صور الصفحة
PDF
[merged small][ocr errors]

Saxophone, a brass musical instrument invented by Adolphe Sax. It consists of a conical brass tube, curved forward and upwards at the bottom, and having a short section bent backward at the top, upon which a mouthpiece ana reed resemblir.g those of the clarinet are fitted. The instrument contains twenty lateral holes, which are covered by keys and studs, and manipulated by the first three fingers of each hand of the player. Saxophones, like saxhorns, are made in a variety of keys and sizes, but all are fingered in a similar manner. Saxophones are seldom used in the orchestra; but in many

[graphic][merged small]

Franklin Institute for his reflecting pyrometer. In 1837 he was appointed curator of the standard weighing apparatus of the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia, and superintendent of construction of balances and apparatus for branch mints. He also invented a deepsea thermometer used by the U. S. Coast Survey.

Say, Jean Baptiste (17671832), French writer on political economy, born at Lyons. He popularized political economy in France, and was a disciple of Adam Smith, whose method he closely adopted. In 1799 he was given a seat in the tribunate, but retired when Napoleon assumed the throne. His works are as follows: Traiti & Economic Politique (1802; Eng. trans. 1821); CaKchisme d'Economic Politique (1815; Eng. trans. 1816); Letters a Malthas sur Different* Suicls d'Economie Politique (1820; Eng. trans. 1821): Cours Complet d'Economie Politique Pratique (6 vols. 1829). He also wrote De FAngleterre et des Anglais (1815; Eng. trans. 1816).

Say, Leon (1826-96), French financier, grandson of the above, was born at Paris, and elected a member of the National Assembly in 1871. He became minister of finance in 1872, in 1876, in 1877, and 1879. In 1878 he was president of the French International Monetary Conference. He was president of the Senate in 1880-81, and minister of finance in 1882. Among his works are Turgot (Eng. trans. 1888); Economic Sociale (1891); Centre le Socialisme (1896); and Les Finances de France sous la Troisieme Rlpublique (4 vols. 1898-1901). He also edited Dictionnaire des Finances (2 vols. 1883-94] and Nouvcau Dictionnaire d'Economie Politique (2 vols. 1891-2).

Say, Thomas (1787 - 1834), American naturalist, bom in Philadelphia. He was one of the founders of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1812). After a short exploring visit through Georgia, he joined Stephen Long's Rocky Mountain expedition as geologist in 1819. In the following year he accom

panied Long as geologist and botanist on his exploring trip to the sources of the Missouri. He was author of American Entomology (3 vols. 1824-S), and American Conchology (completed and edited by W. G. Bmney, 1858).

Sayana, or Syana, a Hindu scholar of the 14th century. In conjunction with his brother, Madhava or Madhavacharya, he is noted for a commentary on the Rigveda, which has been much discussed, the result being destructive of its authoritative and its representative character. By some writers Sayana and Madhava are regarded as one person, identical with the latter.

Saybrook, tn., Middlesex co., Conn., 29 m. E. of New Haven, on the Connecticut R. and about 7 m. from Long Island Sound. It is on the N. Y., N. H. and H. R. R. It manufactures small metal articles, ivory goods, augers, gimlets, and boxes. Its town hall contains in its archives the early records of the original settlement established in 1635 by the younger John Winthrop at Saybrook Point and named in honor of the Puritan noblemen, Lord Say and Lord Brooke. The town was united with the colony of Connecticut in 1644. It was the seat of the Collegiate School of Connecticut, now Yale University, from 1701 to 1716. The Saybrpok Platform was adopted here in 170S by a synod of the Congregational Church. Saybrook was originally on both river and sound, and included also Chester, Old Saybrook, Essex, and Westbrook. Pop. (1910) 1,907.

Sayce, Archibald Henry (1846), English philologist, born at Snirehampton, near Bristol. In 1870 he became tutor of Queen's College, Oxford, and in 1870 deputy professor of comparative philology in the University of Oxford; professor of Assyriology in 1891. He was on the committee for the revision of the Old Testament (1874-84). Amonghismany works are: The Principles of Compara'.it'e Philology (1875); Introduction to the Science oj Language (4th ed. 1900); The Monuments SayreScala Santa

oj the Hitlites (1881); Herodotus (1883); The Ancient Empires oj

Higher Criticism and the Verdict of (lie Monuments (1894); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Records of the Past (1874-77, 1888-92); Egyptian and Babylonian Religions (1903); Archaeology oj Cuneiform Inscriptions (1907).

Sayre, bor., Bradford co.. Pa., 17 m. S.e. of Elmira, N. Y., on the N. branch of the Susquehanna R., and on the Leh. Val. and the D., L. and W. R.Rs. It is located in an agricultural region adjacent to the coal fields. It possesses the Robert Packer Hospital and two parks. Its industries include the Leh. Val. railway shops, stamping works, machine shops, metal works, arm manufactories of car wheels and stove fixtures. There is a trade in lumber and coal, and in the cereals, dairy products, vegetables, and poultry raised in the surrounding district. The place was first settled in 1876. Pop. (1910) 6,426.

Sayre, Lewis Albert (18201900), American surgeon, born in Madison, N. J. He graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in 1842, began to practise in New York, and in 1853-73 was surgeon to Bellevuc Hospital. He was one of the founders of the Bellevue Hospital Medical School (LSiil), and was a member of the faculty until 1898, when the school became a part of New York University. He was also founder of the New York Academy of Medicine and the New York Pathological Society, and one of the founders of the American Medical Association. He was a specialist in diseases of the hip and spine, and invented many instruments to deal with them. He was one of the first surgeons to use plaster of Paris in spinal complaints. He published: Oil the Mechanical Treatment oj Chronic Inflammation oj the Joints oj the Lower Extremities (1866); Practical Manual for the Treatment oj ClubFoot (1809); Lectures on Orthopedic Surgery and Diseases oj the Joints (1876, new edition, 1S83); and Spinal Curvature and its Treatment (1877).

Sayre, Stephen (1734-1818), American patriot, born at Southampton, Long Island, N. Y. He graduated at Princeton in 1757, and became a banker in London, England, of which city he was sheriff in 1773-74. Owing to his outspoken sympathy for the revolted colonies, he was, shortly after the beginning of the war, accused of treason and was imprisoned for a time in the Tower. Upon his release, he became active as a self-appointed agent in en

2

deavoring to secure assistance for the colonies, and also acted for a short time as secretary to Arthur Lee when Lee visited Berlin, and vain'y endeavored to persuade Frederick the Great to recognize the colonies. For his services in this capacity he obtained partial payment from Congress. In 1783 ne returned to America; was later engaged for a time in business in Havre, France; acted as an agent of the Revolutionists in 1792; and returning to America once more was an active opponent of Washington's administration. He published The English Deceived (1768), and a Memorial setting forth his claims to Congress (1808).

Sayrcvllle, tn., Middlesex co., N. J., 6 m. from New Brunswick, on the Raritan R. It has water and electric railway communication with New Brunswick and South Am boy. It is located in the rich clay fields, and has manufactures of bricks, soda water, cigars, and powder. Pop. (1910) 5,783.

Sbarretti, Donatus (18561, Roman Catholic prelate born in Montefranco, Italy; took his theological course at the College of St. AppoHinaris, Rome; was for several years professor of speculative and moral philosophy at the College of the Propaganda, Rome; was ordained (1S79) while holder of that chair; had charge at the Propaganda of Affairs of the Church in the United States; became private chamberlain to Pope Leo xin., first auditor of the apostolic legation in the United States (1893-1900), bishop of Havana (1900), apostolic delegate extraordinary to the Philippines and titular archbishop of Ephesus (1901), and apostolic delegate to Canada (1902).

Sc. (scilicet), namely; understood.

Scab. See SheepDiseases of.

Scabies. See Itch.

Scabious, a genus of hardy herbaceous plants belonging to the order Dipsacece. They Dear terminal heads of white, rosy, purple, or yellowish flowers, and many are desirable garden plants. S. succisa, the primrose scabious, is a common European plant, which bears purplish-blue flowers. The sweet scabious (S. atropurpurea} is a common garden plant, with quaint flowers of many tints on tall stems.

Scad, a name for the common horse-mackerel.

Scsevola, a family of the Mucian clan at ancient Rome. (1.) Gaius Mucius Sc*:vola, who is said to have won the name Scav vola ('left-handed') by his attempt to murder Porsena, in which he lost his right hand. For the story, see Porsena. (2.) Quintus Mucios Sc.evola, known as the augur, was praetor and governor

Sea la

of Asia in 121 B.c., and consul in 117. He lived to about 88 B.c., and Cicero was his pupil in law. (3.) Quintus Mucius Sc^vola, son of No. 2, was consul in 95 B.c., and afterwards governed Asia with great justice. Eventually he became ponlijex maximus; but he was murdered in 82 B.c..after being proscribed by the Marians. He was famous for his equity, his eloquence, and his knowledge of law; he first made a system of the civil law.

Sea Fell, mt., Cumberland, England, near head of Wast Water. Its summit, Scafell Pike (3,210 ft.), is the highest eminence in England.

Scagllola, stucco, or imitation stonework, for interior decoration, columns, pilasters, invented in Italy (1600-50), is formed by a combination of pure white plaster and glue applied to a prepared surface. Gypsum, finely pow deied and calcined, is mixed with glue and isinglass to imitate the whiteness of marble, the yeining being reproduced by coloring of metallic oxides, and the whole polished with pumice-stone; with tripoli, charcoal, and linen; with felt, tripoli, and oil; and finally with pure oil, till a perfect surface has been formed. Breccias, granite, porphyries are imitated by cutting into the stucco and filling the cavities with appropriately colored paste.

[graphic][merged small]

Scandinavia

gr P

rial right in Verona. The family attained its greatest height under Can Grande delta Scala, who was the (imperialist) Ghibellines's greatest general, and his nephew Mastino, whose epoch embraced the first half of the 14th century. The decav of the house began immediately after the death of the latter, and in 13.87 their ruin was finally accomplished bv Gian Gale'azzo of Milan. The Scali were munificent friends of literature. Can Grande being the patron of Dante. See Sismondi's History of the Italian Republics, Symonds's Renaissance in Italy (1875-86).

Scala Santa. See Santa Scala.

Scalcnl, Sofia (1850), Italian contralto singer, born in Turin, and a pupil of Boccabadati. She made ner debut at Mantua in 1S66, and sang afterwards with reat success in London, St. etersburg, Vienna, and other European capitals. In 1883 she came to the United States with the Mapleso.i company, and for the next ten or twelve years was exceedingly popular. Her voice was of a peculiar clarinet-like quality, and of exceptional range and power. She was famous for her performance of the leading contralto parts in Mignon, Semiramide, Faust, The Huguenots, Aidti, Linda, and Marlka. She retired from the stage in 1888 to teach singing in Pans.

Scalds. See Burns And Scalds.

Scale, in music. Sec Music.

Scale Insects. See Coccus Inserts.

Scales are outgrowths of the skin especially characteristic of reptiles and fishes. The scales of reptiles are folds cf the epidermis, which correspond to the feathers of birds and the hairs of mammals. Such scales also occur on the legs of birds, on the tail of the rat. and over the body of the pangolins. The scales of fishes, on the other hand, belong to the dcrmis, or deeper layer of the skin. In elasmobranchs there is a special type, with a basis of bone, known as dermal denticles or placoid scales.

Scales, weighing-machines.

See Balance.

Scallfrer, the name of two of the greatest classical scholars Europe has produced. Julius C.esar Scaliger (1484-1558), Italian humanist, was born in the castle of Riva on Lake Garda, Italy, a descendant of the Veronese Delia Scala family. Other accounts, cited by Scioppius in his Scaliger H ypobolimaus (1607), state that he was the son of an obscure sign - painter. He devoted himself to the study of the classics and medicine, and p-acti:xd the latter at Agcn in Guienne (1523). His first notable

works were two orations in reply to the Ciceronianus of Erasmus, full of venomous abuse. Scaligcr was a voluminous author, and was perpetually engaged in controversy, his chief works being De Causis Lingua Lalina, Poelices Libri Septem ad Sylvium, Commrntarii de Causis Planlarum Thcophrasti, Aristotelis Historia de- Animalibus, Commeniarii in Hjppocratis Librum de Insomniis. See Lives by Laffore (1860) and Ma'jcn (1SSO).—Joseph JusTus Scaliger (1540-1609), French scholar, son of the above, born at Agen. After a stav of four years in Paris he proceeded on a tour through Europe as companion to the Sicur de la Roche-Pozay, and remained under the protection of that family for many years. By his editions of the classical authors and his De Emendationc Temporum (1583), wherein he once for all fixed the chronology of many of the leading events in the ancient world, he placed himself in the front rank of European scholars. Summoned to the Univeuity of Leydcn in 1593 as the successor of Justus Lipsius, for the next sixteen years ne labored there; but during his last years he became embroiled with the Jesuits, and by his overbearing insolence brought down on himself the invectives of Scioppius. Besides his recensions of the Roman poets, he edited Euscbius (1606), Manilius (1579), and other works in a style unsurpassed for critical acumen and practical sagacity. His love of truth was a passion, but he sometimes was obstinately dogmatic in the defence of positions afterwards discovered to be untenable. See Life by Bernays (1855), and article by Mark Pattison in Quarterly Review, vol. cviii.

Scallop. See Pecten.

Scalp is composed of (1) the skin over the vault of the cranium; (2) the underlying subcutaneous fatty tissue; and (3) the occipitofrontalis muscle and its aponeurosis. From the pericranium, or periosteum of the skull, it is separated by a layer of loose connective tissue, whic , allows of free mobility. The skin of the human scalp is thicker than that of any other part of the body. Owing to its great recuperative power, arge flaps of the scalp may be separated from the periosteum below without a tendency to slough.

Scalping, a practice known to most tribes of N. American Indians in which a trophy of victory was secured by removing a part or all of the skin from the head of a fallen foe. This trophy usually served two purposes: (u) it was a guarantee that the bearer killed or was present at the killing of an enemy; (4) and it was the

chief object and occasion of the scalp dance, an important ceremony performed by the female relatives of the warrior bringing in the scalp. The head-hunting of the Dyaks of Borneo may be considered ;:s another form of scalping, the motives being the same. See Clark's Indian Sign Language (1884).

Scamandrr, river of antiquity, flows from Mt. Ida through trie plain of Troyt and after uniting with the Simbis falls into the sea at the entrance of the Hellespont. It is now called the Mendercz.

Scammon, citv, Cherokee co., Kan.. 8 m. N. of Columbus, on the San Francisco R. R. It is also a terminus of the Pittsburg and Scammon Interurban Electric line. It is a coal-mining town. Pop. (1910) 2.233.

Scammony is obtained from the root of Convolvulus scammonia, found in Syria and Asia Minor. The root is either dried, when it occurs in shrivelled, cylindrical, brownish portions, with a pale fibrous fracture and faint odor, or is incised when growing, when a brittle gum resin exudes, of dark-brown color and peculiar odor. Scammony resin, which is extracted by alcohol and precipitated by water, is useJ in medicine as a powerful purgative, and for the destruction of worms.

Scandalum Munnatum, defamatory words spoken of peers, judges, and other great officers of the realm, formerly punishable in England, even in cases when the words would not be actionable as slander if spoken of other persons. The statutes dealing with this offence were repealed in 1887.

Scandprbe K—i.e. Iskander (Alexander) Beg — originally George Castriot (1407-67), Albanian chieftain, was taken to Constantinople as a hostage at seven years of age. Forced to embrace Mohammedanism and enter the Turkish army, he became a favorite of Muraa II. But the Sultan haying taken possession of his principality on his father's death, Scanderbeg deserted (1443), renounced Mohammedanism, and proclaimed the independence of Albania. Then for a quarter of a century he successfully resisted all the efforts of the Turks to conquer him. See Lije by Paganel (1855J, tiid Gibbon's Derlinc and Fall, ed. Bury, vol. vii. (1900).

Scandcroon. See Alexan

DRETTA.

Scandinavia, name applied in a restricted sense to the peninsula of Norway and Sweden, and more broadly to the lands occunied by the Scandinavian people—Denmark, Iceland, and Norway and Sweden. See Bain's Scandinavia (1005) and SteveScandinavian Mythology

ni's The Scandinavian Question (1905).

Scandinavian Mythology.

See MythologyNorthern.

Scandium, Sc, 44.1, is a metal of the 'rare earths.' It has not •t.een isolated in the elementary state, but forms colorless salts, derived from an oxide Sc2Os, that do not exhibit an absorption spectrum.

Scania, anc. prov. of Sweden, now comprised in the counties of Malmbhus and Kristianstad.

Scapegoat. See Azazel.

Scaphoid Bones exist one in each wrist and one in each ankle. The former lie in the upper row of carpal bones; the latter are situated at the inner side of the ankle-joint, between the astragalus "behind and the cuneiform bones in front.

Scapula, or Shoulder Blade, is one of the two bones, the other being the clavicle, which form

[ocr errors][graphic]

Scapula, or Shoulder Blade.

1, Outer surface; 2, Inner surface: a, rcromton process; c, coracoid process: rfi, roracoid border; s, spine; g, glenoid cavity.

the pectoral arch or shoulder girdle. It is embedded, apex downwards, in the muscles of the back, and its mobility allows of corresponding freedom in the movements of the arm and the shoulder. In its glenoid cavity the head of the humerus is received. The clavicle articulates with the acromion process.

Scarab, or Scarab^us, a beetle held as sacred by the ancient Egyptians, and reproduced by them as amulets, which were worn as a protection against the evil eye. Scarabs (amulets) were also placed upon the breast of the dead. They were made of stone, and in the true scarab amulet the insect original is reproduced with faithful and often beautiful detail; but a number of these amulets ('scarabaeoids') only faintly suggest a beetle, and bear other designs. Scarabs were also used as seals. See W. M. Flinders Pctrie's Historical Scarabs (1S89), and Newberry's Egyptian Seals and Signet Rings (1905).

Scarabaeus (zoological), a genus of dung-eating lamellicorn beetles. The most famous species

is S. sactr, the sacred beetle of the Egyptians (see Scarab), which also occurs in S. Europe. According to Fabre, the female detaches a portion of the droppings of cattle or other animals, and rolls it up into a ball. This is then dropped into a hole which the beetle excavates. She then buries herself with the ball, and remains buried until the dung is completely consumed, when she again emerges in search of a fresh supply. It was this emergence after a period of quiescence underground which apparently led the Egyptians to regard the beetle as a type of immortality. It apparently remains entirely quiescent underground througn the hot weather, emerging again in autumn. The egg is laid in the middle of the dung in the autumn and the chamber carefully closed. The American dung-beetles are of numerous species and similar habits.

Scarborough, munic. and parl. bor. and fashionable watering

Elace, N. Riding, Yorkshire, Engind, 21 m. N.e. of Malton. The town is divided into two parts by a bold promontory called the 'Scaur' (300 ft.), on which are the castle garth and ruins of the ancient fortress. Seaward are

Erecipitous cliffs, and on the md side a narrow causeway across the moat leads to the platform. The old town rises in tiers below the castle, and is bounded S. by a picturesque ravine, the Ramsdalc valley, crossed by two ornamental bridges, affording

[graphic][merged small]

Scarlet Fcvel

looks the sea. South of the castli is the harbor, frequented bj fishing boats. The part of th< town N. of the castle is fronlec by the North Cliff, on the slope" of which are the Clarence Gar dens; and along the base extend: the Royal Albert Drive, continues around the foot of the castli promontory by the new Marim Extension Drive. The church o: St. Mary is ancient; a new towr hall, adapted from St. Nicholas Mansion, was opened in 1903 Pop. (1911) 37,204.

Scarlatti, Alessandro (16591725), Italian musical composer born at Trapani in Sicily. Foi some years he was attached t( the court of Christiana, queen o Sweden, at Rome, and in 169was appointed musical directo: to the viceroy of Naples. Subse quently he became a teacher ii three of the four conservatoric: in Naples. He was the founde of the modern school of Italiai opera, and a prolific composer ii nearly every branch of music The compositions of his soi Domenico (1683-1757), one of thi first composers for the harpsi chord, did much to develop thi technique of pianoforte-playing See Life by E. J. Dent (1905).

Scarlet Fever, or Scarlatina an acute contagious fever, whicl may attack individuals at an; age above infancy, but is com monest in young children. Th risk is dependent upon the stat of health or fatigue at the me merit of peril. The onset of typical attack (but many attack are not typical) is shown bv general malaise—sore throat, chil headache, and vomiting. Som of these symptoms will most like! show themselves within a fe' hours, up to five days after ir fection; and in the typical casi within twenty-four hours of tr preliminary symptoms, thei will be a rash, beginning as scarlet flush over the chest an inner sides of the thighs, sprea< ing over the arms and legs, b coming punctiform, rarely shov ing on the head or face, thouj the latter is flushed with a hif temperature. The throat is rci dened, and often a patient \v; show the trouble in the thro only, especially if an adult. Tl glands below the cars arc mo or less tender and swollen. Tl tongue is heavily furred, wil bright red spots (white strai berry tongue) where the papill

E reject. Later the tongue is cry red (red strawberry tongu( when the fur clears. The rai generally lasts for four or fi days, and fades away from d ferent parts in the order that appeared on them. After thi dcsquamation or peeling bcgii Temperature rises almost at on with the onset of other sympton Scarltt Kunno r

reaching 103° or 104°, keeping that height for three or four days, then gradually falling, and reaches the normal generally in eight or ten days, unless complications or after-effects, such as suppuration, keep it raised.

Treatment.—The first precaution is to isolate both patient and suspected persons, the latter for ten days. Six weeks from the onset is the minimum time for the risk of infection to have disappeared. The rooms used by a patient must be thoroughly disinfected, together with all clothing, and the walls scraped and fresh papered or whitewashed. Obviously, therefore, the fewer articles of dress and furniture there are in a sick-room the better. Milk is one of the most dreaded sources of infection, and where scarlet fever is prevalent the milk should always be boiled before use. The most infectious period is generally supposed to be during desquamation, though there are some who dispute that scarlet lever is conveyed by the skin shed. The body must be anointed with oil or vaseline during desquamation. Women in childbed are particularly susceptible to scarlet fever, and take it in a very virulent form. Diet must be very light. Milk and vichy water or soda water (half and half) constitute the safest food while the fever is high, with jellies, beef-tea, and arrowroot, and a generous supply of fluid, in the form of cold water, sipped slowly, barley-water, and lemonade. Temperature in young children is best brought down by cold sponging and wet packs, the latter inducing perspiration. Sedatives in small doses are sometimes needed - The throat must be kept clean by gargles, and the mouth by sponges dipped in boracic acid. Common complications arc suppuration of glands (which must be then opened), swelling of the throat ana consequent difficulty of breathing, albuminuria, and diphtheria. In convalescence all risk of chill must be most carefully avoided. Protozoa, termed cycfasters, found in the blood and urine, are believed to be the cause of the disease. Recently a new curative serum has been reported by Dr. Paul Moser of St. Anne's Hospital, Vienna.

Scarpa, ANT9NIO (1747-1832), Italian anatomist and surgeon, born at Motta, near Treviso; became professor of anatomy at Modena (1772), and at Pavia (1784). He acquired a European reputation by nis researches and treatises on the anatomy of the ear, the organs of smell, and the nerves of the heart. He was appointed surgeon to Napoleon (1804).

Scarpanto (anc. Corpoihus),

mountainous Turkish isl. in the jEgean Sea, N.e. of Crete. The chief town is Aperi. Pop. 5,000.

Sea iron. Paul (1610-60), French dramatist, poet, and novelist, born in Pans; became an abbe, and received a benefice at Le Mans, but lived at Rome (1634) in the wildest debaucheries, which left him a helpless and deformed cripple. Having lost his benefice he returned to Paris (1646), and began a literary career. He attached himself to Mazarin and the queen-mother, Anne of Austria, during the minority of Louis xrv. His house was the rendezvous of all the wits and literati of the age, for Scarron was a most brilliant talker. A beautiful young girl, Francoise (or Francme) d'Aubigni, fell in love with the talent of the crippled dramatist and married him (1652); this lady was later on the famous Madame de Maintenon. Scarron wrote comedies in verse, one of which, L'Heritier Ridicule, so charmed Louis xiv. that he insisted on having it at once repeated, on the performance coming to an end. In burlesque poetry his Typhon (1644) is even yet readable, and his Virgiic Travesli (1648-53) was exceedingly popular in its day. His prose noyvelles had enormous vogue, particularly the Roman Comique (1651-7), while his dramatic burlesques proper created a jurorc in Paris. His epigrams and jeux d'esprit were innumerable. His Works were collected in 1737, and by Baumct (2 vols. 1877). An English translation of his works appeared in 1892. See Life, in French, by Morillot (1888).

Scartazzlnl, Giovanni AnDrea (1837-1901), Swiss author and Dante scholar, was born at Bondc in canton Grisons, and labored as a pastor at various places. Among his books are A Handbook to Dante (Eng. trans. 1887), A Companion to Dante (Eng. trans. 1893), and Encido!>,,:,,i Dantfsca (2 vols. 1895-8}. He edited La Divina Commedta (text and commentary, 4 vols. 1874-90; new cd. 1900), Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberals (1871), and Petrarch's Canzoniere (1883).

Scattcry, isl., Co. Clare, Ireland, in mouth of Shannon, 2 m. s.w. of Kilrush. It has a round tower, ruins of six churches, and a modern fort. An abbey was founded here in the 6th century by St. Senan. The remarkable bell shrine was formerly held in great veneration. Pi,p. (1901| 96.

Scaup (Fuliguia mariula), a duck which is a winter visitor to the United States and southern Europe. Its food consists of marine animals and plants. In the drake the head, neck, and chest are greenish black, the back marked with black and white, the

[merged small][graphic]

Scaup Duck.

Scawfell. See Sca Fell.

Scepticism, the philosophical doctrine that the human mind is incapable of attaining true knowledge. Agnosticism is generally used to denote that form of partial scepticism which relates to religious knowledge, and phenomenalism is that form of partial scepticism which denies our knowledge of anything outside the circle of phenomena. But scepticism is usually understood in the broader sense of doubt as to the possibility or validity of human knowledge generally. Of sceptical philosophers in this sense the most notable was Pyrrho of Elis. According to him man could never penetrate beyond the subjective affections which things produced in him to the true nature of the things themselves: his true attitude was one of indifference to all that happened. To justify this extreme doctrine, one of the later Pyrrhonists—Sextus Empiricus— made a collection of all the arguments which had been employed against the validity of human knowledge. A milder form of scepticism, which recognized various degrees of probability available for the practical guidance of life, prevailed during that period of the Platonic school which is known as the Middle Academy. This milder scepticism found a famous exponent in the Roman Cicero, though his importance is literary rather than philosophical, and through him it long after exercised an influence at the time of the revival of classical learning over humanists like Montaigne. In modern times scepticism nas been of the partial rather than of the universal kind. One characteristic modern type has been that which depreciates the claims of scientific knowledge in order to favor those of religious faith and revelation—a type of which P.ascal is an early representative. It has its anti-religious counterpart in the sceptical doctrine of the twofold truth, which had already bcgn enunciated in the

« السابقةمتابعة »