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John Moffat, to whom some have assigned the famous tale of The Wyse of Auchtirmychty. To about this period we may also assign the anonymous but humorous tales, The Freiris of Berwick o some to Dunbar), and The Three Preistis of Peblis, and such excellent pieces as Quhy sowld nocht Allane Honorit be (the oldest known original of the ballads on John Barleycorn), Tayis Bank (sup

osed to commemorate Margaret

rummond, the mistress of James Iv., the elaborate In May in a Morning, and a Song of Absence. But the most characteristic lyric of the period seems to have perished, though the features of a few may be traced in the parogies, preserved in The Gude and Godlie Ballates, used in the early

religious services of the reforme

rs. After the reformation merely secular o came under a ban, although the patronage of James VI. encouraged its cultivation among a select few, and apart from this the influences of the old literature could not at once wholly swept away. Thus Sir Richard Maitland continued to Jen occasional satires on the folies of his time. Moreover, the English literary revival had be. n to affect Scotland: Alexaner Scott and Alexander Montgomerie, for instance, show closer assimilation to the English, and may fitly be called the last of the old makers. The drift of the national sentiment is represented mainly in pious parodies of the old songs, such as The Gude and § Ballates, and various satirical pieces written in the interests of the ecclesiastical reformers. Among the older Scottish specimens of vernacular prose is the Scots version of Wycliff's New Testament, and the translations of Sir Gilbert of the Haye. The older vernacular is well represented in John Bellenden's translation (1536) of Hector Bcece's Latin History of Scotland, and in that curious tractate The Complaynt of Scotland (1549)— arl o for Scottish purposes of Le Quadrilogue Invectif of Alain Chartier—in which an attempt is made to add to the vividness of the descriptions by means of alliteration and consonance. The Chronicle of Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, though confused in its dates and untrustworthy in , many particulars, is a remarkably graphic narrative both its style and its version of historical facts being largely borrowed from the old ballads. But even the Scots tongue of Pitscottie, or his transcribers, has an English o and this is # more manifest in the Scots

tractates of George Buchanan, and in those of his great opponent, Bishop John Leslie, whose Scots History of Scotland, written for Mary Stuart's perusal, is, however, couched in a purer vernacular. The tractates of the Catholic controversialist, Ninian Winzet (1518–92), are not without ironical vigor; but the language, though colored by Scottish words and phrases, is mainly English. His oppo John Knox, employed a picturesque combination of Scots and English, both in , his unique History of , the Reformation in Scotland and in his litical and ecclesiastical manifestoes; and in the History {! the Kirk of Scotland by David alderwood (1574–1625), and the rose works of James v1., before is accession to the English throne, the modifying influences of English are still more apparent. The vernacular prose is also rep; resented by diaries, journals, and memoirs, such as the minutely graphic Autobiography and Diary of James Melville, and the Memoirs of his own # by Sir James, Melville of Hahill. With the accession of James y1. to the English throne Scottish vernacular verse almost ceased to be cultivated. But , apart from the balladists, the chief Scottish poets of the early #; of the century wrote in English, the earliest poet of the revived vernacular muse being Robert Semill, , whose Life and . Death. of abbie Simson is in the six-line staye. . afterwards, so , variously and brilliantly utilized by Burns. Half a century or more later the chief names are Lady Grisell Baillie (1665–1746), authoress of the mournful and romantic Werena o heart licht; Lady Elizabeth Wardlaw (1677–1727), authoress of Hardyknute; an William Hamilton” of Čilbert. field. In 1706–11 was published Watson's Choice Collection of .Scottish Poems. But the main agent in the vernacular revival was the enterprising Allan Ramsay.. . His own etic efforts won him much ame, but he probably exercised greater influence as editor and publisher of the Tea-table Miscellany and of The Evergreen. Among Ramsay’s contemporaries were hi o correspondent, William Hamilton of "Gilbertfield; Alexander Pennecuick (d. 1720), some of whose vernacular pieces vie in grossness with the rankest of Ramsay’s vernacular broadsides ; Dr. Alexander Pennecuick (1665–1722), author of Truth's Travels; Sir John Clerk of Penicuik (1684–1755), author of the , excellent Merry may the Maid be that Marries the Miller; and William Hamilton of Bangor. Somewhat later

was Alexander Ross (1699–1784), author of a rather dull pastoral, Helenore, or the Fortunate. Shep. herdess, in the Aberdeenshire dialect, and of several vivaciously witty songs, such as, The Bridal O't and Wooed and Married and a'. The poets of the immediately succeeding generation were chiefly song-writers, the most prolific being John Skinner (1721–1807); and among the bestknown songs of the period are the }}...to O send Lewie Gordon Hame, by Father Alexander Geddes; Auld Robin Gray, by Lady Anne Barnard; versións of The Flowers of the Forest, by Jane Elliott and Mrs. Cockburn; Logie o’ Buchan, and There's nae Luck aboot the Hoose. Apart from song-writers, the chief Scottish poet between Ramsay and Burns was Robert Fergusson, whose de

scriptive pieces in the vernacular, though modelled on those of Ramsay, possess a wit which, if

less broadly humorous, is more subtle and incisive. But the poetic vernacular revival culminates in Robert Burns. (See so Poetry of a certain individuality, and possessing something of the old overnacular flavor, was accomplished by several of his successors, such as the Baroness. Nairne, James Hogg, Robert Tannahii!, ir Alexander Boswell, Alexander Cunningham, Hector Macneill, Elizabet Hamilton, Joanna. Baillie, William Laidlaw, William Thom, William Nicholson, Robert Gilfillan, and . James Ballantyne; and the old Scottish art is sti essayed by numbers of versifiers. But while, even in the case of verse-writers of such accomplishment as ‘Surfaceman,’ J. B. Sel: kirk, J. Logie Robertson, and r. i. Stevenson, the vernacular art savors too much of more reminiscence of the older writers, the work of the majority of the tasters, is hopelóssly tainted y eccentric vulgarity.

See Irving's Lives of Scottish Writers (1839), and istory of Scottish Poetry (1861); Ross's

Early Scottish History and Literature (1884); Professor Walker's Three Cent:ries of Scottish Literature (1893); T. F. Henderson's Scottish ernacular Literature (1898); Graham's Scottish Men of Letters in the Eighteenth Century (1901); G. Gregory Smith's Specimens of Middle Scots (1902); and J. H. Millar's Literary History of Scotland (1993). See also, jo. for the older literature, the publications of the Scottish Text Society. Scotland, CHURCH of. See PRESBYTERIANs. Scotland, EPIscoPAT, CHURCH IN. See CHURCH, ANGLICAN. Scotland, FREE CHURCH OF. See PRESBYTERIANS.


Scotland, UNITED FREE CHURCH of. See PREsByTrrLANs Scotland Yard, a place in Whitehall, London, which was the headquarters of the Metro. politan Police till 1890, when they were transferred to the Thames Embankment. The site was the residence of Inigo Jones, Sir Christopher Wren, and other floo persons. , New Scotland Yard is the designation of the present headquarters. Scots Guards. See GUARDs. Scott, AUSTIN (1849), American educator, born in Maumee, O. He graduated at Yale in 1869; was private secretary to the historian George Bancroft in 1872–73; and taught German in the University of Michigan in 1873–75. He assisted Mr. Bancroft in preparing his History of the Constitution of the United States; became associate in history at Johns Hopkins University in 1876; professor of history at Rutgers College in 1883; in 1890– 1906 was president of Rutgers, then again professor of history. §o. HARLEs (1733–1812), American soldier, born in Cumberland co., Va. He served in the French and Indian War and in the Continental o, in the Revolutionary War. e connmanded a regiment at Trenton; in 1777 became brigadier-general; and in 1780 became a prisoner of the British at the surrender of Charleston. He served as brigadier-general of volunteers in the expeditions of St. Clair and Wayne against the northwestern Indians. e was governor of Kentucky in 1808–12, and did good service in raising volunteers at the outbreak of the war with England. Scott, CLEMENT WILLIAM (1841–1904), English dramatic critic, was born at Hoxton, London. In 1860 he entered the War Office, and retired in 1877. In 1872 he became dramatic critic of the Daily Telegrath—a position which {e held till within a few years of his death. He wrote Lays and Lyrics (1888),. In the

Garden of Sleep (1892), The Land of Flowers o Iona (1896), and The Life of skilliam Terris;

(1898); and o or helped to adapt, several French plays—e.g. §. !, Odette. In 1900 he founded o Free Lance. Scott, DAVID (1806–49), Scottish painter, was born in Edinburgh. He exhibited in 1828 The #"; of Early Genius dispelled % eath, and followed this with ingal and The Death of Sappho. In 1831 he published six designs in outline entitled Monograms of Man, and commenced a marvelJous series of outline illustrations to Coleridge's Ancient Mariner. During a tour in Italy in 1832 he produced The Vintager, and after his return home painted a

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large number of historical pictures, of which Queen Elizabeth at the Globe Theatre and Traitors’ Gate are the most notable. In 1841 he commenced the great work Vasco da Gama. Among his to." E. is one of Ralph Waldo Emerson, in the public library at Concord, Mass. See Memoir by W. Bell Scott, his brother (1850). S c o t t , DUNCAN CAMPBELL 1862), Canadian poet, born at ttawa, Ontario. He was educated at Stanstead College, and entered the Canadian, Civil Service in 1879. He was joint editor of Makers of Canada (1900). His original works include: ...The Magic House (1893); The .."; of Viger (1896); Labor and the Angel (1898). Scott, SIR GEORGE GILBERT 1811–78), English architect, was rn at Gawcott, Buckinghamshire. Having in 1840 come under the influence of Pugin, he soon became the foremost representative of the Gothic school, and found his life-work as an architectural restorer. His first restoration was Chesterfield church, and his first great original work the church of St. Nicholas in Hamburg. Ely was the first cathedral he restored. Among the secular buildings were the Albert Memorial in Hyde Park, London, the new government offices in Whitehall, Glasgow University, and St. Pancras railway station and hotel in London. As a restorer, he was subject to violent attacks from the advocates of the classical school. He was elected a Royal Academician so and knighted (1872). . See - ersonal and Professional Recollections o Scott, HUGH LENox (1853), American soldier, born , at Danville, Ky. He graduated at West Point in 1876; and served against the Sioux in 1876 and *: the Nez Percés in 1877. e connmanded a troop of Indians in the 7th cavalry (1892–97); durin 1898–1903 was adjutant-gener in Cuba; in 1903–06 was governor and commander in Sulu archipelago, P.I.; and in 1907 became superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy. He wrote a work on the sign language of the Plains Indians, published in Proceedings of the Fólk-lore. Congress of the World's Columbian Exposition, and other monographs. Scott, HUGH S. See MERRIMAN, HENRY SEToN. Scott, IRVING MURRAY (1837– o American engineer , and naval architect, born in Hebron Mills, Md. In 1861 he became chief draughtsman in the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Cal.; superintendent in 1863–65, general manager in 1865–1903. He built the ôogo. and Olympia.


Scott, JAMEs BRowN. (1866), American lawyer, born in Kincardine, Ont., Canada; was graduated at Harvard in 1890; took the course in international law at Berlin, Heidelberg, and Paris in isgio: practised law at fos Angeles, Ča ., in 1894–9; organized the present law department of the Univ. of S. Cal. in 1896, and was its dean in 1896–9; was professor of law at the Univ. of Ill., in 1899–1903, at Columbia Law School in 1903–6, and of international law at George Washington Univ. after 1906: was solicitor for the U. S. State i) partment after 1906; and was a delegate to The Hague Peace Conference of 1907. He was a noted authority on international law. Scott, John. See ElDon. Scott, John MoRIN (1730–84), American patriot, born in New York, city. He was one of the founders of the Sons of Liberty; member of the Provincial Congress and of the New York, General Committee in 1775; brigadier-general in the battle of Long Island in 1776; secretary of state of New York during 1778–79; and in 1780–83 a member of the Continental Congress. Scott ULIAN, (1846–1901), American battie.Poio born in !o Vt., and a pupil of the Y. National Académy of No. sign and of Leutze. is subjects, taken chiefly from inci. dents in the Civil War, in which he served, include: Rear Guard at White Oak Swamp (in the Union League Club, New York city); Capture of André (1876); and In the Cornfield at Antietam (1879). He was elected an associate of the National Academy in 1870. Scott, MICHAEL (?1175–1234) Scottish mathematician an scholar, and in legend, magician. He was educated at the universities of Oxford, Paris, Bologna, and Palermo. He was attached to the court of the Emperor Frederick II. as astrologer. For him Scott translated from the Arabic some of the works of Aristotle with the commentaries of Averrhoës. His great learning won for him, the reputation of a magician, and the legends connected with his name in the Scottish Borders are typical of others on the Continent, where he probably died. There is a traditional graye, at Melrose Abbey around which Sir Walter Scott wrote The Lay of the Last Minstrel. See Life a $". of Michael Scott, by Rev. J. W. Brown (1897). Scott, MICHAEL (1789–1835), Scottish author, was born at Cow: lairs, near Glasgow. After an engagement as estate , manager o 1806–1822, he started business on his own account in Glasgow. From 1829 to 1833 his West Indian experiences were

given in Blackwood's Magazine, under the title ‘Tom Cringle's Log. This he followed up in Blackwood in 1834–5 with "The Cruise of the Midge.” Scott, NATHAN BAY (1842), American legislator, born in Guernsey co., O.; received a common school education; served in the Union army in 1862–5; was engaged in the manufacture of glass at Wheeling, W. Va., afterward; state senator in 1882–90; S. commissioner of internai revenue in 1897–9; elected U. S. Senator (Rep.) for the terms 1899– 1911. Scott, RI C H A R D WILLIAM (1825), Canadian statesman, born at Prescott, Ontario, and admitted to the bar in 1848. He served in the Canadian Parliament in 1857–67, when he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, of which he was elected speaker in 1871. He became secretary of state in 1873 and on the defeat of the Liberal Government in 1878, leader of the Opposition in the Senate, which position he retained until 1896, when he was *Pool secretary of state. e fathered the bill granting the Roman Catholics of the province the right to establish j which would derive benefit from the general taxes; and the Scott Act,' conceding to municipalities the right to enact local option. Scott, Robert (1811–87), English lexicographer, was born at Bondleigh in Devonshire; became a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, in 1835, and master, in opposition to Jowett, in 1854. e resigned the mastership in 1870, when he was appointed dean of Rochester. The work of his life was the Greek Dictionary, which was begun in 1836, in conjunction with Dr. Liddell, dean of Christ Church. Scott, Robert KINGSTON (1826–1900), American soldier and Reconstruction governor of South Carolina, born in Armstrong co., Pa.. He served throughout the Civil War as lieutenant-colonel and colonel of an Ohio regiment in the Army of the Tennessee. He was assistant commissioner of the Freedman's Bureau in S. C. for three years after, the war, and in 1868 was elected governor by the negro vote. He was reoi in 1870. His two administrations were marked by a very carnival of corruption. he legislature was composed almost entirely of negroes, the state debt was increased $13,000,000, the money being, wasted, and only the power of the Federal government prevented his overthrow by a popular, uprising. Scott retired to Ohio in 1877. In 1881 he was tried on a charge of murder, but was acquitted.

Scott, THOMAS (1747–1821), English Biblical commentator, was born at Braytoft in Lincolnshire, and was a farm laborer till 1772, when he became a priest. He held various curacies, until in 1781 he succeeded John Newton as curate of Olney. . In 1779 he published an autobiographic record, The Force of Truth, which had the advantage of Cowper's revision. Later he moved to a London curacy, and there was induced to undertake the Commentary on the Bible, on which his fame rests. His Works were collected by his son, who also edited his Letters and Papers, with a biography (1824). Scott, THOMAC ALExANDER (1824–81), . A me.'ican railroad manager, born in London, Pa. In 1841–47 he was clerk in the office of the toll collector on the state road at Columbia, Pa., and afterwards became chief clerk to the collector of tolls in Philadelphia. In 1851 he entered the service of the Pennsylvania R. R. Co. as a clerk. In 1352–57 he was general superintendent of the mountain district, in 1853–55 general agent at Pittsburg, in 1855–59 general superintendent of all the company’s lines, and in 1859–61 vice-president of the company. In 1861 he was apinted to the staff of Gen. Anrew G. Curtin, and with the aid of U. S. troops opened traffic on the Washington and Philadelphia railroad. At the end of 1861 he was commissioned colonel of volunteers and placed in control of the government's railroad and telegraph systems. In 1861– 62 he was assistant secretary for In 1863 he superintended

war. the transportation of the 11th and 12th army corps from

Nashville to Chattanooga for Gen. Rosecrans, and was assistant uartermaster-general to . Gen. ooker's army. In 1864 he was appointed president of the western division of the Pennsylvania system, and in 1871 president of the Pennsylvania o He was resident of the Union Pacific . R. Co. in 1871–72, and of the Pennsylvania R. R. Co. in 1874– 80. #. was founder and first po of the Texas Pacific . R. Co. Scott, SIR WALTER(1771–1832), Scottish novelist and poet, was born at Edinburgh. By paternal descent Scott was a cadet of the house of Harden, while the Harden Scotts were descendants of the lairds of Buccleuch. By his mother, Scott was connected with the gentle houses of Rutherford— dating from the reign of David I. —Haliburton, and Swinton. Sir Walter himself took more pride, or at least more interest, in pedigree than in his genius. It was at the grand-paternal farm

of Sandyknowe, looking over Tweed and Teviotdale, that he first heard the ballads and leÉ. of the Border. But his hood , was mainly spent in Edinburgh, and at and near Kelio, and at school at Kelso, where he met James Ballantyne. A long illness gave opportunity to increase, his lore of history, §: and military adventure. hile, at Edinburgh University he collected broadsides and other ballads and Jacobite relics, and not long afterwards he made acquaintance with the Highlanders, especially with Stewart of Invernahyle, who had marched with Prince Charles. While studying for the Scottish bar a wet Sunday and an umbrella brought him acquainted , with Miss Stuart, daughter of Sir John of Fettercairn. His immortal passion for this beautiful and charming lady §: the Life of Miss Felicia kene) colors all his work, in poetry and romance, though but one brief personal lyric touches openly on the , theme. Scott's earliest Po. work, a translation of Bürger's Lenore (1796), was meant to win her favor. But the lady married Sir Willian. Forbes, the banker; and though Scott was his friend, his old love is never named in his history. Scott was a favorite in jo; he wrote The Eve of St. John (?1799) for a lady of the house of Buccleuch; and he won the valuable friendship of Lady Louisa Stuart the brilliant daughter of Lor Bute. Meeting Monk Lewis, he wrote for him some of his earliest ballads. . He made yearly forays into Liddesdale, collecting bio. and in 1802–3 the first volumes of the Border Minstrelsy were Fo by Ballantyne. Scott was y this time married to Miss Charlotte. Carpenter, of a French family, and the pair lived ha §. in Edinburgh (39 Castle treet), and in a cottage at Lasswade, till, as Scott was now sheriff of the Ettrick Forest, Lord Napier insisted that he should dwell therein. He had by this time written . The Lay of the Last Minstrel, suggested in part o the Duchess of Buccleuch, and, as regards metre, by Coleridge's Christabel. Unhappily he entered secretly into partnership with the Ballantynes in a printing and lo.o. The printing É. id very well; but Scott, artly from good nature, partly rom antiquarian enthusiasm, issued unsalable books. Debts accumulated, and the proceeds of Marmion (1809), The Lady of the Lake (1810), Rokeby (1813), The Lord of the Isles (1815), and many other ‘literary labors, were but fairy gold or dubious paper. After a coldness between Jeffrey (who reviewed Marmion in a petty


spirit) and himself, and a quarrel with Constable, Scott helped to start, the Quarterly . Review, in which he wrote much. Editions of Dryden and Swift also occupied him, and the Edinburgh Register, in which he lost £1,000 yearly. There were several financial crises, with difficulty surmounted; but Scott, among all these labors and those of two official positions, the sheriffship and a clerkship in the Court of Sessions, was happy and robust. He knew everybody, Wordsworth and Southey among men of letters; and became, the friend, of Byron although the latter, had eclipsed him in poetical popularity. Wordsworth and Coleridge he never tired of . quoting and prais.# wholly without return, , in

early days, from these higher Souls. he enormous vogue of the first ms declined, partly

through the abundance of imitations. But Scott, having bought land on the banks of the Tweed began to build Abbotsford, an collect pieces of soil with historical or o associations. Where legends did not exist he invented them, and so Abbotsford became “an unsubstantial fairy place,’ the library, armory, and other collections being as costly as the haunted hills and burns, and the laird's ho adding to the outlay. Here Washington Irving and George Ticknor, annong others, were his guests. By a chance Scott found, in 1814, the unfinished Ms. of Waverley (begun in 1805), and wrote two volumes in three weeks, went on a tour round the Scottish coasts, and returned to find that the ‘Great Unknown,” the author of Waverley, was famous. Not till after his ruin, in 1826, did Scott acknowledge the authorship of the immortal series of romances from Waverley to Woodstock. About twenty people knew, all the world guessed; but, in Rob Roy, Scott had accidentally given proof positive. He put into the mouth of Bailie Nicol Jarvie a long account of the condition of , the Highlands in 1715, derived from a Gartmore Ms. joy Jamieson published, in Burt's Letiers from the North, the Ms. itself, lent to *...} Mr. Walter Scott.” And nobody put the facts together! Yet no person of sense doubted that the ‘Great Unknown” was Scott...The plot of Marmion is practically the plot of Ivanhoe. In 1820 he was created a baronet, but the laureateship he had declined, supposing that it was worth £400 a year, and that Southey's need was ater than his own. Moreover, so not like the idea of being loyal to order. Scott was hardly a practical litician—a party man-despite É Toryism. His whole nature

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odds. His Napoleon is a hasty iece of drudgery, toilsome to a #. and ruinéd man, and his materials were not copious. But, everything considered, Scott is fair to Napoleon. From 1817 onwards his health was not what it had been. About 1818 he did not expect to survive, and The Bride of Lammermoor was dictated in the midst of suffering. ... When he read the book he did not remember a single circumstance, of his own creation; merely the vague lo which his mother had told. The ruin of Hi-st brought down Constable, , and with Constable fell Scott, in 1825–6. But he wrote rapidly at Woodstock and at Napoleon in these darkest days, and composed the stirring lyric of Bonnie Dundee Henceforward his time—saddened by the long illness and death of Lady Scott, the illness and death of ‘Hugh Littlejohn,' his grandson, Lockhart's boy—was devoted to repaying his creditors. Over his wāning intellect floated dreams that all the debts were paid. At last Count Robert of Paris proved that the chords of the harp were

shattered; yet, , even during his

yoyage to Italy in 1832, the weary hand was busy with a last romance, The Knights of Malta. After a brief visit at Rorne, Scott was again smitten, and struggled home to die within the sound of Tweed (Sep. 21, 1832). The brief words in which Lockhart describes the closing scene are among the most beautiful passages in our literature—“Good-night, Sir Walter.” His '. rests by the Tweed at Dryburgh Abbey, and Lockhart lies at his feet. The goodness and the greatness of Scott are spontaneous, irreflective, scarcely conscious fruits of a good tree. ‘He never blotted a line,’ we may almost say, though we may share Ben Jonson’s wish as to Shakespeare, that, as a matter of art, he had blotted many. In creation of character he comes nearest to Shakespeare. As the poet of the joy of battle, there are passages in which he surpasses Homer. Some dozen or more of exquisite lyrics, “native woodnotes wild,’, place him, high in the most delightful field of try. By far the best critic of §. as a novelist is himself, in his original introduction to The Fortunes of Nigel (1822). The blots in his wo heaviness, the tediousness, the casual style— were patent, to the critics of his day, and to friends such as Lady Louisa Stuart. Such defects are inseparable from constant and rapid improvisation. It is mere pedantry to point to the historical inaccuracies and anachronisms of his novels. Like Dumas he consciously treated historical

facts as Turner treated landscape. When he erred, he erred with his eyes open. , Deterred by his lameness from being a man of action, a soldier, Scott had no high opinion of o fame or of the literary life. Lockhart's Life (1837) is, of course, the main source for Scott's biography. The reminiscences of Gillies (1837), of §. Hogg(1834), of Lady Louisa tuart, Washington Irving (1850), and others, are also interesting. Leslie Stephen, in ‘Scott' (National Dictionary of o especially illustrates the nancial troubles; and the Life of Archibald Constable (1873), by T. Constable, and Mr. Andrew Lang's Life of Lockhart §so may compared. See R. H. Hutton in "#. Men of Letters (1879); also Lang's Sir Walter Scott 1906), and Norgate's Life (1906). or an estimate see Crockett’s The Scott Country (1902). Scott's Collected Works appeared in 48 vols. in 1829–33, and Poctical Works (ed. by Lockhart) in 1833–4. ... Textually, the best recent edition is the Dryburgh |..." another edition is the order edition by Andrew Lang (1892). Scott, WILLIAM, LoRD StowELL (1745–1836), £nglish judge, brother of Lord Eldos, vaš born in Durham, , and became (1773) Camden reader in ancient history at Oxford. He began at Oxford his lifelong friendship with Dr. Johnson. Eventually he became a great authority on shipping law.

He was called to the bar in 1779,

and in 1798 was appointed judge of the High Court of Admiralty, in which position he was rather a lawgiver than a mere judge. He entered the House of Commons in 1790, and was a persistent opponent of all reform. In 1821 he was raised to the peerage. See Surtees’s Lives .." Lords Stowell and Eldon (1846). Scott, WILLIAM BELL (1811– 90), Scottish artist and born at St. Leonard's, Edinburgh, and in 1837 settled in London as etcher, engraver, and painter. From isł3 to iso, he was master of the government schools of design at Newcastle, and thereafter till 1885 he was artistdecorator and examiner at S. Kensington Museum. Scott decorated the staircase of Penkill Castle with, striking pictures in encaustic, illustrating scenes in the Kingis Quair. He gained poetical distinction with ballads and sonnets. He published Hades, or the Transit, and The Progress % the Mind (1838); The Year of the World, his longest poem (1846); Poems, known as Poems by a Painter (1854); Poems, Ballads, etc. (1875); and A Foot's Har! vest Home (1882; enlarged, 1893). Besides furnishing memoirs for

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ood editions of Keats, L. E. andon, Byron, Coleridge, Shelley, and others, Scott wrote a Memoir of his brother, David Scott (1850); Albert Dürer (1869); British Landscape Painters and British School of Sculpture (1872); Murillo and the Spanish Schoo of Painting (1873); The Little Masters (1879). He also issued publications on north of England antiquities, and on the art of France, Belgium, and Germany. His frank and engaging. A utobiographical Notes, 2 vols., were edited by Minto (1892). While at Newcastle, Scott completed a stately decorative scheme for Sir Walter Trevelyan's seat, Wallington. Hall. His notable published designs are: (1) twelve under the title Chorea, Sancti Viti (1850), and (2) William Blake (1878). Scott, WILLIAM BERRYMAN (1858), American geologist, born in Cincinnati. He graduated at Princeton in 1877 and at Heidelberg in 1880, when he was appointed professor of geology and palaeonto § in Princeton University. He was editor and joint author of Roo. of the Princeton University Expeditions to Pataonia (8 vols.). His publications ho An Introduction to Geology 1897). Scott, WINFIELD (1786–1866), American soldier, born in Dinwiddie co., Va., Jan. 13, 1786. His grandfather, James Scott was a follower of Charles Edwar Stuart, the Pretender, was at the battle of Culloden, and afterwards escaped to Va. William, James's son, married Ann Mason and Winfield was their secon son. His father, a captain in the American Revolution, died when he was six years old, and at 17 he lost his mother, a woman of recognized strength of character, to whose lessons he was wont to attribute his attainments. Before, he went to college he was trained by Hargrave, a Quaker teacher, and by a Scotch instructor,...James Ogilvie. He entered William and Mary, but left in 1805 to take up law in }. David Robinson's office at etersburg. Here he obtained license to practise, and did circuit work, trying a number of causes. Impending hostilities with England quickened his desire to become a soldier, and President Jefferson gave him, the commissign of captain of artillery in May, 1808. He recruited a com§. and embarked for New rleans on Feb. 4, 1809. Here his brother officers were in two factions, the larger number partisans of their commander, Gen. James Wilkinson. In the course of this year Scott remarked that he believed Wilkinson as much a traitor as Burr. For this he was tried by court-martial, found

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