; but with the alleged secret approval of Mary, Bothwell blew up the house (the Kirk of Field) in which Darnley, was then lying on a sick-bed, his victim having probably been murdered be

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