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the monaxonid division belong very many of the common northern sponges—the boring Cliona, common in oyster shells, and constituting an active agent in their disintegration; the orange-yellow Suberites, which lives in symbiosis with a hermit-crab; the mermaid's glove (Chalina), a common branched sponge; the extraordinarily abundant, crumbof-bread sponge . (Halichondria), which forms a thick crust over many objects between tide-marks; and the curious fresh-water sponge (Spongilla,) with its green coloring matter. . . The monaxonids mostly inhabit shallow water (under 50 fathoms); the silicious skeleton is never complex, an

shows a tendency to become reduced. f the horny sponges (Ceratosa) the most important are the bath sponges (Euspongia and Hippospongia), in which the horny fibres are *†io. soft, fine, and elastic. The 'sponge' of commerce is merely the skeleton after the removal of the soft parts by

maceration. The , bath sponges are widely distributed in the eastern half of the Mediterranean,

where they occur at depths down to 260 fathoms, and are obtained by ha ning, diving, or dredging. . The fishing, is only ... in specially favorable ocalities, such as , the eastern shore of the Adriatic, the coast of Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of the African coast. Bath o: occur also in the Red Sea, off the coast of Australia, round the Bahamas, and elsewhere. Efforts have been made in the Adriatic and off the Florida coast to cultivate sponges artificially by a process of planting-out of cut: tings. Owing to the slowness of growth the experiments have hitherto proved to be of no economic value. Among the tetrac: tincllid sponges are , included some of the most highly specialized genera. They are commonest at depths of from 50 to 200 fathoms. Included in this subdivision are the ston so (Lithistids), which *. ive in o: exceeding 100 fathoms, and present a superficial resemblance to the hexactinellids. Not infrequently sponges form associations with other animals, ranging from , the apparently chance connections formed—e.g. by Halichondria and certain spider-crabs—to an apparently efinite symbiosis, such as occurs in the glass-rope sponge, which seems always to have a coelenterate colon also on its long ‘rope’ of, spicules. As sponges are usually inedible, some of #. associations with Crustacea, at least can no doubt be explained as protective to the latter. Sponges are abundantly represented as fossils in all rocks.

The vast majority of living forms are marines, but a few (e.g. Spongilla) inhabit fresh water. In Zoological Articles, by Professor Ray Lankester and others (1891), Professor Sollas, gives, a large amount of information. The Challenger volumes on sponges, especially., vol., xx. (Report on Monaxonida, by Ridley and Dendy), vol. xxv... (Report. on Tetractinellida, by W. J. Sollas), and vol. xxi. §: on Hexactinellida, by F. G. Schultze), give very full accounts of certain groups of sponges. An article on The Position of Sponges in the Animal Kingdom,” by G. A. Minchin, in Science Progress (vol. i. 1897), gives a historical account of the views which have been held on the position of sponges. For American iPogo see the publications of U. S. Fish Commission and National Museum. . Sponsors, the godparents of infants baptized into the Christian church. . They become sureties for the child, and promise in its name to renounce the devil and all his works, believe in God, and serve, Him; and they, undertake that the child shall be brought up in the Christian religion. #. the early Christian church the parents of the child were allowed to be its godparents, but this was formally prohibited by the Council of Mainz in 813. For a long time there was no rule as to the necessary or permissible number of Holo but the Council of Trent, in the middle of the 16th century, determined that there should be only one, or at the most two, not being of the same sex. In the Church of England the rubric of the Prayer Book directs that there shall be for every male child two godfathers and one godmother, and for every female one odfather and two godmothers. he third rubric at the end of the Catechism directs that every one shall have a godfather or a godmother as a witness of his or her confirmation. The Lutheran churches retained godparents at the Reformation, but the other reformed churches imposed the duty on the parents. Spontaneous combustion occurs without any apparent cause or application of agents to produce ignition. . It is an important phenomenon, inasmuch as it is reputed to be, the cause of many fires, especially among such or

anic materials, as cotton, soot, emp, hay, and especially oilsoaked waste. It usually takes

lace in materials closely con

ned and not reached by air, but which , are also minutely subdivided and porous, such as moist hay in farms. The reason is that certain substances have such an affinity for oxygen that they

will ignite at a temperature slightly in excess of ordinary conditions of temperature. The reorts of the spontaneous comustion of human bodies have been shown to be untrue, though such accounts figure, extensively in legends and traditions. Spontaneous Generation. A rain-water tank, one day void of life, may next day swarm with horse-hair worms; this was to the ancients proof positive of spontaneous generation. Some animals, said Aristotle, spring from utrid matter, some insects arise rom dew. In 1638, Redi proved, #. a very, simple “on. that decaying meat does not ‘breed maggots’ if the access of flies be prevented by using screens of fine gauze, and from this he drew the conclusion that there is “no life without antecedent life.' Since then a prolonged series of observations have proved that Redi’s dictum is true also of micro-organisms. Although there is no proof that spontaneous generation is ever known to have occurred within the experience of man, yet very many biologists believe that life originated upon this globe at some time by a spontaneous process. If it occurred once, why may it not occur again P Again, no organism has ever been known to , arise except from previously existing organisms; but this may be because the means used to destroy already existing organisms in the experimental solution are also destructive of the unstable compounds in process of becoming organized. The first difficulty is met in various ways. Some biologists say that the conditions present at the time when life arose have never been repeated; others point to the fact that the substance becoming organized, as it were, would require to struggle against the well-adapted organisms already existing, which have been fitted to survive by ages of struggle. As regards the second point, no one as yet has sug#. any line of investigation ikely to iead to a means of differentiating between existing microorganisms and those in Pool of originating. Nevertheless, at least one investigator, Dr. Bas: tian, believed that he had proved

that unicellular organisms can

and do arise de novo. In 1905 Mr. J. Butler Burke's experiments at Cambridge, and his pronouncement that the action of radium on a gelatin medium produced bodies which appeared to have many of the characteristics of living matter, raised keen interest: but further experiments by others with non-radiferous chloride of barium gave rise to the same bodies: the effects are probably purely chemical. See Spontini equatorial acceleration of the sun's rotation, and established a relation between the mean latitude of spots and the course of the eleven-year cycle. He joined the German eclipse expedition to the E. Indies in 1868, was of: observer in the astrophysical observatory at Potsdam in 1874, and promoted to be chief observer (1882–94). Sporozoa, a class of Protozoa. The larger members of the class occur as parasites in invertebrates and of these Gregarina is a good type. There are also a number of other small and obscure forms which occur in the muscle fibres or in the blood of vertebrates. Of the former the species of

Burke's The Origin of Life (1906), and Nature (1905-6): See also Huxley's Presidential Address to the British Association (1870), Tyndall's article in the Nineteenth Century (1878); S encer's Principles of Biology (1864-7), Haeckel's Natural History of Creation (ed. 1892), Verworn's General Physiology (trans. 1899), and Bastian's Studies in Heterogenesis (1904). See also Biology. Spontini, GASPARO LUIGI PACIFIco (1774–1851), Italian operatic composer, born at Majolati, Ancona. In 1803 he went to Paris, where he chiefly resided until 1820, when he was #. musical director to Frederick William III., of Prussia, a position he held till is 12. His operas were once very popular, but are now almost forgotten. he most celebrated were Milton (1804), La Vestale (1807), Ferdinand Cortez o and Ölympia (isio). See ife in German by Robert (1883).

Spoon bill. A small, ibis

(Ajaja rosea), of the Southern states, and American tropics beautifully rosy in plumage and

remarkable, for the broadening and , flattening at the extremity of the bill. he similar spoonbilled ibis of the Old World is white, larger, and well known throughout the Mediterranean region. See IBIs. Spooner, John CoIT (1843), American, politician, born at Lawrenceburg, Ind. He graduated at the University of Wisconsin in 1864 and served in the Civil War, reaching the rank of captain and brevet major of volunteers. He was admitted to the bar in 1867, was a member of the Wisconsin legislature in 1872–74, U.S. senator in 1885–91, and in 1892 unsuccessful Republican candidate, for governor. He was again elected to the Senate in 1897, and re-elected in 1903, but resigned on March 3, 1907. He was prominent in the Senate, being particularly strong in debate. He was a leader of the ‘Stalwart,”

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Sarcocystis are examples. They are apparently harmless. The forms which occur in the blood include those which , produce malaria and the related diseases in man, the tsetse-fly disease in cattle, and sleeping sickness in man.

Sports, Book of, the proclamation made by James I. in 1618, that, after divine service on Sundays, “no lawful recreation should be barred to his good people,’ such sports being named as morris #. dancing round the Maypole, archery, May games, vaulting, Whitsun-ales, running, leaping, and the like; but such pursuits, as dramatic interludes, bear-baiting, |otif bowling (sic) were §. This ‘declaration’ was called forth by the action of some of the Lancashire Puritans. The Book of Sports was ordered by the Long Parliament to be burned by the common hangman, (1644). See Govett's The King's Book of Sports (1890).

Spottiswoode, , John , (1565– 1633), Scottish prelate, archbishop of St. Andrews, succeeded his father as minister of Calder. in 1583. In 1601 he accompanied the Duke of Lennox on his embassy to France. He became

archbishop of Glasgow in succession to James Beaton; and in 1615 was translated to St. Andrews. He crowned Charles I. at Holyrood, and in 1635 received the chancellorship of Scotland. As moderator of the General Assembly he promoted the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland, and by his influence the obnoxious #. Articles of Perth (1618) were sanctioned. On the ascendency of the Covenanters he was deposed and excommunicated, and was compelled to resign his office of chancellor. He was buried in Westminster. His History of the Church and State of Scotland (1655), was reprinted, with a Life, by the Spottiswoode Society |*;} He also wrote Refutatio Libelli de regimine ecclesiae Scoticanae (1620). Spottiswoode, WILLIAM (1825– 83), English mathematician, was born in London, and succeeded to his father's business as Queen's Printer in 1846, but remained a devoted student of mathematical and Phy; science. He publishe Meditationes Analytica (1847), The Polarization of Light (1874), and A Lecture on the Electrical Bischarge (1881). Spottsylvania Court House, BATTLEs of. A series of engagements in the Civil War, fought around Spottsylvania Court House, Va., 11 m. s.w.. of Fredericksburg, between May 8 and May 21, 1864, between the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Gen. Meade, but directed by Gen. Grant, and the Army of Northern Virginia, under Gen. Lee. After the battles of the Wilderness (q.v.) Grant determined to concentrate his army at Spottsylvania Court House, 15 miles away, between Lee and Richmond, and on May 7 began the movement, which Lee, however, had foreseen. When the van of Warren's corps had advanced within one and a half miles of the court house, on the morning of May 8, it was met and repulsed by two brigades of Longstreet's corps, then commanded by Gen. R. H. Anderson. Later in the day a part of the Sixth Corps, commanded by Gen. Sedgwick, together with troops of Warren's corps, again attacked Anderson and a part of Ewell's corps, but were finally driven back. The next day was occupied by each commander in getting troops into position and in studying the other's line. Lee occupied a well-intrenched arc of a circle about eight miles in length, with Anderson (Longstreet's corps) on the left, Ewell in the centre, and Early (commanding Hill's corps) on the right. Early in the morning Gen. Sedgwick was killed by a sharpshooter and was succeeded in the

command of the Sixth Corps by Gen. . H. G. Wright. Qn the morning of May 10 the Confederate left was attacked, but the assault was repulsed, and two other, attacks, in the afternoon likewise failed. Gen. Heth struck the , rear, of Hancock's corps, which had been ordered to threaten the Confederate left and rear. Late in the afternoon, Rodes's division, in the centre of the Confederate line, was furiously attacked by a part of the Sixth Corps, led by Col. Upton. He broke the line, forced the Confederates back to a second line of defences, but was not properly supported, and was forced to retire with the loss of 1,000 men, though taking 1,200 prisoners. The Confederate loss in killed and wounded on May 10 was about 2,000, while the Federal loss was at least 4,100. A storm raged on the next day and there was little fighting, but Grant determined to attack the centre of Lee's line, where a salient projected nearly a mile beyond the remainder of the line. During the day Lee, fearing that Grant was planning another flank movement, had removed the greater part of the artillery protecting this part of his line. About 4.30 on the morning of May 12, Hancock attacked the salient, took nearly a mile of the works, and captured Gen. Edward Johnson, 20 guns, and more than 2,800 prisoners. Gen. Stuart, was also taken prisoner. The divisions of Barlow and Birney pushed on until halted by the second line, held by Gen. J. B. Gordon. Both sides were heavily reinforced from other parts of the line, and the heaviest and fiercest fighting of the whole war took place over the possession of the salient. Trees nearly two feet in diameter were cut down by bullets. The dead were piled in heaps, and the trenches ran blood, near the “Bloody Angle.' The battle continued without ceasing until 12 o'clock at night, making nearly 20 hours of the deadly struggle. The Fed

eral assaults on the Confederate

right and left during the day

were unsuccessful. The Federal

killed, wounded, and missing

numbered nearly 7,000, and the

Confederate loss was decidedly

greater. From the 13th, to the

18th there was little fighting, but

Grant, prepared to turn. Lee's

right flank. On the morning of

May 18 the Second Corps, well

supported, attacked the line held

by Ewell, but was repulsed, with

a loss of 2,000 or more, and this

ended the attempt to break

through the Confederate lines.

Grant began on May 19 a move

ment toward the North Anna

river, but was checked for

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twenty-four hours by Ewell, who crossed over to attack the Federal left. The movement toward the North Anna began in earnest on May 20, but Lee again moved by a shorter road and reached the stream first. . The total Federal strength is given as 118,000, the Confederate as 61,000. The Federal loss is reported as 2,725 killed, 13,416 wounded, and 2,258 captured or missing. The amount of the heavy Confederate loss is not accurately known. See Johnson and Buel, eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (1888); Humphreys, Virginia Campaign of 1864-65 (1883); rdon, Reminiscences of the Civil War (1903); Grant, Memoirs (1885). S.P.Q.R. . (Senatus Populusque Romanus), the Senate and People of Rome. Sprague, CHARLEs (1791– 1875), American poet, was born in Boston, Mass., and entered business at the age of thirteen. From 1820 to 1824 he was a teller in the State Bank at Boston, and from 1825 to 1865 he was cashier of the Globe Bank in the same city. Among his best-known pieces are “The W. Worshippers,’ ‘Curiosity,' and The Family. Meet: ing.’ A collective_edition of Poetical and Prose Writings a peared in 1841 (rev. eds. 1850–76). Sprague, WILLIAM o al. overnor of Rhode islan , born in ranston in that state. He acquired wealth as a manufacturer; was governor of his state, durin 1860–63; and served as colonel o a regiment in the first battle of Bull Run and in the Peninsula campaign. During 1863–75 he was a United States senator, and then re-entered business. Sprague, WILLIAM BUELL (1795–1876), American clergyman and annalist, was born at Andover, Conn.; and graduated (1815) at Yale, taking his divinity course at Princeton, and being ordained as co-pastor of the First Congregational church at West Springfield Mass., where he remained until 1829. From 1829 to 1869 he was pastor of the Second Presbyterian church in Albany, N. Y. Sprague made very large, collections of autographs, pamphlets, and manuscripts connected with the religious and secular history of the country. His chief literary work was his Annals of the American Pulpit (10 vols., 1857–69), and he wrote several biographies and miscellaneous books. Sprain, or STRAIN. A sprain is due to laceration of, and effusion into and around, the ligaments of a joint and the neighboring tendons, and is usually produced by a violent twist or wrench. In certain cases small scales of bone are torn off with the ruptured ligament. Even slight

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sprains are accompanied by severe pain and by considerable swelling, partly from extravasation of blood into the surrounding tissues, and partly from inflammatory effusion into the joint. Permanent weakness and stiffness, or even anchylosis, may follow a neglected sprain. Immediately after the accident, the injured part should be held under a cold jet and then a hot jet, alternating for a few minutes. The limb should then be raised, yo. thickly in cotton and snugly bandaged. In most cases a splint should be applied, and the limb ought to be raised to the greatest height consistent_with the patient's comfort. When the acute symptoms have subsided, , gentle passive movement should be employed, and a little later active movements of the joint may be made. As a rule, however, treatment of a sprain is not initiated until some hours after the injury, and the pain may then be so intense as to necessitate the application of hot fomentations; but as these dilate the blood-vessels and tend to increase the effusion and swelling, they should be employed as little as possible. F.o. joi toms are best combated by cold applications, such as ice bags or evaporating lotions. As soon as the pain permits of it, , elastic pressure should be applied to the joint by means of cotton wool and flannel bandages. At the same time gentle massage helps to dispel the swelling. Sprat (Clupea sprattus), a fish of §. herring family, abundant on the coasts of Great Britain. Young sprats are not very easily distinguished from young herring, and whitebait nearly always contains both. The sprat is usually from four to five inches long, and may be , distinguished from the herring, by ho seven rays in its pelvic fin in place of nine, the edge of the belly narrow instead of blunt, and in bearing strong sharp spines on this region instead of weak ones like the herring. The


eggs of the sprat are pelagic or son; and are fjo. lymouth from January to April, but at St. Andrews from April till July. The adults live in brackish water, from which they migrate to the open sea as they become , ripe. Besides being used as food in London and elsewhere, sprats are sometimes sold for manure. They are also dried and salted, and put upon the market as “kilkies’—i.e. sprats from


the Baltic cured with spices— and as ‘Norwegian anchovies.” . In narrow waters, such as estuaries, sprats are chiefly taken, in stow: nets, but seines and small-meshed drift-nets are also used. o, THOMAS, 1635–1713) English poet, wit, and bishop, was born at Beaminster in to setshire. He was at first known as a smart versifier and wit. At the Restoration he developed into an ardent royalist, was ordained (1661), and in 1669 appointed canon, in 1683 dean of West: minster, and in 1684 bishop of Rochester. He assisted at the coronation of William and Mary. His most important books were Observations on M. de Sorbier's Voyage into #"; (1664) and History of the Royal Society of London (1667). Spreckles,. CLAUS (1828), American capitalist, born at Lamstedt in Hanover. He emigrated to the U. S. in 1846, and in 1856 went to San Francisco, where he become a brewer and then, in 1863, a sugar refiner. In order to learn the most o methods used in refining he visited Europe in 1865, and then returning to San Francisco built up a business that made him in time the “sugar king,’ with large interests in California, the Hawaiian Islands, and elsewhere. Spree, riv., Germany, rises in Saxony. In the neighborhood of Berlin it forms, a perfect network of arms and lakes, and falls into the Havel at Spandau. Length, 230 m. It is, connected by several canals with the Oder. Sprengel, HERMANN JOHANN PHILIPP (1834–1906), German chemist and physicist, was born near Hanover, and went to England in 1859 to work at Oxford, afterwards removing to London. His name is principally connected with the o ump for obtaining high vacua by the fall of drops of mercury in a narrow tube, with the Sprengel tube for the accurate determination of specific gravity, and with the explosive properties of aromatic nitroderivatives, largely employed, as safety explosives—e.g. melinite, lyddite. Sprengel, KURT (1766–1833), German physician and botanist, born at Boldekow (Pomerania). He was appointed at Halle professor of medicine (1789), later (1797) of botany as well, retaining the chairs till his death. His works include Geschichte der Arzneikunde(1792–1803), Antiquitates Botanica (1798), Geschichte der Botanik o Hnstitutiones Medica (1809–16), Flora Halensis tentamen novum (1806, 1815, 1832), Qpuscula Academica (1844), wit Life by Rosenbaum. Sprenger, ALQYs (1813–93), Austrian Orientalist, was born at Nassereit in Tyrol. In 1838 he was naturalized as a British sub


ject, and after acting as principal of a Mohammedan college at Delhi, he became (1848) assistant resident at Lucknow. He left India in 1857, and became professor of Oriental languages at Bern (1858–81). His chief works are Life and Doctrine of Mohammed (1861–5), The Ancient Geography of Arabia (1875) and Babylonid (1886), all in German: He edited numerous editions of Persian and Arabic classics. Sprigg, SIR JOHN GORDON (làool; colonial statesman was born in Ipswich, England, and went out to" S. Airica in 1858 settled in Cape Town, and worked there as a journalist. He was elected to the House of Assembly in 1869, and later became §ool secretary and prime minister, (1878–81). . He was subsequently prime minister in 1886–90, in 1896, and in 1900. During the progress of the South African War (1899–1902) he was driven to rely upon his former #P. the Afrikander Bond. e appealed to the country in 1904, but lost his seat at E. London on February 11, and resigned a week later. Spring is any underground supply of water which overflows at the surface without artificial aid. The requirements are (1) a porous surface rock, through which the surface water can filter; and (2) an impervious layer at greater depth, which arrests the downward progress of the water. Wherever th: pervious and impervious layers crop out at , the surface, water will Ho: out in a line of springs above the impervious rock, provided the strata dip upward from the outcrop or lie horizontally. If the strata dip downward, the water will not flow over the edge of the impervious stratum until the groundwater level has risen above its margin—i.e. the spring is the visible overflow of a lake basin filled with porous rock, or at least with a porous layer: The rate of discharge of a spring varies according to the rainfall of the area of permeable rock at the surface through, which the water must pass. The Warm Sulphur Springs of Bath, Va., flow 350,000 gallons r hour. Some springs are intermittent, drying up for a season each year. Cases of permanent diminution of discharge are reported from certain areas where much water is pumped. If the water comes from sufficient depths it will be warm, and springs yielding waters of all temperatures up to the boiling-point are known— e.g. Matlock, 66°F.; Buxton, 82° F.; Bath, 117° E.; Vichy, 95° to 115° F.; Wiesbaden, 156° F.; San Bernardino Hot Springs, 108° to

172” F. A special form of hot spring is the geyser. . Mineral and hot springs give rise to man health resorts. Springs whic contain little mineral matter yield soft water, in which soap can easily be dissolved; those with carbonates, or sulphates, or chlorides, give out hard water, in which soap curdles. We may group the mineral springs, aocording to the nature of their chief dissolved constituents:—(1.) Alkaline springs, with sodium carbonate, the natron of commerce, are common—e.g. in Hunary—and have a very acrid avor. (2.) Saline springs, with common salt, such as the brine springs of the salt-yielding rocks --e.g. the Las Vegas Hot §: of. N. Mex., or the springs of Wiesbaden. Other saline springs contain sulphates of magnesium and sodium; such are the famous springs of Epsom, Kissingen, and eidlitz. (3) Sulphurous springs produce water with the smell of rotten eggs, being charged with sulphuretted hydrogen. Such springs are found at Salt Lake City, and Glenwood Springs, Coló. (4.) Ferruginous or chalybeate springs containing the ochreous ferrous oxide, which has an inky flavor, are widely distributed—e.g. Buxton. o Calcareous springs abound in limestone regions, and are utilized at Bethesda Springs, Waukesha, Wis. When the water evaporates travertine is formed. (6.) Calcareous and other springs are often effervescent, j in volcanic regions, owing to the presence of carbon dioxide—e.g. at Vichy. The waters of Saratoga also are carbonated. (7.) Silicious springs, with silicic acid, are found in traces in many mineral springs—e.g. Wiesbaden–and in o-s, in the Yellowstone ark. There are said to be at least 10,000 springs in the U. S. of mineral character. Perhaps 1,000 are used commercially. See MINERAL WATERs. Consult A. C. Peale's Natural Mineral Waters of the U. S., 19th Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. (1898), and also the same author’s Lists of Analyses of Mineral Springs of the U. S., in Bull. 32, U. S. Geol. Surv. (1886). Spring, the first season of the year, is astronomically defined to begin in the northern hemisphere about March 21, when the sun enters the sign of Aries—i.e. at the vernal equinox. It terminates at the summer solstice, about June 22, with the sun's attainment of his greatest northern declination. In the southern hemisphere spring extends from the , northern autumnal equinox to the winter solstice.

Spring. See CARRIAGE-BUILDING. Spring, GARDINER (1785–

1873), American clergyman, son of . Samuel Spring, was born in New:

buryport, Mass., and graduated (1865) at Yale. He was admitted to the bar in 1808, but, entering Andover . Theological Seminary, was ordained pastor of the Brick Presbyterian Church in New York city in 1810. He remained in this position until his death, and became one of the most notable preachers in the country. He was instrumental in organizing the American Bible ociety, , the American Tract Society, and the American Home Missionary Society. See his Personal Remimiscences of the Life and Times of Gardiner Spring (1866). Spring, SAMUEL (1746–1819), American, clergyman, born at Northbridge, Mass. ... He graduated at Princeton College in 1771, and studied o there until 1774. At the outbreak of the Revolution he became a chaplain in the Continental army, went with, Arnold's expedition against Quebec, took part in the attack on that city, and is said to have carried Aaron Burr, wounded, from the field. He left the army in 1776, and in 1777 became pastor at Newburyport, Mass., He was one of the leaders of the church party known as the Hopkinsonians, and was active in the establishment of the Andover Theological Seminary and in the foundation of the American Board of Foreign Missions. He was a man of great influence and weight of, character. Among his published writings were A Sermon on the Death of Washington (1779), and a sermon on the HamiltonBurr duel entitled A Discourse in

Consequence of the Late Duel (1804). Spring - balance. See BAL

ANCE. Springbok (Gazella euchore), a South African gazelle, , with bold markings in white and dark brown on a vellowish ground. Down the middle of the back there runs a stripe of long, white erectile hairs. The name is given on account of the habit of springing up into the air. Spring City, bor., Chester, co., Pa., 27 m. N.w.. by w. of Philadelphia, on the Schuylkill R., and on the Pa. R. R. Its industries are represented by the manufacture of paper, stoves, window lass, bottles, foundry facings, nitted goods, terra cotta, shafting, etc. Pop. (1910) 2,880. Springer. See SPANIELs. Spring e r , ALFRED (1854), American chemist, born in Cincinnati, O., and graduated in chemistry at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. He settled in Cincinnati, began to practise as a consulting chemist, and devoted much attention to the chemistry of brewing. In 1883 his monograph

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