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referable to the memories of surviving souls. One of the best illustrations of this type of phenomena was the experience of the Rev. Stainton Moses. The automatic writing of this genlleman pur|X>rted to represent the coninmnications of discarnate spirits, and had it received the scientific investigation which it deserved might have substantiated his claims. His phenomena, however, were an important influence in suggesting the organization of the Society for Psychical Research. The Proceedings of this society supply much more material having at least a plausible claim to representing spiritistic agency. The Reports on the remarkable case of Mrs. Leonora Piper, published in five different volumes of the Proceedings, offer the best mass of scientific evidence extant in support of possible spirit communication. For this case and its extensive record the world is indebted to Dr. Richard Hodgson, the late Secretary of the American Branch of the Society for Psychical Research. The work of Mr. Frederick W. H. Myers is only less important and impressive in the same direction. It was published in two large volumes. Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death. This includes most of the best results of psychical research.
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professor Barrett, and Professor Charles Richet of Paris have made important contributions to the subject during the last twenty years. The most of these are embodied in the Proceedings of the Society. Professor Henry Sidgwick and Dr. Richard Hodgson share in the same work to an equal extent. Mr. Frank Podmore contributed, besides articles, a workon Apparitions and Thought Transference, and Modern Spiritualism. Both are critical and sceptical works, though admitting the existence of phenomena ordinarily inexplicable.
Important literature on the subject, in addition to what has been named will be found in the folluu my - Phantasms of the Living. 2 vols., by Mr. Gurney and Mr. Myers; Spirit Identity and Spirit Teachings, both by Rev. Stainton Moses; L'lnconmi, by M. Flammarion. Less important or evidential are the works of Judge Edmunds, of Alfred Russell Wallace, and Andrew Jackson Davis. The problems of spiritism are stated, and some of the more important Piper experiments are discussed, in Prof. Hyslop's Science and the Future Life. The investigations of Zollner, Hare, and Crookes belong to the physical phenomena of the subject and have yet to be
corroborated by more careful inquiry. The phenomena are not yet well understood.
Spftaineldi.dist., London, England, 1 m. E.n.k. of St. Paul's; silk-weaving was introduced by Huguenots in |7th century, but is now practically extinct.
Spltliead, roadstead, English Channel, between the N.ii. ofislc of Wight and Portsmouth.
Spltlirad, Battle or, fought in 1545, between the English fleet and the French fleet The. latter was kept at bay, and finally driven off.
Spitz. Sec Pomeranian Dog.
SpltiberRon, a group of Arctic islands between Greenland and Novaya Zemlya, some 400 m. N. of Norway. 'They include W. Spitzbergen (15,260 sq. m.), North
First Crossing oj Spitzliergtn (1897), and With Ski and Sledge over Arctic Glaciers (1898); and No Man's Land (19011).
Spltzka, Edward Charles (1851^, American psychiatrist. born in New York. He graduated M.D. at the New York University 1873. After studying in lA'ipzig and Vienna he settled in New York and pra< tised medicine, making a specialty of the treatment of discuses of the nervous system. He was the first to discover the interoptic lobes in saurians, the absence of pyramid tracts in the cetacea, and the interoptic lobes of the lower brain. He is the author of a Treatise on Insanity (1883).
Spleen, in anatomy a small organ, about five inches long,
East Land (4,040 sq. m.). Edge I., Barents I., Prince Charles Foreland, and many smaller ones. The interior is covered with a thick ice sheet, through which project peaks, some of which are 2,000 ft. high, and one, Hornsund in W. Spitzbergen, 4,500 ft. There arc magnificent glaciers on the east of North-East Land; but the Gulf Stream sweeps the western side and makes it warmer. Seals and walruses arc found on the coasts, and sea-fowl— e.g. eider duck— breed on the islands. Spitzbergen was discovered in 1590 by Barents. In the 10th and 17th centuries Russian whalers almost exterminated the whales, and greatly diminished the seals in number. Many North Pole expeditions have' started from these islands. See Scoresbv's Account of the Arctic Regions (1820); Conwa/s
lying high on the left side of the abdomen, near the upper end of the stomach, and partly behind it and the intestine. It is of soft, pulpy tissue, in a meshwork of fibrous and elastic substance, and is surrounded by an elastic capsule. It changes greatly in size, by the expansion and contraction of its muscular fibres, and according to the amount of blood which distends it. It tends to become distended a few hours after a meal. In the spleen the leucocytes, or white fjlood corpuscles, multiply by division. Also many red corpuscles arc broken down there. The spleen may suffer from acute inflammation and hypertrophy. It is also occasionally the seat of tubercular disease, cancer, and syphilitic changes.
Spleonwort, any fern of the order Aspleniacex or the type genus Asplenium. Most of the
Common Methods of Splicing.
ployed are the short splice, for uniting the ends of two separate ropes, and the eye-splice, for making a permanent loop in the end of a rope. In making a short splice the ends of the ropes are inlaid for a short distance and brought together, the strands interlacing (a in the illustration). Taking any one strand, this is woven into the laid strands of the other rope, working from left to right; the other two strands are similarly woven, but from right to left (shown at B). For making an eye-splice, the end of the rope is unlaid and the strands are Dent back upon the body of the rope so as to form an 'eye' of the size desired. The loose strands are then interwoven with the main body of the rope, exactly as in the short splice. Other common splices are: the long splice, in which the ropes are unlaid for a considerable distance and the two sets of strands relaid upon each other before being interwoven; and the chain-splice, for splicing a rope to a chain. Wire-rope may also be spliced, but the operation is so complicated that an expert is required to perform it with any degree of success. See Knight's Modern Seamanship (1903). See Knot; and Ropf.s And Cordage. Splint, or Splent. Sec Horse —Diseases.
Splints, surgical appliances designed to secure rest and immobility of damaged parts. Thin strips of wood, millboard, leather, tin, zinc, lead, and iron are employed; and for emergency work temporary splints may be improvised from walking sticks, umbrellas, rifles, broomsticks, or fireirons. Bandages impregnated with starch, plaster of Paris, or other stiffening agents are light, and form excellent means of fixation in certain cases. Some injuries, however, require treatment in which passive movement of a joint plays a part. In such a case a hinged splint may be desirable. Splints must be well padded, and so adjusted as to cause no injurious effects through pressure.
Splugen, Alpine pass (6,946 ft.), traversed by a good carriage road from Coire (Swiss canton of Orisons) in the Rhine valley to Chiavenna in Italy. This pass was crossed in the winter of 1800 by the French army under Macdonald.
SpofTord, Ainswortii Rand (1825-1908), American librarian, born at Gilmanton, N. H. Removing to Cincinnati, O., he became a bookseller in that city, and was associate editor of tne Cincinnati Commercial from 1859 to 1861. In the latter year he was appointed assistant librarian of Congress, and was librarian of Congress from 1864 to 1899, when he became chief assistant under Herbert Putnam. Besides writing many miscellaneous articles, he edited several compendiums, including Library of Choice Literature (1881-8) and Library oj Wit and Humor (1884). He also published a Practical Manual oj Parliamentary Rules (1884) and A Book jor all Readers (1890).
SpofTord, Harriet [elizaBeth] I'rkscott (1835), American author, was born at Calais, Me., and was the daughter of Joseph N. Prescott. She early removed to Newburyport, Mass., received an academic education, and began to write for Boston story-papers at the age of fifteen. Higginson, Lowell, and others took interest in her work, and she finally became a regular contributor to the literary periodicals. She was married (1865) to Richard S. Spofford, a lawyer of Boston. In later years she made her home on Deer Island, Newburyport. Mrs. Spofford's books include Sir Rohan's Ghost (1859); The Amber Gods, and Other Stories (1863); Arnc England Legends (1871); The Marquis o/
Carabas (1882); Poems Ballads about Authors The Children o) the Valley
The Great Procession ivwf. Four Days oj God (1905); and Old Washington (1906).
Spohr, Ludwig (1784-1859),
German violin virtuoso and musical composer, born at Brunswick. He was musical director successively at Gotha (1805), Vienna (1813), Frankfort-on-Main (181719), and Kassel (1822-57). He was the first to use the conductor's baton in Britain (London Philharmonic, 1820). Though he seldom deviated from traditional principles in his own compositions, he was among the first to recognize and proclaim the genius of Wagner. His works are in nearly every branch of music; he was also the author of a celebrated Violin School. One of his oratorios, most popular in the U. S., is The Last Judgment. See his Autobiography (Eng. ed. 1865), and Li/e, in German, by Schletterer (1881).
Spoils System. See Civil Service.
Spokane, city, Wash., co. seat of Spokane co., on the Spokane R., 50 m. above its junction with the Columbia, and on the Cceur d'Alene and Spo., the Gt. N., the N. Pac., the Ore. R. R. and Nav. Co., and the Spo. Falls and N. and other R. Rs. It is the manufacturing and commercial metropolis of the eastern part of the state, and also of a wide territory in Oregon, Montana, and Idaho. The river has a descent of 150 ft. in the city limits, mainly in two falls, and affords immense water power, which is used by the traction companies and for street electric lighting as well as by the manufactories, and power is transmitted more than 100 m. to operate the silver-lead mines at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. The more important buildings include the court house, city hall, Carnegie Library, Elks and Masonic temples, Auditorium Building, High School, Spokane Club, Amateur Athletic Club, Empire State, and many modern and massive business blocks. There are 26 bridges. Fort Wright, garrisoned by eight companies of infantry, has a reservation of 1,022 acres, and overlooks the city and river. The city has several parks, and the surrounding country is famed for its rugged beauty, the scenery comprising lakes, rivers, and bold mountains. The census of manufactures in 1905 showed an enormous increase in five years. The capital was augmented 144.5 per cent, and the products 135.1 per cent., the former amounting to $5,407,313, and the latter to J8,830,852. The leading manufactures include lumber and planingmill products, furniture, flour, structural iron, malt liquors, confectionery, saddlery and harness, carriages and wagons, brick and tile, cutlery, awnings, tents, sails, mattresses, druggists' preparations, flavoring extracts, etc. Wheat, fruit, and live-stock are
extensively shipped. Spokane was settled in the summer of 1872. The town was incorporated in 1881, and in that year the Northern Pacific Railway was constructed to the town from the west. It became the county seat in 1882. In the following year occurred a disastrous fire, and in 1889 thirty blocks in the business quarter were burned. The name, which is that of an Indian tribe, means 'children of the sun.' Pop. (1880) 300; (1880) 19 222; (1900) 36,848; (1910) 104,402.
Spokane River, the outlet of Cceur d'Alene Lake, rises in the N. part of Idaho, and flows in a W.n.w. direction, through the state of Washington to its confluence with the Columbia R., through a course of 120 m.
Spolcto, tn., prov. Perugia, Italy, 59 m. by rail N.n.e. of Rome. It is the seat of an archbishop, and produces truffles. About 570 it became the seat of a duchy, which lasted till the 12th century. Pop. (1901) 24,648.
Spondee, in prosody, a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables, as faio. It is metrically equivalent to a dactyl or an anapaest, and is therefore found in all dactylic and anapaestic metres; it is also used under certain restrictions in trochaic and iambic rhythms.
Spondlas, a genus of tropical trees belonging to the order Anacardiacex. They bear small flowers, followed by fleshy drupes. The principal species are S. lulea, the so-called golden apple or Jamaica plum, and S. dtucis, the sweet Otaheite apple.
Sponges, or Porifera, a group of animals, of which the common bath sponge is a highly specialized form. A more typical form is the little glove sponge, common between tide-marks on American shores. It consists of a little sac attached by one end to a rock surface, while the other end hangs down freely in the water. This free end bears an orifice of considerable size, called the osculum. The currents of sea-water enter the central cavity of the body by minute pores scattered over the surface of the sac, and bring with them food and oxygen, and sweep outward at the osculum bearing with them not only the undigested residue of the food, but also carbon dioxide and other waste products, as well as at certain seasons the reproductive elements. Between tide-marks, but in slightly deeper water, there may be found a smaller sponge (Sycon} readily distinguished by its silky appearance. This, as a lens will show, is due to the presence of numerous spicules or needles of lime on the surface. Similar spicules also form a crown round the osculum. Centrally there
is a cavity, which communicates with radial chambers arranged around it in the wall of the sponge. These radial chambers also communicate with the exterior by pores, and are lined by collar-cells (choanocytes), which are cells furnished with a frill or collar of protoplasm, and with a long motile thread or fiagellum. The surface of the sponge is covered with flattened cells, while similar cells also line the central cavity. Between these two layers of cells there is a third less distinct layer, the mesoderm, while supporting the radial chambers are little spicules of lime. Usually radial chambers of so simple a character as those of Sycon do not exist in sponges; but the original radial chambers become much folded and branched, or, in other cases, small spherical chambers, opening into a more or less complicated system of canals, are present, forming what is known as the Rhagon type. In the more complicated types it is usual for the central cavity of Sycon to be either obliterated or to become indistinguishable from the system of canals. It is this which gives to many common sponges their uniformly spongy structure.
Both Grantia and Sycon have a skeleton made of spicules of lime, and both therefore belong to the group of calcareous sponges. In the same group, which includes what are apparently the most primitive of the sponges, we find, though rarelv, a type of sponge structure which is simpler even than that of Sycon. In Acrella primordalis, for example, the body consists of a simple sac, as in Grantia or Sycon, but the wall is perforated by large pores, and consists of an external layer of cells separated by a middle layer from an inner layer, which is not folded into chambers, but is a simple investment, a lining of the central cavity. Such a sponge differs little from the simple larval form called the gastrula, which appears in the development of many different kinds of organisms, and which, is, as it were, permanent in the Coelenterata (sea-anemones, tea-firs, and so on). To Haeckel she occurrence of such forms as Ascetta suggested that sponges and ccelenterates are derived from a common gastrula-like ancestor. His conclusions were, however, based, in the first instance, on a study of the calcareous sponges, which are an isolated group, displaying an apparent greater simplicity of structure than other sponges, the majority of which in adult life display no ob\ious relation to the gastrula. Further, even in the calcareous sponges there is some difficulty in homologizing the parts of the sponge
with the parts of a gastrula or of a ccelenterate.
Sponges as a whole may be divided into two sections, the calcareous sponges, in which the skeleton always consists of lime, and the other in which limy spicules are always absent. The former, as was first pointed out by Haeckel, show all graduations from the simplest known type of canal system to some of the most complex. But the more complex types occur, as it would seem independently, in the non-calcareous sponges, affording a remarkable example of parallelism in development. In this case the parallelism is to be explained, according to Professor Sollas, as the result of similar physiological needs. These sponges are widelydistributed, but are commonest in shallow water, and rarely extend downward below 150 fathoms. The majority of the non-calcareous sponges either contain silica or are nearly- allied (homy sponges) to silicious forms. Of the silicious forms the simplest are those in which the spicules of flint are six-rayed (Hexactinelhda). These appear very earlj as fossils, and their canal system is generally of a simple . con ate type. To this section belong the beautiful Venus' flower - basket (Euplectella) and the curious glass-rope sponge (Hyalonema). Generally speaking, the members of this section inhabit deep water (usually over 150 fathoms), and this fact, in combination with the simple structure of the soft parts ana their elaborately beautiful skeleton, is believed by Vosmaer to prove that the original sponges were deep-sea animals, and possessed a better developed skeleton than their descendants, the existing specialized sponges which occur in shallower water. Owing to their deep-sea habitat the In \:m line-Hid sponges were little known, except as regards external characters, until the dredgings carried on during the 'Challenger' expedition (1872-6) produced a large number of specimens, which were worked out by Professor Schulzte.
The hexartinellid sponges form a well-defined group; but the classification of the remaining Mlicious sponges is a matter of considerable difficulty. Among them we find sponges whose skeleton consists at least chiefly of uniaxial spicules, others in which it consists of horn, and others in which it consists of quadriradiate spicules. In consequence many classifications recognize three subdivisions: (1) the monaxonid sponges, (2) the horny sponges, and (3) the tetractinellid sponges. But recent work tends to show that the three groups are interrelated at different points. To
SPECIES OF SPONGES.
1. Spongiila fluvtatilts (fresh-water sponge). J. S. laoustrin (fresh-water Bponge). 3. Thrinacophora funiformle. 4. Dendropuls ~.dentift*ra. 5. Enperiopsis Challfngerl. 8. Slphonochalina annulata. 7. Hyalonema Sieboldii. K. FMplectella aBpervUlum. 0. Semperella Schultzel. 10. Belt*rothamu» claunli. II. Denmacldon grandis. 12. Farea occa IS. P^rlphnwella eliMe. 14. Kentera aqnipductuH. IK. Eohlnoclathrla Carter!. 1(1. PhakelltA flahcllata. 17. 1'. ventllabrum. 18. Cinacliyra barbuta, 19. I^odlctya to. Diagram showing circulation of water in living sponge.